Barnes, London

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Barnes
Barnes from Bridge.JPG
Barnes riverside from the bridge
Barnes is located in Greater London
Barnes
Barnes
Location within Greater London
Area4.50 km2 (1.74 sq mi)
Population21,218 (Barnes and
Mortlake and Barnes Common wards 2011)[2]
• Density4,715/km2 (12,210/sq mi)
OS grid referenceTQ225765
• Charing Cross5.8 mi (9.3 km) ENE
London borough
Ceremonial countyGreater London
Region
CountryEngland
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townLONDON
Postcode districtSW13
Dialling code020
PoliceMetropolitan
FireLondon
AmbulanceLondon
UK Parliament
London Assembly
List of places
UK
England
London
51°28′26″N 0°14′10″W / 51.474°N 0.236°W / 51.474; -0.236Coordinates: 51°28′26″N 0°14′10″W / 51.474°N 0.236°W / 51.474; -0.236

Barnes (/bɑːrnz/) is a district in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames. It takes up the extreme northeast of the borough, and as such is the closest part of the borough to central London. It is centred 5.8 miles (9.3 km) west south-west of Charing Cross in a bend of the River Thames.

Its built environment includes a wide variety of convenience and arts shopping on its high street and a high proportion of 18th- and 19th-century buildings in the streets near Barnes Pond. Together they make up the Barnes Village conservation area where, along with its west riverside, pictured, most of the mid-19th-century properties are concentrated. On the east riverside is the WWT London Wetland Centre adjoining Barn Elms playing fields. Barnes has retained woodland on the "Barnes Trail" which is a short circular walk taking in the riverside, commercial streets and conservation area, marked by silver discs set in the ground and with QR coded information on distinctive oar signs. The Thames Path National Trail provides a public promenade along the entire bend of the river which is on the Championship Course in rowing. Barnes has two railway stations (Barnes and Barnes Bridge) and is served by bus routes towards central London and Richmond.

Geography and transport[edit]

Barnes is in south west London, bounded to the west, north and east by a meander in the River Thames.

Rail[edit]

National Rail[edit]

Barnes is not on the London Underground network. However, it is served directly by two National Rail stations, both of which are in London's Travelcard Zone 3:

Both stations are served exclusively by trains operated by South Western Railway (SWR), with trains terminating in Central London at Waterloo via Clapham Junction. Trains from Barnes and Barnes Bridge both run eastwards providing Barnes with a direct connection to Chiswick, Brentford and Hounslow. Barnes railway station is also served by trains running southwest towards Teddington and Kingston.[3]

Barnes railway station saw 2.548 million passenger entries or exits in 2018. Barnes Bridge was significantly quieter, with only 0.863 passengers beginning or ending their journey at the station.[4]

Nearby railway stations can also be found at Putney and Mortlake.[3]

London Underground[edit]

There are London Underground connections in neighbouring Hammersmith, where two stations serve four lines: the Circle and Hammersmith & City lines and the District and Piccadilly lines. From Hammersmith, there are direct connections to the City and the West End. There are also direct connections to Heathrow Airport, Ealing, the East End and Rayner's Lane.[3]

Road[edit]

There is one River Thames crossing in Barnes for traffic and pedestrians; Hammersmith Bridge is a suspension bridge to the north of Barnes, built in 1887. Hammersmith Bridge is currently closed indefinitely to traffic due to structural faults, but remains open to cyclists and pedestrians.

Many of the roads in Barnes are residential, but several arterial routes pass through the district, carrying traffic across London and the South East.

The South Circular Road (A205) passes through the southern end of Barnes. The South Circular carries traffic eastbound towards Wandsworth, Clapham, the City of London and south east London. Westbound, the road carries traffic away from Central London, either towards Richmond and the M3, or directly to the M4 and the North Circular Road (A406). Kew and Chiswick are en route to the M4.

The A306 runs north-south through Barnes, carried by Castelnau and Rocks Lane. Leaving Barnes to the north, the A306 crosses Hammersmith Bridge towards Hammersmith, where traffic meets the Great West Road (A4), which links to Earl's Court and the West End. Southbound, the A306 eventually meets the A3 towards Guildford and Portsmouth.

Barnes High Street and Church Road carry the A3003, which runs between Barnes and nearby Mortlake.

