Barnaul

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For other uses of "Barnaul", see Barnaul (disambiguation).
Barnaul
Барнаул
-  City[1]  -
Barnaulcollage.jpg

View of Barnaul

Flag

Coat of arms
Map of Russia - Altai Krai (2008-03).svg
Location of Altai Krai in Russia
Barnaul is located in Altai Krai
Barnaul
Barnaul
Location of Barnaul in Altai Krai
Coordinates: 53°20′N 83°45′E / 53.333°N 83.750°E / 53.333; 83.750Coordinates: 53°20′N 83°45′E / 53.333°N 83.750°E / 53.333; 83.750
City Day One of Sundays in August or September[2]
Administrative status (as of June 2014)
Country Russia
Federal subject Altai Krai[1]
Administratively subordinated to city of krai significance of Barnaul[1]
Administrative center of Altai Krai,[3] city of krai significance of Barnaul[1]
Municipal status (as of July 2009)
Urban okrug Barnaul Urban Okrug[4]
Administrative center of Barnaul Urban Okrug[4]
Head[3] Lyudmila Zubovich[3]
Representative body City Duma[3]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census) 612,401 inhabitants[5]
Rank in 2010 21st
Time zone KRAT (UTC+07:00)[6]
Founded 1730s[7]
City status since 1771[2]
Postal code(s)[8] 656000, 656002–656004, 656006, 656008, 656010–656012, 656015, 656016, 656018, 656019, 656021, 656023–656025, 656031, 656033, 656035–656039, 656043–656045, 656048–656050, 656052–656060, 656062–656068, 656700, 656880, 656890, 656899, 656905, 656960, 656961, 656963–656966, 656998, 656999, 901024, 901213
Dialing code(s) +7 3852[citation needed]
Official website
Barnaul on Wikimedia Commons

Barnaul (Russian: Барнаул; IPA: [bərnɐˈul]) is a city and the administrative center of Altai Krai, Russia, located at the confluence of the Barnaulka River into the Ob River in the West Siberian Plain. At the end of 2015, the city had a population above 700,000 people,[9] making it the 21st largest city in Russia. The population of the Barnaul metropolitan area is estimated to be over 1.14 million.[10]

Barnaul was founded in 1730 as a settlement to serve a silver smeltmill owned by Akinfiy Demidov of the prominent Demidov industrialist family, and was incorporated as a city in 1771. Now it is one of the largest industrial, cultural and university centres in Siberia.

Geography[edit]

Barnaul is located in the forest steppe zone of the West Siberian Plain, on the left bank of the Ob River, at the confluence of Barnaulka into the Ob.

Barnaul is the closest major city to the Altai Mountains to the south. The border with Kasakhstan is only in 345 km to the south-west, whereas the distance from Moscow is 3580 km. The city is also situated relatively close to the border with Mongolia and China.

Barnaul lies in the UTC+7:00 time zone, the difference with the Moscow Time thus being plus three hours.

History[edit]

A historical wooden house

Ancient History[edit]

The area around the city has been inhabited by Modern Humans, Neanderthals & Denisovans, for hundreds of thousands of years.[11] In the late BC millennia, the locality was the centre of activity for Scythians and various Turkic peoples.[12]

Russian Empire[edit]

Barnaul was founded in 1730[13] and incorporated in 1771. Originally chosen for its proximity to the mineral-rich Altai Mountains and its location on a major river, the site was founded by the wealthy Demidov family in the 1730s.[7] In addition to the copper which had originally attracted the Demidovs, substantial deposits of silver were soon found as well. In 1747, the Demidovs' factories were taken over by the Crown, and soon became the center of silver production in the Russian Empire.[14]

By the 1900s, Barnaul had grown into a major center of trade and culture of the region, especially after the construction of the Turkestan-Siberia Railway.

In 1914, Barnaul was the site of a draft riot, Russia's largest during World War I, which resulted in over a hundred casualties.[15]

World War II[edit]

It is estimated that over half of the light ammunition used by the Soviet Union in World War II was produced in Barnaul.[16]

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Barnaul is the administrative center of the krai.[3] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with the work settlement of Yuzhny and twenty-four rural localities, incorporated as the city of krai significance of Barnaul—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the city of krai significance of Barnaul is incorporated as Barnaul Urban Okrug.[4]

Climate[edit]

The continental climate of Barnaul (Köppen Dfb) is defined by its geographical position at the southern end of the Siberian steppe: it is subject to long winters, with an average of −15.5 °C (4.1 °F) in January, but also enjoys a short warm season in the summer with an average temperature of +19.9 °C (67.8 °F) in July. Temperatures can vary in the extreme, from below −45 °C (−49 °F) in the winter to above +35 °C (95 °F) in the summer.

