Barnaul

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Barnaul (in English)
Барнаул (Russian)
-  City[1]  -
Barnaulcollage.jpg
Views of Barnaul
Map of Russia - Altai Krai (2008-03).svg
Location of Altai Krai in Russia
Barnaul is located in Altai Krai
Barnaul
Barnaul
Location of Barnaul in Altai Krai
Coordinates: 53°20′N 83°45′E / 53.333°N 83.750°E / 53.333; 83.750Coordinates: 53°20′N 83°45′E / 53.333°N 83.750°E / 53.333; 83.750
Barnaul coat of arms.svg
Flag of Barnaul (Altai krai).png
Coat of arms
Flag
Anthem None[2]
City Day One of the weekend days in August or September[3]
Administrative status (as of September 2015)
Country Russia
Federal subject Altai Krai[1]
Administratively subordinated to city of krai significance of Barnaul[1]
Administrative center of Altai Krai,[4] city of krai significance of Barnaul[1]
Municipal status (as of July 2009)
Urban okrug Barnaul Urban Okrug[5]
Administrative center of Barnaul Urban Okrug[5]
Head[7] Sergey Dugin[6]
Representative body City Duma[8]
Statistics
Area 940 km2 (360 sq mi)[9]
Population (2010 Census) 612,401 inhabitants[10]
Rank in 2010 21st
Population (January 2016 est.) 700,326 inhabitants[9]
Density 651/km2 (1,690/sq mi)[11]
Time zone KRAT (UTC+07:00)[12]
Official establishment date 1730[3]
City status since 1771[13]
Postal code(s)[14] 656000, 656002–656004, 656006, 656008, 656010–656012, 656015, 656016, 656018, 656019, 656021, 656023–656025, 656031, 656033, 656035–656039, 656043–656045, 656048–656050, 656052–656060, 656062–656068, 656700, 656880, 656890, 656899, 656905, 656960, 656961, 656963–656966, 656998, 656999, 901024, 901213
Dialing code(s) +7 3852[citation needed]
Official website
Barnaul on Wikimedia Commons
Barnaul population
2010 Census 612,401[10]
2002 Census 600,749[15]
1989 Census 601,811[16]
1979 Census 533,263[17]

Barnaul (Russian: Барнаул; IPA: [bərnɐˈul]) is a city and the administrative center of Altai Krai, Russia, located at the confluence of the Barnaulka and Ob Rivers in the West Siberian Plain. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 612,401.[10]

Geography[edit]

Barnaul is located in the forest steppe zone of the West Siberian Plain, on the left bank of the Ob River, at the confluence of the Barnaulka and Ob Rivers.

Barnaul is the closest major city to the Altai Mountains to the south. The border with Kazakhstan is 345 kilometers (214 mi) to the southwest. The city is also situated relatively close to the borders with Mongolia and China.

Climate[edit]

The humid continental climate of Barnaul (Köppen Dfb) is defined by its geographical position at the southern end of the Siberian steppe: it is subject to long winters, with an average of −15.5 °C (4.1 °F) in January, but also enjoys a short warm season in the summer with an average temperature of +19.9 °C (67.8 °F) in July. Temperatures can vary in the extreme, from below −45 °C (−49 °F) in the winter to above +35 °C (95 °F) in the summer.

The climate is relatively dry. The average precipitation in the area is 433 millimeters (17.0 in) per year, 75% of which occurs during the region's warmer season.

Climate data for Barnaul
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 5.3
(41.5)
7.4
(45.3)
16.4
(61.5)
32.3
(90.1)
37.4
(99.3)
36.6
(97.9)
37.9
(100.2)
38.3
(100.9)
34.0
(93.2)
27.4
(81.3)
15.3
(59.5)
6.3
(43.3)
38.3
(100.9)
Average high °C (°F) −10.8
(12.6)
−8.1
(17.4)
−0.6
(30.9)
10.1
(50.2)
20.1
(68.2)
24.3
(75.7)
26.3
(79.3)
24.3
(75.7)
17.7
(63.9)
9.2
(48.6)
−2.2
(28)
−8.5
(16.7)
8.5
(47.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) −15.5
(4.1)
−13.7
(7.3)
−6.5
(20.3)
3.8
(38.8)
12.8
(55)
17.7
(63.9)
19.9
(67.8)
17.4
(63.3)
11.0
(51.8)
3.8
(38.8)
−6.3
(20.7)
−12.9
(8.8)
2.6
(36.7)
Average low °C (°F) −20.1
(−4.2)
−18.7
(−1.7)
−11.8
(10.8)
−1.2
(29.8)
6.5
(43.7)
11.6
(52.9)
14.0
(57.2)
11.6
(52.9)
5.6
(42.1)
−0.4
(31.3)
−10.0
(14)
−17.4
(0.7)
−2.5
(27.5)
Record low °C (°F) −48.2
(−54.8)
−42.9
(−45.2)
−35.5
(−31.9)
−27.6
(−17.7)
−8.8
(16.2)
−1.2
(29.8)
2.9
(37.2)
0.4
(32.7)
−7.8
(18)
−27.0
(−16.6)
−38.9
(−38)
−43.1
(−45.6)
−48.2
(−54.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 24
(0.94)
18
(0.71)
17
(0.67)
28
(1.1)
40
(1.57)
55
(2.17)
68
(2.68)
44
(1.73)
43
(1.69)
37
(1.46)
37
(1.46)
31
(1.22)
433
(17.05)
Average rainy days 0.4 1 3 12 17 16 17 15 16 14 6 1 118
Average snowy days 22 20 16 9 2 0.1 0 0 1 10 18 24 122
Average relative humidity (%) 78 76 74 63 55 64 70 70 69 73 79 79 71
Mean monthly sunshine hours 77 112 178 218 272 315 320 265 199 109 75 64 2,204
Source #1: pogoda.ru.net[18]
Source #2: NOAA (sun only, 1961-1990)[19]

