Barnaul

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For other uses of "Barnaul", see Barnaul (disambiguation).
Barnaul (English)
Барнаул (Russian)
-  City[1]  -
Barnaulcollage.jpg
View of Barnaul
Map of Russia - Altai Krai (2008-03).svg
Location of Altai Krai in Russia
Barnaul is located in Altai Krai
Barnaul
Barnaul
Location of Barnaul in Altai Krai
Coordinates: 53°20′N 83°45′E / 53.333°N 83.750°E / 53.333; 83.750Coordinates: 53°20′N 83°45′E / 53.333°N 83.750°E / 53.333; 83.750
Barnaul coat of arms.svg
Flag of Barnaul (Altai krai).png
Coat of arms
Flag
City Day One of Sundays in August or September[2]
Administrative status (as of June 2014)
Country Russia
Federal subject Altai Krai[1]
Administratively subordinated to city of krai significance of Barnaul[1]
Administrative center of Altai Krai,[3] city of krai significance of Barnaul[1]
Municipal status (as of July 2009)
Urban okrug Barnaul Urban Okrug[4]
Administrative center of Barnaul Urban Okrug[4]
Head[3] Lyudmila Zubovich[3]
Representative body City Duma[3]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census) 612,401 inhabitants[5]
Rank in 2010 21st
Time zone KRAT (UTC+07:00)[6]
Founded 1730s[7]
City status since 1771[2]
Postal code(s)[8] 656000, 656002–656004, 656006, 656008, 656010–656012, 656015, 656016, 656018, 656019, 656021, 656023–656025, 656031, 656033, 656035–656039, 656043–656045, 656048–656050, 656052–656060, 656062–656068, 656700, 656880, 656890, 656899, 656905, 656960, 656961, 656963–656966, 656998, 656999, 901024, 901213
Dialing code(s) +7 3852[citation needed]
Official website
Barnaul on Wikimedia Commons

Barnaul (Russian: Барнаул; IPA: [bərnɐˈul]) is a city and the administrative center of Altai Krai, Russia, located at the confluence of the Barnaulka River and the Ob River in the West Siberian Plain. At the end of 2015, the city had a population above 700,000 people,[9] making it the 21st-largest city in Russia. The population of the Barnaul metropolitan area is estimated to be more than 1.14 million.[10]

Geography[edit]

Barnaul is located in the forest steppe zone of the West Siberian Plain, on the left bank of the Ob River, at the confluence of Barnaulka and the Ob.

Barnaul is the closest major city to the Altai Mountains to the south. The border with Kazakhstan is 345 km to the south-west. It is 3580 km from Moscow. The city is also situated relatively close to the border with Mongolia and China.

Barnaul lies in the UTC+7:00 time zone; it is three hours in advance of Moscow Time. thus being plus three hours.

History[edit]

A historical wooden house now used as the Imperator Restaurant

Ancient history[edit]

The area around the city has been inhabited by modern humans, Neanderthals and Denisovans, for hundreds of thousands of years. They settled here to take advantage of the confluence of the rivers, used for transportation and fishing.[11] In the late BC millennia, the locality was a centre of activity for Scythian and various Turkic peoples.[12]

Russian Empire[edit]

The city of Barnaul was founded in 1730[13] and incorporated in 1771. Chosen for its proximity to the mineral-rich Altai Mountains and its location on a major river, the settlement was founded in the 1730s by the wealthy Demidov family.[7] They wanted to develop the copper in the mountains, and soon found substantial deposits of silver as well. In 1747, the Demidovs' factories were taken over by the Crown. Barnaul became the center of silver production of the entire Russian Empire.[14]

By the 1900s, Barnaul had grown into a major center of trade and culture of the region. The construction of the Turkestan-Siberia Railway through here increased trade and traffic, aiding in getting the metals to market.[citation needed]

In 1914, Barnaul was the site of the largest draft riot in Russia during World War I. There were more than 100 casualties from the fighting.[15] Street fighting also took place between White Russians and Reds during the Russian Revolution of 1918.

Maria Stepanovna (née Zudilova) (1912-1996) was born and lived as a child in this city. She later became the mother of American actresses Natalie Wood (born Natalia Zakharenko) and Lana Wood (born Lana Gurdin).[16] Her father Stepan was killed in the 1918 street fighting between the Whites and Reds following the Revolution. Afterward her mother took Maria and her siblings as refugees to Harbin, China. Maria married a Russian there, and they had a daughter Olga together. Maria eventually immigrated with Olga to the United States, where she married another Russian immigrant, from Vladivostok, and had two daughters with him.[16]

Soviet Union[edit]

The Bolsheviks came to power during the period of the Great War (World War I).