Transport for London (TfL) manages the South Circular Road and the A306 (south of Barnes only).[5]

Other roads which cross the Thames nearby are Chiswick Bridge (A316) to the west and Putney Bridge (A219) east.

Air pollution[edit]

The London Borough of Richmond upon Thames carries out air pollution monitoring in Barnes, both kerbside and in the London Wetlands Centre. There are several sites in Barnes which measure the concentration of Nitrogen Dioxide (NO
2
)
and Particulate Matter PM10 in the air.

A site along Castelnau recorded an annual mean concentration of (NO
2
) at 31μgm-3 in 2017. The annual mean concentration of PM10 was 18μgm-3 at the same site in the same year. Both results show that Barnes' air is the cleanest it has been since 2011, at least. Whilst Castelnau is on the kerbside, the Wetlands monitoring site recorded far lower (i.e. cleaner) results than Castelnau did in 2017, with an annual mean (NO
2
) concentration at 21μgm-3, and a mean reading of 15μgm-3 for PM10. A monitoring site on Barnes High Street recorded more polluted air than the other, with (NO
2
) levels at 43.0μgm-3 (annual mean, 2017). This site therefore failed to meet the UK National Air Quality Objective of 40μgm-3 (annual mean) for (NO
2
).[6]

Buses[edit]

Barnes is served by London Buses 33, 72, 209, 265, 283, 378, 419, 485 and N22.

Cycling[edit]

Compared other districts in London, Barnes is poorly connected to London destinations via cycle paths or tracks; cycling infrastructure is limited in Barnes.

There are three key routes which pass through Barnes:

Cycles can cross the Thames in Barnes using either Hammersmith Bridge or Barnes Bridge (dismounting to use the footpath). Cycling is permitted along the shared-use path on the southern bank of the Thames between Hammersmith Bridge and Putney Bridge.

River Thames[edit]

The Thames Path passes through Barnes, following the banks of the river.

Transport for London (TfL), in conjunction with MBNA Thames Clippers, run riverboat services from nearby Putney Pier to Blackfriars, weekday morning and evenings only. This connects the Barnes area to Chelsea, Battersea, Westminster, Embankment and the City. A Summer River Tour, operated by Thames River Boats runs from Kew Pier to Westminster, or Richmond and Hampton Court.[9]

Nearest places[edit]

History[edit]

Milbourne House (18 Station Road), Barnes

In 1889, Barnes became part of the Municipal Borough of Barnes. In 1965, that borough was abolished and Barnes became part of the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames. It appears in the Domesday Book of 1086 as "Berne". It was held by the Canons of St Paul of London when its assets were: eight hides, paying tax with Mortlake; six ploughlands, 20 acres (81,000 m2) of meadow. It rendered (in total) to its feudal system overlords £7 per year.[10]

The original Norman chapel of St Mary's, Barnes' village church, was built at some point between 1100 and 1150, and was subsequently extended in the early 13th century. In 1215, immediately after confirming the sealing of Magna Carta, Stephen Langton, the Archbishop of Canterbury, stopped on the river at Barnes to dedicate St Mary's church.[11] The church was added to in 1485 and in 1786. After a major fire in 1978 destroyed the Victorian and Edwardian additions to the building, restoration work was completed in 1984.[12]

Some of the oldest riverside housing in London is to be found on the Terrace, a road lined with Georgian mansions which runs along the west bend of the river. Construction of these mansions began as early as 1720.[13] Gustav Holst and Ninette de Valois lived in houses on this stretch, both of which have corresponding blue plaques. The Terrace also has an original red brick police station, built in 1891. It has been remodelled as flats but still preserves the original features.

The pink-fronted Rose House facing the area's pond dates to the 17th century, while Milbourne House facing the Green, the area's oldest, parts of which date to the 16th century, once belonged to Henry Fielding.[14] The park of Barn Elms, formerly the manor house of Barnes,[15] for long the parish's chief property and now an open space and playing field, is home to one of the oldest and largest plane tree in London, one of the Great Trees of London.[16]

The Grade II listed Barnes Railway Bridge, originally constructed in 1849 by Joseph Locke, dominates the view of the river from the Terrace.