The climate is relatively dry. The average precipitation in the area is 433 millimeters (17.0 in) per year, 75% of which occurs during the region's warmer season.

Climate data for Barnaul
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 5.3
(41.5)
7.4
(45.3)
16.4
(61.5)
32.3
(90.1)
37.4
(99.3)
36.6
(97.9)
37.9
(100.2)
38.3
(100.9)
34.0
(93.2)
27.4
(81.3)
15.3
(59.5)
6.3
(43.3)
38.3
(100.9)
Average high °C (°F) −10.8
(12.6)
−8.1
(17.4)
−0.6
(30.9)
10.1
(50.2)
20.1
(68.2)
24.3
(75.7)
26.3
(79.3)
24.3
(75.7)
17.7
(63.9)
9.2
(48.6)
−2.2
(28)
−8.5
(16.7)
8.5
(47.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) −15.5
(4.1)
−13.7
(7.3)
−6.5
(20.3)
3.8
(38.8)
12.8
(55)
17.7
(63.9)
19.9
(67.8)
17.4
(63.3)
11.0
(51.8)
3.8
(38.8)
−6.3
(20.7)
−12.9
(8.8)
2.6
(36.7)
Average low °C (°F) −20.1
(−4.2)
−18.7
(−1.7)
−11.8
(10.8)
−1.2
(29.8)
6.5
(43.7)
11.6
(52.9)
14.0
(57.2)
11.6
(52.9)
5.6
(42.1)
−0.4
(31.3)
−10.0
(14)
−17.4
(0.7)
−2.5
(27.5)
Record low °C (°F) −48.2
(−54.8)
−42.9
(−45.2)
−35.5
(−31.9)
−27.6
(−17.7)
−8.8
(16.2)
−1.2
(29.8)
2.9
(37.2)
0.4
(32.7)
−7.8
(18)
−27.0
(−16.6)
−38.9
(−38)
−43.1
(−45.6)
−48.2
(−54.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 24
(0.94)
18
(0.71)
17
(0.67)
28
(1.1)
40
(1.57)
55
(2.17)
68
(2.68)
44
(1.73)
43
(1.69)
37
(1.46)
37
(1.46)
31
(1.22)
433
(17.05)
Average rainy days 0.4 1 3 12 17 16 17 15 16 14 6 1 118
Average snowy days 22 20 16 9 2 0.1 0 0 1 10 18 24 122
Average relative humidity (%) 78 76 74 63 55 64 70 70 69 73 79 79 71
Mean monthly sunshine hours 77 112 178 218 272 315 320 265 199 109 75 64 2,204
Source #1: pogoda.ru.net[17]
Source #2: NOAA (sun only, 1961-1990)[18]

Economy[edit]

Newly constructed buildings in Barnaul

Barnaul is an important industrial center of Western Siberia. There are more than 100 industrial enterprises in the city, employing approximately 120 thousand people. Leading industries in the city work with diesel and carbon processing; as well as production of heavy machinery, tires, furniture and footwear.[19]

Transportation[edit]

It lies at a junction of the NovosibirskAlmaty and Biysk train lines. There are also frequent busses to the nearby cities Biysk and Gorno-Altaysk.[citation needed]

Barnaul Airport is located about fifteen minutes from the city center and offers daily flights to and from Moscow and St. Petersburg.[citation needed]

Education and culture[edit]

Barnaul is an important regional center of scientific development. Five universities, including Altai State Technical University, Barnaul State Pedagogical University, Altai State Medical University, Altai State Agrarian University and Altai State University, as well as 35 libraries are located in the city. Barnaul also has five theatres and three museums. The city's Museum of Local Lore was founded in 1823 and is one of the oldest in Siberia, displaying local artists' work as well as unique artifacts from the Altai region.[citation needed]

The city also has 'The South-Siberian Botanical Garden' (SSBG),[20] linked to Altai State University.[21]

Sports[edit]