World War II[edit]

It is estimated that over half of the light ammunition used by the Soviet Union in World War II was produced in Barnaul.[17]

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Barnaul is the administrative center of the krai.[3] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with the work settlement of Yuzhny and twenty-four rural localities, incorporated as the city of krai significance of Barnaul—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the city of krai significance of Barnaul is incorporated as Barnaul Urban Okrug.[4]

Climate[edit]

The humid continental climate of Barnaul (Köppen Dfb) is defined by its geographical position at the southern end of the Siberian steppe: it is subject to long winters, with an average of −15.5 °C (4.1 °F) in January, but also enjoys a short warm season in the summer with an average temperature of +19.9 °C (67.8 °F) in July. Temperatures can vary in the extreme, from below −45 °C (−49 °F) in the winter to above +35 °C (95 °F) in the summer.

The climate is relatively dry. The average precipitation in the area is 433 millimeters (17.0 in) per year, 75% of which occurs during the region's warmer season.

Climate data for Barnaul
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 5.3
(41.5)
7.4
(45.3)
16.4
(61.5)
32.3
(90.1)
37.4
(99.3)
36.6
(97.9)
37.9
(100.2)
38.3
(100.9)
34.0
(93.2)
27.4
(81.3)
15.3
(59.5)
6.3
(43.3)
38.3
(100.9)
Average high °C (°F) −10.8
(12.6)
−8.1
(17.4)
−0.6
(30.9)
10.1
(50.2)
20.1
(68.2)
24.3
(75.7)
26.3
(79.3)
24.3
(75.7)
17.7
(63.9)
9.2
(48.6)
−2.2
(28)
−8.5
(16.7)
8.5
(47.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) −15.5
(4.1)
−13.7
(7.3)
−6.5
(20.3)
3.8
(38.8)
12.8
(55)
17.7
(63.9)
19.9
(67.8)
17.4
(63.3)
11.0
(51.8)
3.8
(38.8)
−6.3
(20.7)
−12.9
(8.8)
2.6
(36.7)
Average low °C (°F) −20.1
(−4.2)
−18.7
(−1.7)
−11.8
(10.8)
−1.2
(29.8)
6.5
(43.7)
11.6
(52.9)
14.0
(57.2)
11.6
(52.9)
5.6
(42.1)
−0.4
(31.3)
−10.0
(14)
−17.4
(0.7)
−2.5
(27.5)
Record low °C (°F) −48.2
(−54.8)
−42.9
(−45.2)
−35.5
(−31.9)
−27.6
(−17.7)
−8.8
(16.2)
−1.2
(29.8)
2.9
(37.2)
0.4
(32.7)
−7.8
(18)
−27.0
(−16.6)
−38.9
(−38)
−43.1
(−45.6)
−48.2
(−54.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 24
(0.94)
18
(0.71)
17
(0.67)
28
(1.1)
40
(1.57)
55
(2.17)
68
(2.68)
44
(1.73)
43
(1.69)
37
(1.46)
37
(1.46)
31
(1.22)
433
(17.05)
Average rainy days 0.4 1 3 12 17 16 17 15 16 14 6 1 118
Average snowy days 22 20 16 9 2 0.1 0 0 1 10 18 24 122
Average relative humidity (%) 78 76 74 63 55 64 70 70 69 73 79 79 71
Mean monthly sunshine hours 77 112 178 218 272 315 320 265 199 109 75 64 2,204
Source #1: pogoda.ru.net[18]
Source #2: NOAA (sun only, 1961-1990)[19]

Economy[edit]

Newly constructed buildings in Barnaul

Barnaul is an important industrial center of Western Siberia. There are more than 100 industrial enterprises in the city, employing approximately 120,000 people. Leading industries include diesel and carbon processing; as well as production of heavy machinery, tires, furniture and footwear.[20]

Transportation[edit]

It lies at a junction of the NovosibirskAlmaty and Biysk train lines.[citation needed]

Education and culture[edit]

Barnaul is an important regional center of scientific development. Five universities, including Altai State Technical University, Barnaul State Pedagogical University, Altai State Medical University, Altai State Agrarian University and Altai State University, and 35 libraries are located in the city. Barnaul has five theatres and three museums. The city's Museum of Local Lore was founded in 1823 and is one of the oldest in Siberia. It displays local artists' work as well as unique artifacts from the Altai region.[citation needed]