Castelnau, in north Barnes and on the banks of the river, has a small church, Holy Trinity. The area between Castelnau and Lonsdale Road contains a 1930s council estate (including roads such as Nowell Road, Stillingfleet Road and Washington Road), mostly consisting of "Boot Houses", constructed by the Henry Boot company.

Economy[edit]

A 2014 survey found that Barnes had the highest proportion of independent shops of any area in Britain, at 96.6%.[17]

Barnes Common and the London Wetland Centre[edit]

Barnes Common is an important open space and a local nature reserve.[18] Its 120 acres (0.49 km2) dominate the south of Barnes, providing a rural setting to the village and a wealth of habitats including acid grassland, scrub, woodland and wetland. Beverley Brook passes through part of the common before meeting the Thames at Putney.

In April 2001, Barnes Pond dramatically emptied overnight. Although a broken drain was suspected no cause could be conclusively found.[19] The pond was redeveloped and landscaped with funding from Richmond Council and the local community.

Barn Elms reservoirs were turned into a wetland habitat and bird sanctuary in 1995. The majority of the WWT London Wetland Centre comprises areas of standing open water, grazing marsh and reedbed. It is designated as a Site of Special Scientific Interest as it supports nationally important wintering populations of shoveller (Anas clypeata) and teal (Anas crecca).

Landmarks, trails and events[edit]

The Barnes Trail, a 2.3 mile circular walk funded by the Mayor of London and Richmond upon Thames Council, was opened in June 2013.[20] It gained in 2014 a further QR code-marked extension, along its riverside, which equates to the Thames Path National Trail; part of this is wide, pavemented embankments with Victorian townhouses and the rest is tree-lined green space.[21]

The site of rock musician Marc Bolan's fatal car crash on Queen's Ride in 1977 is now Bolan's Rock Shrine. The memorial receives frequent visits from his fans, and in 1997 a bronze bust of Bolan was installed to mark the twentieth anniversary of his death. In 2007, the site was recognised by the English Tourist Board as a "Site of Rock 'n' Roll Importance" in its guide England Rocks.[22]

Olympic Studios on Church Road is an independent cinema, showing a mixture of films on general release and art films. Originally a local cinema and for many years a leading recording studio, down the decades Olympic played host to some of rock and pop's greatest stars, from the Beatles, who recorded the original tracks of "All You Need Is Love" in Barnes, to the Rolling Stones, Jimi Hendrix, Pink Floyd, Led Zeppelin, David Bowie, Queen, Eric Clapton, Ella Fitzgerald, Harry Nilsson, the Verve, Massive Attack, Duran Duran, Coldplay, Madonna and Björk.

Facing the Thames, and on the main commercial street's junction, the Bull's Head pub is known as the "suburban Ronnie Scott's"[23] and was one of the first and most important jazz venues in Britain from the post-war years onward.

The OSO Arts Centre, which opened in 2002, is a venue for art and fringe theatre, hosting numerous exhibitions and theatre productions, as well as a regular auction.[24] The building was previously the postal sorting office, but was redeveloped into a mixture of residential and commercial space with the first residents moving in in 1999.

The area around Barnes Pond is host to several open-air and covered markets each month. Barnes Green is the site of the Barnes Fair, held each year on the second Saturday of July and organised by the Barnes Community Association (BCA), whose headquarters are at Rose House, a distinctive 17th-century pink-painted building on Barnes High Street.

In 2015, Barnes Pond became home to London’s largest dedicated children’s book event, the Barnes Children’s Literature Festival, which is now the second largest in Europe.[25]

Places of worship[edit]

Barnes has eight churches, of which six are members of Churches Together in Barnes:[26]

Societies[edit]

Barnes and Mortlake History Society
AbbreviationBMHS
Formation1955
Legal statusregistered charity (number 292918)[27]
Region served
Barnes, Mortlake and East Sheen[28]
Membership
400[28]
Chairman
Paul Rawkins[27]
Main organ
Barnes and Mortlake History Society Newsletter (four times a year)[28]
Budget
£5.6k[27]
Staff
none
Websitewww.barnes-history.org.uk

The Barnes and Mortlake History Society, founded in 1955, promotes interest in the local history of Barnes, Mortlake and East Sheen. It organises a programme of lectures and other activities on historical topics and publishes a quarterly newsletter.[28]

Sport[edit]

Association football
Grave of Ebenezer Cobb Morley in Barnes Cemetery, with a wreath commemorating 150 years of the Football Association

Barnes has a place in the history of football. First, a former High Master of St Paul's School, Richard Mulcaster, is credited with taking mob football and turning it into an organised, refereed team sport that was considered beneficial for schoolboys. St Paul's School is currently sited on Lonsdale Road, although in Mulcaster's time it was at St Paul's Cathedral in the City of London.