Since 1957 FC Dynamo Barnaul has been the city's professional football club.[citation needed]

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Barnaul is twinned with:

Notable people[edit]

Images of Barnaul[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Law #28-ZS
  2. ^ a b Исторический опыт хозяйственного и культурного освоения Западной Сибири: Сборник научных трудов. Кн. I. Барнаул: Изд-во Алт. ун-та. Под ред. Ю. Ф. Кирюшина и А. А. Тишкина. 2003. p. 464. 
  3. ^ a b c d e http://www.barnaul.org/
  4. ^ a b c Law #144-ZS
  5. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  6. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  7. ^ a b Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 37. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9. 
  8. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
  9. ^ http://barnaul.fm/2016/02/08/chislo-zhitelej-barnaula-perevalilo-za-700-tysyach-chelovek/
  10. ^ http://www.demoscope.ru/weekly/2012/0517/analit01.php
  11. ^ http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3238424/Inside-cave-home-Denisovans-Neanderthals-Homo-sapiens-Different-species-early-man-used-shelter-thousands-years.html
  12. ^ https://books.google.ca/books?id=ijJ4o2iorhkC&pg=PA250&lpg=PA250&dq=scythians+barnaul&source=bl&ots=Ph6ygUJmhn&sig=rozXeR75ObBBpV2fns0SWByPigY&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CB0Q6AEwAGoVChMIv9vK6q7-xwIVBFuSCh0iGgHC#v=onepage&q=scythians%20barnaul&f=false
  13. ^ "Barnaul - capital of Altai Krai". Altai Region. Retrieved 14 December 2013. 
  14. ^ http://new.hist.asu.ru/biblio/borod5/got/15.html
  15. ^ Sanborn, Josh. "The Mobilization of 1917 and the Question of the Russian Nation." Slavic Review, Vol. 59, No. 2: pp. 267-89.
  16. ^ http://www.webcitation.org/6144m19m3
  17. ^ "Weather And Climate - Climate Barnaul" (in Russian). Retrieved May 14, 2015. 
  18. ^ "Climate Normals for Barnaul". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved January 23, 2013. 
  19. ^ http://www.barnaul.org/vlast/itogi-08/
  20. ^ "The South-Siberian Botanical Garden". ssbg.asu.ru. Retrieved 22 August 2015. 
  21. ^ "South-Siberian Botanical Garden". biologybrowser.com. Retrieved 22 August 2015. 
  22. ^ http://barnaul.fm/2015/08/28/sergej-shubenkov-vyigral-zoloto-na-chempionate-mira-po-lyogkoj-atletike-v-pekine/
  23. ^ "This City in Siberia Would Rather Elect a Cat Mayor". 2015-12-13. Retrieved 2015-12-18. 

Sources[edit]

  • Алтайский краевой Совет народных депутатов. Закон №28-ЗС от 1 марта 2008 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Алтайского края», в ред. Закона №72-ЗС от 2 сентября 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Алтайского края "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Алтайского края"». Вступил в силу 8 марта 2008 г. Опубликован: "Алтайская правда", №67, 8 марта 2008 г. (Altai Krai Council of People's Deputies. Law #28-ZS of March 1, 2008 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Altai Krai, as amended by the Law #72-ZS of September 2, 2015 On Amending the Law of Altai Krai "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Altai Krai". Effective as of March 8, 2008.).
  • Алтайское краевое Законодательное Собрание. Закон №144-ЗС от 27 декабря 2008 г. «О статусе и границах муниципального и административно-территориального образования город Барнаул Алтайского края», в ред. Закона №44-ЗС от 2 июля 2009 г «О внесении изменений в Приложение 1 к Закону Алтайского края "О статусе и границах муниципального и административно-территориального образования город Барнаул Алтайского края"». Вступил в силу через 10 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Алтайская правда", №5–6, 15 января 2009 г. (Altai Krai Legislative Assembly. Law #144-ZS of December 27, 2008 On the Status and the Borders of the Municipal and the Administrative-Territorial Formation of the City of Barnaul of Altai Krai, as amended by the Law #44-ZS of July 2, 2009 On Amending Appendix 1 of the Law of Altai Krai "On the Status and the Borders of the Municipal and the Administrative-Territorial Formation of the City of Barnaul of Altai Krai". Effective as of the day which is 10 days after the day of the official publication.).

External links[edit]