The South-Siberian Botanical Garden (SSBG),[21] is linked to and supported by studies at Altai State University.[22]

Sports[edit]

Since 1957 FC Dynamo Barnaul has been the city's professional football club.[citation needed]

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Barnaul is twinned with:

Notable people[edit]

Images of Barnaul[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Law #28-ZS
  2. ^ a b Исторический опыт хозяйственного и культурного освоения Западной Сибири: Сборник научных трудов. Кн. I. Барнаул: Изд-во Алт. ун-та. Под ред. Ю. Ф. Кирюшина и А. А. Тишкина. 2003. p. 464. 
  3. ^ a b c d e http://www.barnaul.org/
  4. ^ a b c Law #144-ZS
  5. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  6. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  7. ^ a b Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 37. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9. 
  8. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
  9. ^ http://barnaul.fm/2016/02/08/chislo-zhitelej-barnaula-perevalilo-za-700-tysyach-chelovek/
  10. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved 2015-03-28. 
  11. ^ "Different species of man used shelter for thousands of yearsl
  12. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=ijJ4o2iorhkC&pg=PA250&lpg=PA250&dq=scythians+barnaul&source=bl&ots=Ph6ygUJmhn&sig=rozXeR75ObBBpV2fns0SWByPigY&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CB0Q6AEwAGoVChMIv9vK6q7-xwIVBFuSCh0iGgHC#v=onepage&q=scythians%20barnaul&f=false
  13. ^ "Barnaul - capital of Altai Krai". Altai Region. Retrieved 14 December 2013. 
  14. ^ [1]
  15. ^ Sanborn, Josh. "The Mobilization of 1917 and the Question of the Russian Nation." Slavic Review, Vol. 59, No. 2: pp. 267-89.
  16. ^ a b Lambert, Gavin (2004). Natalie Wood: A Life, London: Faber and Faber, p.8. ISBN 978-0-571-22197-4
  17. ^ [2]
  18. ^ "Weather And Climate - Climate Barnaul" (in Russian). Retrieved May 14, 2015. 
  19. ^ "Climate Normals for Barnaul". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved January 23, 2013. 
  20. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 27, 2012. Retrieved 2015-03-28. 
  21. ^ "The South-Siberian Botanical Garden". ssbg.asu.ru. Retrieved 22 August 2015. 
  22. ^ "South-Siberian Botanical Garden". biologybrowser.com. Retrieved 22 August 2015. 
  23. ^ http://barnaul.fm/2015/08/28/sergej-shubenkov-vyigral-zoloto-na-chempionate-mira-po-lyogkoj-atletike-v-pekine/
  24. ^ "This City in Siberia Would Rather Elect a Cat Mayor". 2015-12-13. Retrieved 2015-12-18. 

Sources[edit]

  • Алтайский краевой Совет народных депутатов. Закон №28-ЗС от 1 марта 2008 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Алтайского края», в ред. Закона №72-ЗС от 2 сентября 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Алтайского края "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Алтайского края"». Вступил в силу 8 марта 2008 г. Опубликован: "Алтайская правда", №67, 8 марта 2008 г. (Altai Krai Council of People's Deputies. Law #28-ZS of March 1, 2008 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Altai Krai, as amended by the Law #72-ZS of September 2, 2015 On Amending the Law of Altai Krai "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Altai Krai". Effective as of March 8, 2008.).
  • Алтайское краевое Законодательное Собрание. Закон №144-ЗС от 27 декабря 2008 г. «О статусе и границах муниципального и административно-территориального образования город Барнаул Алтайского края», в ред. Закона №44-ЗС от 2 июля 2009 г «О внесении изменений в Приложение 1 к Закону Алтайского края "О статусе и границах муниципального и административно-территориального образования город Барнаул Алтайского края"». Вступил в силу через 10 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Алтайская правда", №5–6, 15 января 2009 г. (Altai Krai Legislative Assembly. Law #144-ZS of December 27, 2008 On the Status and the Borders of the Municipal and the Administrative-Territorial Formation of the City of Barnaul of Altai Krai, as amended by the Law #44-ZS of July 2, 2009 On Amending Appendix 1 of the Law of Altai Krai "On the Status and the Borders of the Municipal and the Administrative-Territorial Formation of the City of Barnaul of Altai Krai". Effective as of the day which is 10 days after the day of the official publication.).

External links[edit]