Barnes was also home to Ebenezer Cobb Morley, who in 1862 was a founding member of the Football Association. In 1863, he wrote to Bell's Life newspaper proposing a governing body for football, and this led to the first meeting at the Freemasons' Tavern where the FA was created. He was the FA's first secretary (1863–66) and at his home in Barnes he set out the first set of rules for modern football, and these were adopted by the FA and subsequently spread throughout the world. As a player, he took part in the first match played according to today's rules. Morley may be considered the father of football for his key role in establishing modern Association Football.

Barnes has a non-League football club, Stonewall F.C., who play at Barn Elms Playing Fields.[29]

Rugby

Barnes Rugby Football Club's ground is next to the WWT London Wetlands Centre, formerly known simply as Barn Elms.

Rowing

In rowing, the loop of the Thames surrounding Barnes forms part of the Championship Course used for the Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race and the main national head races, the Head of the River Races, for each category of Olympic boat. Three rowing clubs are across Barnes Bridge which can be crossed by foot and St Paul's School boat from Barnes. A statue of Steve Fairbairn who revolutionised technique and equipment in the sport is by the river close to the London Wetlands Centre in the district.

Education[edit]

Notable residents[edit]

Only notable people with entries on Wikipedia have been included. Their birth or residence has been verified by citations.

Living people[edit]

Name Dates Description Notes Refs Image
Joss Ackland b. 1928 Actor Has lived in Barnes [30]
Michael Ball b. 1962 Singer and actor Lives in Barnes [31] Michael Ball -Cardiff 21Oct2006.jpg
Samantha Bond b. 1961 Actor Brought up in Barnes and St Margarets [32]
Gyles Brandreth b. 1948 Writer, broadcaster, actor, comedian, and former Conservative MP Lives in Barnes [33][34] Gyles Brandreth - Waffle TV.jpg
Niamh Cusack b. 1959 Actor Lives in Barnes [35]
Carl Davis b. 1936 Composer Lives in Barnes [36] Carl Davis.jpg
Duffy b. 1984 Singer Has lived at The Terrace in Barnes [37] Duffy 2010 erdoedy.jpg
Michael Edwards b. 1938 Poet and academic Was born in Barnes [38]
Sheherazade Goldsmith b. 1974 Environmentalist, jeweller
and columnist
Lives in Barnes [39]
Zac Goldsmith,
Baron Goldsmith
of Richmond Park
b. 1975 Life peer
and former MP for Richmond Park
Lives in Barnes [40] Official portrait of Lord Goldsmith of Richmond Park crop 2.jpg
David Harsent b. 1942 Poet Lives in Barnes [41][42]
Patricia Hodge b. 1946 Actor Lives in Barnes [43]
Tomoyasu Hotei
(布袋 寅泰)
b. 1962 Japanese musician,
singer-songwriter, composer,
record producer and actor
Moved to Barnes in 2012 [44] Tomoyasu Hotei Paaspop 2017.jpg
Matthew Kneale b. 1960 Novelist Brought up in Barnes [45]
Susan Kramer,
Baroness Kramer
b. 1950 Life peer
and former MP for Richmond Park
Lives in Barnes [46] Official portrait of Baroness Kramer crop 2, 2019.jpg
Gary Lineker b. 1960 Sports broadcaster
and former professional footballer
Lives in Barnes [47] Gary Lineker 2011.jpg
Suzannah Lipscomb b. 1978 Historian, academic
and broadcaster
specialising in the 16th century
Lives in Barnes [48] Suzannah Lipscomb 2013.jpg
George MacKay b. 1992 Actor Grew up in Barnes [49][50] GeorgeMackaySept2013TIFF.jpg
Dr Tania Mathias b. 1964 MP for Twickenham
from 2015 to 2017
Brought up in Barnes [51] Tania Mathias Headshot.jpg
Brian May b. 1947 Musician, singer, songwriter
and astrophysicist
Has lived at Suffolk Road, Barnes [52] Brian May 2017 Guitar Cropped.jpg
Roger McGough b. 1937 Performance poet, broadcaster,
children's author and playwright
Lives in Barnes [53]
Alistair McGowan b. 1964 Impressionist, comic, actor,
singer and writer
Lives in Barnes [54]
Chris Patten,
Baron Patten of Barnes
b. 1944 Life peer, Chancellor of
the University of Oxford
,
and former MP for Bath,
who subsequently served as
28th Governor of Hong Kong and
Chairman of the BBC Trust
Lives in Barnes [55] Official portrait of Lord Patten of Barnes crop 2.jpg
Robert Pattinson b. 1986 Actor Grew up in Barnes [56][57] Robert Pattinson
Jan Pieńkowski b. 1936 Writer and illustrator Lives in Barnes and is a patron
of the Barnes Literary Society
[58]
Dan Snow b. 1978 Historian and broadcaster Grew up in Barnes [59] Dan Snow Aldershot 2019.jpg
Roger Taylor b. 1949 Musician, singer and songwriter Lived at White Hart
and at 40 Ferry Road, Barnes
[52] Queen And Adam Lambert - The O2 - Tuesday 12th December 2017 QueenO2121217-47 (39066610085) Cropped.jpg
Pete Tong b. 1960 Disc jockey Lives in Barnes [60] Pete tong head crop.jpg
Stanley Tucci b. 1960 Actor, writer, producer
and film director
Lives in Barnes [61] Stanley Tucci 2017 Berlinale.jpg
Julia Watson b. 1953 Actor Lives in Barnes [42][41]

