|- City -|
View of Barnaul
Location of Altai Krai in Russia
|City Day||One of Sundays in August or September|
|Administrative status (as of June 2014)|
|Federal subject||Altai Krai|
|Administratively subordinated to||city of krai significance of Barnaul|
|Administrative center of||Altai Krai, city of krai significance of Barnaul|
|Municipal status (as of July 2009)|
|Urban okrug||Barnaul Urban Okrug|
|Administrative center of||Barnaul Urban Okrug|
|Representative body||City Duma|
|Population (2010 Census)||612,401 inhabitants|
|- Rank in 2010||21st|
|Time zone||OMST (UTC+06:00)|
|City status since||1771|
|Postal code(s)||656000, 656002–656004, 656006, 656008, 656010–656012, 656015, 656016, 656018, 656019, 656021, 656023–656025, 656031, 656033, 656035–656039, 656043–656045, 656048–656050, 656052–656060, 656062–656068, 656700, 656880, 656890, 656899, 656905, 656960, 656961, 656963–656966, 656998, 656999, 901024, 901213|
|Dialing code(s)||+7 3852|
|Barnaul on Wikimedia Commons|
Barnaul (Russian: Барнаул; IPA: [bərnɐˈul]) is a city and the administrative center of Altai Krai, Russia, located along the Ob River in the West Siberian Plain. At the end of 2015, the city had a population above 700,000 people. The population of the Barnaul metropolitan area is estimated to be over 1.14 million.
- 1 Geography
- 2 History
- 3 Administrative and municipal status
- 4 Climate
- 5 Economy
- 6 Education and culture
- 7 Architecture and sightseeing
- 8 Sports
- 9 Twin towns and sister cities
- 10 Notable people
- 11 Images of Barnaul
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 External links
The area around the city has been inhabited by Modern Humans, Neanderthals & Denisovans, for hundreds of thousands of years. In the late BC millennia, the locality was the centre of activity for Scythians and various Turkic peoples.
Barnaul was founded in 1730. Originally chosen for its proximity to the mineral-rich Altai Mountains and its location on a major river, the site was founded by the wealthy Demidov family in the 1730s. In addition to the copper which had originally attracted the Demidovs, substantial deposits of silver were soon found as well. In 1747, the Demidovs' factories were taken over by the Crown, and soon became the center of silver production in the Russian Empire.
By the 1900s, Barnaul had grown into a major center of trade and culture of the region, especially after the construction of the Turkestan-Siberia Railway.
World War II
Although the city was thousands of miles away from the actual fighting, hundreds of thousands of citizens from Altai Krai fought and died at the front in the course of the Second World War, a fact commemorated by a large memorial in central Barnaul.
It is estimated that over half of the light ammunition used by the Soviet Union in World War II was produced in Barnaul.
Administrative and municipal status
Barnaul is the administrative center of the krai. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with the work settlement of Yuzhny and twenty-four rural localities, incorporated as the city of krai significance of Barnaul—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the city of krai significance of Barnaul is incorporated as Barnaul Urban Okrug.
The continental climate of Barnaul (Köppen Dfb) is defined by its geographical position at the southern end of the Siberian steppe: it is subject to long winters, with an average of −15.5 °C (4.1 °F) in January, but also enjoys a short warm season in the summer with an average temperature of +19.9 °C (67.8 °F) in July. Temperatures can vary in the extreme, from below −45 °C (−49 °F) in the winter to above +35 °C (95 °F) in the summer.
The climate is relatively dry. The average precipitation in the area is 433 millimeters (17.0 in) per year, 75% of which occurs during the region's warmer season.
|Climate data for Barnaul|
|Record high °C (°F)||5.3
|Average high °C (°F)||−10.8
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−15.5
|Average low °C (°F)||−20.1
|Record low °C (°F)||−48.2
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||24
|Average rainy days||0.4||1||3||12||17||16||17||15||16||14||6||1||118|
|Average snowy days||22||20||16||9||2||0.1||0||0||1||10||18||24||122|
|Average relative humidity (%)||78||76||74||63||55||64||70||70||69||73||79||79||71|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||77||112||178||218||272||315||320||265||199||109||75||64||2,204|
|Source #1: pogoda.ru.net|
|Source #2: NOAA (sun only, 1961-1990)|
Barnaul is an important industrial center of Western Siberia. There are more than 100 industrial enterprises in the city, employing approximately 120 thousand people. Leading industries in the city work with diesel and carbon processing; as well as production of heavy machinery, tires, furniture and footwear.
Barnaul has air, railway, road and riverboat links to other parts of Russia. The city lies approximately 220 kilometers (140 mi) south of Novosibirsk. It is at a junction of the Novosibirsk–Almaty and Biysk train lines. There are also frequent buses to nearby cities Biysk and Gorno-Altaysk.
Barnaul Airport is located about fifteen minutes from the center of the city and offers daily flights to and from Moscow and St. Petersburg, as well as to regional and international destinations.
Education and culture
Barnaul is an important regional center of scientific development. Five universities, including Altai State Technical University, Barnaul State Pedagogical University, Altai State Medical University, Altai State Agrarian University and Altai State University, as well as 35 libraries are located in the city. Barnaul also has five theatres and three museums. The city's Museum of Local Lore was founded in 1823 and is one of the oldest in Siberia, displaying local artists' work as well as unique artifacts from the Altai region.