History[edit]

A historical wooden house now used as the Imperator Restaurant

Ancient history[edit]

The area around the city has been inhabited by modern humans, Neanderthals and Denisovans, for hundreds of thousands of years. They settled here to take advantage of the confluence of the rivers, used for transportation and fishing.[20] In the late BC millennia, the locality was a centre of activity for Scythian and various Turkic peoples.[21]

Russian Empire[edit]

While 1730 is considered Barnaul's official establishment date, its first mention dates back to 1724.[3] It was granted city status in 1771.[13] Chosen for its proximity to the mineral-rich Altai Mountains and its location on a major river, it was founded by the wealthy Demidov family.[13] The Demidovs wanted to develop the copper in the mountains, and soon found substantial deposits of silver as well. In 1747, the Demidovs' factories were taken over by the Crown. Barnaul became the center of silver production of the entire Russian Empire.[22]

In 1914, Barnaul was the site of the largest draft riot in Russia during World War I. There were more than 100 casualties from the fighting.[23] Street fighting also took place between White Russians and Reds during the Russian Revolution of 1918.

Maria Stepanovna (née Zudilova) (1912-1996) was born and lived as a child in this city. She later became the mother of American actresses Natalie Wood (born Natalia Zakharenko) and Lana Wood (born Lana Gurdin).[24] Her father Stepan was killed in the 1918 street fighting between the Whites and Reds following the Revolution. Afterward her mother took Maria and her siblings as refugees to Harbin, China. Maria married a Russian there, and they had a daughter Olga together. Maria eventually immigrated with Olga to the United States, where she married another Russian immigrant, from Vladivostok, and had two daughters with him.[24]

World War II[edit]

Over half of the light ammunition used by the Soviet Union in World War II is estimated to be manufactured in Barnaul.[25]

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Barnaul is the administrative center of the krai.[4] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with the work settlement of Yuzhny and twenty-four rural localities, incorporated as the city of krai significance of Barnaul—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the city of krai significance of Barnaul is incorporated as Barnaul Urban Okrug.[5]

Economy[edit]

Newly constructed buildings in Barnaul

Barnaul is an important industrial center of Western Siberia. There are more than 100 industrial enterprises in the city, employing approximately 120,000 people. Leading industries include diesel and carbon processing; as well as production of heavy machinery, tires, furniture and footwear.[26]

Transportation[edit]

Barnaul lies at a junction of the NovosibirskAlmaty and Biysk train lines.

The city is served by Barnaul Airport, located 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) west of Barnaul.

Sports[edit]

Since 1957 FC Dynamo Barnaul has been the city's professional football club.[citation needed]

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Barnaul is twinned with:

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Law #28-ZS
  2. ^ According to Article 5 of the Charter of Barnaul, the official symbols of the city include only a flag and a coat of arms.
  3. ^ a b c Charter of Barnaul, Article 4
  4. ^ a b Charter of Altai Krai, Article 6
  5. ^ a b c Law #144-ZS
  6. ^ Official website of Barnaul. City Administration (in Russian)
  7. ^ Charter of Barnaul, Article 46
  8. ^ Charter of Barnaul, Article 37
  9. ^ a b Official website of Barnaul. Geography (in Russian)
  10. ^ a b c Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  11. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  12. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  13. ^ a b c Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 36–38. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9. 
  14. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  15. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  16. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  17. ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1979 г. Национальный состав населения по регионам России. (All Union Population Census of 1979. Ethnic composition of the population by regions of Russia.)". Всесоюзная перепись населения 1979 года (All-Union Population Census of 1979) (in Russian). Demoscope Weekly (website of the Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. 1979. Retrieved 2008-11-25. 
  18. ^ "Weather And Climate - Climate Barnaul" (in Russian). Retrieved May 14, 2015. 
  19. ^ "Climate Normals for Barnaul". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved January 23, 2013. 
  20. ^ "Different species of man used shelter for thousands of years l
  21. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=ijJ4o2iorhkC&pg=PA250&lpg=PA250&dq=scythians+barnaul&source=bl&ots=Ph6ygUJmhn&sig=rozXeR75ObBBpV2fns0SWByPigY&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CB0Q6AEwAGoVChMIv9vK6q7-xwIVBFuSCh0iGgHC#v=onepage&q=scythians%20barnaul&f=false
  22. ^ [1]
  23. ^ Sanborn, Josh. "The Mobilization of 1917 and the Question of the Russian Nation." Slavic Review, Vol. 59, No. 2: pp. 267-89.
  24. ^ a b Lambert, Gavin (2004). Natalie Wood: A Life, London: Faber and Faber, p.8. ISBN 978-0-571-22197-4
  25. ^ [2]
  26. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 27, 2012. Retrieved 2015-03-28. 
  27. ^ http://barnaul.fm/2015/08/28/sergej-shubenkov-vyigral-zoloto-na-chempionate-mira-po-lyogkoj-atletike-v-pekine/
  28. ^ "This City in Siberia Would Rather Elect a Cat Mayor". 2015-12-13. Retrieved 2015-12-18. 

Sources[edit]

  • Барнаульская городская Дума. Решение №789 от 20 июня 2008 г. «Устав городского округа — города Барнаула Алтайского края», в ред. Решения №766 от 31 марта 2017 г. «О внесении изменений в Устав городского округа — города Барнаула Алтайского края (в ред. Решения от 16.12.2016 №706)». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования (15 июля 2008 г.) (за исключением отдельных положений, вступивших в силу в иные сроки). Опубликован: "Вечерний Барнаул", №103, 15 июля 2008 г. (Barnaul City Duma. Decision #789 of June 20, 2008 Charter of the Urban Okrug—the City of Barnaul of Altai Krai, as amended by the Decision #766 of March 31, 2017 On Amending the Charter of the Urban Okrug—the City of Barnaul of Altai Krai (rev. #706 of December 16, 2016). Effective as of the day of the official publication (July 15, 2008) (with the exception of clauses which take effect on different dates).).
  • Алтайское краевое Законодательное Собрание. №3-ЗС 5 июня 1995 г. «Устав (основной закон) Алтайского края», в ред. Закона №118-ЗС от 1 декабря 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Устав (Основной Закон) Алтайского края». Опубликован: "Алтайская правда", №100, 14 июня 1995 г. (Altai Krai Legislative Assembly. #3-ZS June 5, 1995 Charter (Basic Law) of Altai Krai, as amended by the Law #118-ZS of December 1, 2015 On Amending the Charter (Basic Law) of Altai Krai. ).
  • Алтайский краевой Совет народных депутатов. Закон №28-ЗС от 1 марта 2008 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Алтайского края», в ред. Закона №16-ЗС от 4 апреля 2017 г. «О присоединении станции Железнодорожная Казарма 572 км к посёлку Октябрьскому Октябрьского сельсовета Кулундинского района Алтайского края и внесении изменений в отдельные законы Алтайского края». Вступил в силу 8 марта 2008 г. Опубликован: "Алтайская правда", №67, 8 марта 2008 г. (Altai Krai Council of People's Deputies. Law #28-ZS of March 1, 2008 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Altai Krai, as amended by the Law #16-ZS of April 4, 2017 On Merging the Station of Zheleznodorozhnaya Kazarma 572 km into the Settlement of Oktyabrsky in Oktyabrsky Selsoviet of Kulundinsky District of Altai Krai and on Amending Various Laws of Altai Krai. Effective as of March 8, 2008.).
  • Алтайское краевое Законодательное Собрание. Закон №144-ЗС от 27 декабря 2008 г. «О статусе и границах муниципального и административно-территориального образования город Барнаул Алтайского края», в ред. Закона №44-ЗС от 2 июля 2009 г «О внесении изменений в Приложение 1 к Закону Алтайского края "О статусе и границах муниципального и административно-территориального образования город Барнаул Алтайского края"». Вступил в силу через 10 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Алтайская правда", №5–6, 15 января 2009 г. (Altai Krai Legislative Assembly. Law #144-ZS of December 27, 2008 On the Status and the Borders of the Municipal and the Administrative-Territorial Formation of the City of Barnaul of Altai Krai, as amended by the Law #44-ZS of July 2, 2009 On Amending Appendix 1 of the Law of Altai Krai "On the Status and the Borders of the Municipal and the Administrative-Territorial Formation of the City of Barnaul of Altai Krai". Effective as of the day which is 10 days after the day of the official publication.).

External links[edit]