Historical figures[edit]

Those marked § are commemorated in Barnes by a blue plaque.[14]

Name Dates Description Notes Refs Images
Vice-Admiral Alfred Carpenter VC 1881–1955 Royal Navy officer
and a recipient of the Victoria Cross
Born in Barnes [62] Arthur Stockdale Cope - Alfred Francis Blakeney Carpenter.jpg
Louis-Alexandre de Launay, comte d'Antraigues
and his wife, Madame Saint-Huberty
1753–1812



1756–1812
De Launay was a French
pamphleteer, diplomat spy and
political adventurer during the
French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars.

Saint-Huberty was a celebrated
French operatic soprano.
Murdered at their
country home at 27 The Terrace,
which they had purchased
about three years earlier,
by an Italian servant
whom they had dismissed
[63][64][65] Antraiguescte.gifVigee-Lebrun Saint-Huberty.jpg
Ninette de Valois 1898–2001 Founder of the Royal Ballet Lived at 14 The Terrace
from 1962 to 1982
[66]§ Aankomst choreografe Dame Ninette de Vaois op Schiphol, kop, Bestanddeelnr 927-2695.jpg
Admiral Martin Dunbar-Nasmith VC 1883–1965 Royal Navy officer
and a recipient of the Victoria Cross
Born at 136 Castelnau [67]§ Captain M E Nasmith, Vc, Rn - 1918 Art.IWMART1335.jpg
Major John Freeman 1915–2014 Politician, diplomat and broadcaster Lived in Barnes [68] John Freeman MP.jpg
James Henry Greathead 1844–1896 Railway engineer and pioneer of tunnelling Lived at 3 St Mary's Grove,
Barnes, from 1885
to 1889
§ JAMES HENRY GREATHEAD 1844-1896 Railway and Tunnelling Engineer lived here 1885-1889.jpg
Lieutenant-General Robert Ballard Long 1771–1825 Officer of the British
and Hanoverian Armies
Retired to his house
on The Terrace
[69] Robert Ballard Long (1771-1825).jpg
Sir Ralph Moor 1860–1909 High Commissioner
of the British Southern Nigeria Protectorate
Poisoned himself at
The Homestead
on Church Road in 1909
[70] Sir Ralph Moor
Colin Patterson 1933–1998 Palaentologist Lived in Barnes [71]
Lyon Playfair 1818–1898 Professor of chemistry and Liberal MP Lived at 26 Castelnau Villas
(98 Castelnau), Barnes in 1851,
while taking part in organising
the Great Exhibition
[72] Lyon Playfair.jpg
Albert Frederick Pollard 1869–1948 Historian and founder of the Historical Association Lived at 7 St Mary's Grove [72]
Sir John Power, 1st Baronet 1870–1950 Businessman and
Conservative MP for Wimbledon
Lived at 1 Queen's Ride, Barnes,
from 1908 to 1919
[72]
Sir John Russell Reynolds, 1st Baronet 1828–1896 British neurologist and physician,
President of the
Royal College of Physicians, 1893–95
Occupied Rose Cottage, Barnes Green,
as a weekend cottage
from about 1862 to 1870
[72] John Russell Reynolds.jpg
Robert Willis 1799–1878 Scottish physician, librarian, and medical historian Lived and practised at The Homestead
on Church Road from 1846
until his death in 1878
[73]