Architecture and sightseeing
At first the city was built according to the architecture of Saint Petersburg , which shaped the look of the central part of the city as a regular city. Barnaul has over 20 architecture memorials of XVIII and the first half of XIX century, created in classicism style: a unique complex of silver smelting factory, Demidov's square, etc.
A lot of decorated wooden buildings were destroyed with a big fire on the 2d of May in 1917. Brick buildings were also destroyed. Later in the 1930s many churches and cathedrals of Barnaul were demolished or rebuilt. The only biggest historical building that survived the times is Pokrovsky cathedral, which is now free to visit for everyone.
After 1930 Barnaul got several buildings of constructivism style, for example, a sewing factory on Vorovskogo street. In 1930-1950s the most of the buildings of Lenin street were created. The street is the main street of the city and it's one of the favourite places for walking. The street starts from Lev Tolstoj street and ends at the October square, which is one of the most noted squares of the city. There are several popular places on the street as well, for example, the Cosmos fountain or the null kilometer monument.
Close to the Ob river, there are huge letters БАРНАУЛ which is the name of the city in Cyrillic. The letters are situated on the hill next to the river. The locals call the letters our Hollywood. In 2015 the Barnaul government decided to refresh the area around the letters and in 2016 there should be a park for entertainment and recreation.
Barnaul has several nature parks.
Since 1957 FC Dynamo Barnaul has been the city's professional football club.
Twin towns and sister cities
Barnaul is twinned with:
- Flagstaff, Arizona, United States
- Zaragoza, Aragon, Spain
- Ust-Kamenogorsk, Kazakhstan
- Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang, China
- Pyotr Kozmitch Frolov, scientist & inventor
- Tatyana Kotova, Olympic champion in long jump
- Julia Neigel, singer, songwriter
- Ivan Nifontov, Olympic champion in Taekwondo
- Anna Nikolskaya-Ekseli, writer of children's books and sci-fi
- Alexey Novikov-Priboy, writer
- Ivan Polzunov, inventor, creator of the first two-cylinder engine in the world
- Konstantin Scherbakov, pianist
- Sergey Shubenkov, track and field athlete, 2015 World Champion
- Nadezhda Shuvayeva-Olkhova, Olympic champion in Basketball
- Alexey Smertin, former captain of the Russia national football team
- Rita Streich, coloratura soprano
- Nikolai Yadrintsev, explorer & archeologist. Discoveries include the Orkhon script, Genghis Khan's capital, Karakorum
- Mikhail Yevdokimov, comedian & former governor of Altai Krai
- Kot Barsik, the leading mayor "candidate" in the 2015 December Mayor election, for the citizens' dismay towards corruptive political environment of the city.
Images of Barnaul
- Law #28-ZS
- Исторический опыт хозяйственного и культурного освоения Западной Сибири: Сборник научных трудов. Кн. I / Под ред. Ю. Ф. Кирюшина и А. А. Тишкина — Барнаул: Изд-во Алт. ун-та, 2003. — С. 464.
- Law #144-ZS
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
- Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 37. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9.
- Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
- "Barnaul - capital of Altai Krai". Altai Region. Retrieved 14 December 2013.
- Sanborn, Josh. "The Mobilization of 1917 and the Question of the Russian Nation." Slavic Review, Vol. 59, No. 2: pp. 267-89.
- "Weather And Climate - Climate Barnaul" (in Russian). Retrieved May 14, 2015.
- "Climate Normals for Barnaul". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved January 23, 2013.
- "The South-Siberian Botanical Garden". ssbg.asu.ru. Retrieved 22 August 2015.
- "South-Siberian Botanical Garden". biologybrowser.com. Retrieved 22 August 2015.
- "This City in Siberia Would Rather Elect a Cat Mayor". 2015-12-13. Retrieved 2015-12-18.
- Алтайский краевой Совет народных депутатов. Закон №28-ЗС от 1 марта 2008 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Алтайского края», в ред. Закона №72-ЗС от 2 сентября 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Алтайского края "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Алтайского края"». Вступил в силу 8 марта 2008 г. Опубликован: "Алтайская правда", №67, 8 марта 2008 г. (Altai Krai Council of People's Deputies. Law #28-ZS of March 1, 2008 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Altai Krai, as amended by the Law #72-ZS of September 2, 2015 On Amending the Law of Altai Krai "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Altai Krai". Effective as of March 8, 2008.).
- Алтайское краевое Законодательное Собрание. Закон №144-ЗС от 27 декабря 2008 г. «О статусе и границах муниципального и административно-территориального образования город Барнаул Алтайского края», в ред. Закона №44-ЗС от 2 июля 2009 г «О внесении изменений в Приложение 1 к Закону Алтайского края "О статусе и границах муниципального и административно-территориального образования город Барнаул Алтайского края"». Вступил в силу через 10 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Алтайская правда", №5–6, 15 января 2009 г. (Altai Krai Legislative Assembly. Law #144-ZS of December 27, 2008 On the Status and the Borders of the Municipal and the Administrative-Territorial Formation of the City of Barnaul of Altai Krai, as amended by the Law #44-ZS of July 2, 2009 On Amending Appendix 1 of the Law of Altai Krai "On the Status and the Borders of the Municipal and the Administrative-Territorial Formation of the City of Barnaul of Altai Krai". Effective as of the day which is 10 days after the day of the official publication.).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Барнаул.|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Barnaul.|
- Barnaul travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Barnaul.org Official website of Barnaul
- Weather in Barnaul
- Pictures of Barnaul