Actors[edit]

Artists, architects and designers[edit]

Musicians[edit]

  • Marc Bolan (1947–1977), singer, songwriter, musician and poet, lived at Lonsdale Road, Barnes.[89]
  • George Frederick Handel (1685–1759), composer, lived at the house of Mr Mathew Andrews in Barn Elms in the summer of 1713.[90][91]§
The house in Barnes where Gustav Holst lived between 1908 and 1913. The house has a blue plaque in his honour[14]
  • Gustav Holst (1874–1934), composer, lived at 31 Gretna Road, Richmond from 1903 to 1908, then moved with his family to 10 The Terrace, Barnes until 1913.[92]§
  • Freddie Mercury (1946–1991), musician, vocalist and lyricist of the rock band Queen, shared a house at 40 Ferry Road.[93][94]

Sportspeople[edit]

Writers[edit]

Demography and housing[edit]

To give an equal councillor number and electorate, the wards in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames are multi-councillor but aim to be equally sized. To achieve this, approximately half of one of the two wards covering modern Barnes also falls within the boundaries of neighbouring Mortlake.[103]

2011 Census homes
Ward Detached Semi-detached Terraced Flats and apartments Caravans/temporary/mobile homes/houseboats Shared between households[2]
Barnes 277 1,198 996 1,784 0 41
Mortlake and Barnes Common 167 547 1,765 2,453 1 8
2011 Census households
Ward Population Households % Owned outright % Owned with a loan hectares[2]
Barnes 10,299 4,151 32 26 265
Mortlake and Barnes Common 10,919 4,771 27 32 185

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Census Information Scheme (2012). "2011 Census Ward Population Estimates". Greater London Authority. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
  2. ^ a b c Key Statistics; Quick Statistics: Population Density [1] Office for National Statistics
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  5. ^ "TfL Base Map" (PDF). Transport for London (TfL). Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 April 2019.
  6. ^ "London Borough of Richmond upon Thames: Air Quality Annual Status Report for 2017" (PDF). London Borough of Richmond upon Thames. 30 May 2018. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 April 2019.
  7. ^ a b "Route 4". Sustrans. Archived from the original on 30 December 2018.
  8. ^ "EuroVelo 2: United Kingdom". EuroVelo. Archived from the original on 1 July 2018.
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  14. ^ a b c "Blue Plaques in Richmond upon Thames". Visitrichmond.co.uk. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
  15. ^ Malden, H E (editor) (1912). "Parishes: Barnes". A History of the County of Surrey: vol. 4. British History Online. pp. 3–8. Retrieved 31 May 2015.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  16. ^ "London's greatest trees here at BEST". Barn Elms Sports Trust. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
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  22. ^ uk2.net. "TAG's Marc Bolan & T-Rex Web Site – Legal Guardians of Marc Bolan's Rock Shrine". Marc-bolan.org. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
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  36. ^ Tibbets, John C (2005). "The Sounds of Silents: An Interview with Carl Davis" (PDF). www.johnctibbetts.co. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
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  49. ^ "Welcome Patron George MacKay". Barnes Film Festival Blog. 24 June 2016. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  50. ^ Aftab, Kaleem (26 June 2018). "'I'm trying to be more political': George MacKay on how acting in NHS drama To Provide All People was a wake-up call". The Independent. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
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