|Born||Barnet Lee Rosset, Jr.
May 28, 1922
Chicago, Illinois, United States
|Died||February 21, 2012
Manhattan, New York City, New York, United States
|Occupation||Book, magazine publisher|
|Spouse(s)||Joan Mitchell, Hannelore Eckert, Cristina Agnini, Lisa Krug, Astrid Myers|
|Children||Peter, Tansey, Beckett, Chantal|
Barnet Lee "Barney" Rosset, Jr. (May 28, 1922 – February 21, 2012) was the owner of the publishing house Grove Press, and publisher and editor-in-chief of the magazine Evergreen Review. He led a successful legal battle to publish the uncensored version of D. H. Lawrence's novel Lady Chatterley's Lover, and later was the American publisher of Henry Miller's controversial novel Tropic of Cancer. The right to publish and distribute Miller's novel in the United States was affirmed by the Supreme Court of the United States in 1964, in a landmark ruling for free speech and the First Amendment.
Rosset was born and raised in Chicago to a Jewish father, Barnet Rosset, and an Irish Catholic mother, Mary (née Tansey). He attended the progressive Francis Parker School, where he was best friends with renowned cinematographer Haskell Wexler. Rosset also said that Robert Morss Lovett, the grandfather of Rosset's high school sweetheart, and professor of English at the University of Chicago had been a great influence on him.
Rosset attended Swarthmore College for one year and then enlisted in the army in 1942. It was at Swarthmore that Rosset discovered the work of Henry Miller.
During World War II, he served in the Army Signal Corps as an officer in a photographic company stationed in Kumming, China. In 2002, Rosset exhibited a collection of his War Photographs from his time in China in a New York Gallery. The exhibit included graphic photos of wounded and dead Chiang Kai-shek soldiers.
Rosset's initial ambition was to be a filmmaker like his childhood friend Haskell Wexler. Rosset produced a documentary called Strange Victory about racism in a post World War II America. The film was a failure.
After divorcing his first wife, painter Joan Mitchell, Rosset took courses at the New School for Social Research and worked for Monthly Review Press magazine. A friend of Joan Mitchell's told Rossett about Grove Press and that the original founders wanted to sell. Rossett purchased Grove Press for three thousand dollars.
Rosset married five times. Rosset married American Abstract Expressionist painter Joan Mitchell in France in 1949. The couple settled in Greenwich Village but then later divorced. Mitchell was instrumental in Rosset's acquisition of Grove Press.
Grove Press and Evergreen Review writers
Rosset introduced American readers to numerous significant writers, including Samuel Beckett (Nobel Prize in Literature 1969), Pablo Neruda (Nobel Prize 1971), Octavio Paz (Nobel Prize 1990), Kenzaburō Ōe (Nobel Prize 1994), Harold Pinter (Nobel Prize 2005), Henry Miller, William S. Burroughs, Khushwant Singh, Jean Genet, John Rechy, Eugène Ionesco and Tom Stoppard.
- I had actually read a little bit of Beckett in transition Magazine and a couple of other places. I was going to the New School. My New School life and the beginnings of Grove crossed over. At the New School, I had professors like Wallace Fowlie, Alfred Kazin, Stanley Kunitz and others, who were very, very important to me. I was doing a great deal of reading and writing papers for them, and one day I read in The New York Times about a play called Waiting for Godot that was going on in Paris. It was a small clip, but it made me very interested. I got hold of it and read it in the French edition. It had something to say to me. Oddly enough, it had a sense of desolation, like Miller, though in its language, its lack of verbiage, it was the opposite of Miller. Still, the sense of a very contemporary lost soul was compelling. I got Wallace Fowlie to read it. His specialty was French literature. His judgment meant a lot to me even though he was so different from me. He was a convert to Catholicism, he was gay, and incredibly intelligent. He read the play and told me that he thought - and this before anybody had really heard about it much - that it would be one of the most important works of the 20th Century. And Sylvia Beach got involved in it somehow. She was a friend and admirer of Beckett. Waiting for Godot just hit something in me. I got what Beckett writing was available and published it. He flew into the web and got trapped. He had been turned down by Simon and Schuster, I found out, much earlier, on an earlier novel.
In an interview with the Brooklyn Rail, Rosset spoke about the Henry Miller's Tropic of Capricorn being taken to court for obscenity charges:
- We had a case in New York and, of course, he [Miller] wouldn’t go to the court. I had lunch with him at a restaurant on sixth Avenue right near here called Alfred’s with our lawyer and three or four other people, and then we had to go to court. But he wouldn’t go. He’d been summonsed so he was breaking the law by not going. So we went into court, and the District Attorney questioned me and said, “You see that we have a jury here of men and women with children who go to school right near where that book is on sale, near the subway stop. What’d you think they feel to have their children reading this book?” So I took out the book and started reading and the jury started laughing and they thought it was wonderful. I said to them, “If your children got this book and read the whole book you ought to congratulate them.” And they loved it, and they refused to convict me of anything. That was a great pleasure. Miller couldn’t leave this country until the decision was in, verified and so forth. For at least a year or two years, he couldn’t go. It was so funny because they accused me of soliciting him to write the book—write Tropic of Cancer and Capricorn—in Brooklyn, and at that point I was only 8 years old! Miller was a little older than me. It was a specific charge against me that was absurd. I was a pimp supposedly. They didn’t even bother to see how ridiculous their charge would look.
Launched in 1957, Evergreen Review pushed the limits of censorship, inspiring hundreds of thousands of younger Americans to embrace the counterculture. Grove Press published Beat Generation writers, including William Burroughs, Allen Ginsberg, Lawrence Ferlinghetti, John Rechy, Hubert Selby, Jr. and Jack Kerouac. Rosset also purchased the American distribution rights to the Swedish film I Am Curious (Yellow).
The online Evergreen Review features Beat classics as well as debuts of contemporary writers. In 2007, Rosset married Astrid Myers, then-managing editor of the online Evergreen Review. In 2008, Rosset completed writing his autobiography (now published as Rosset: My Life in Publishing and How I Fought Censorship by OR Books). He died in 2012 after a double heart valve replacement. Seven Stories Press is publishing a forthcoming collection of film writing from Evergreen Review, spanning from the late 1950s to the early 1970s.
Obscene, a documentary feature about Rosset by Neil Ortenberg and Daniel O’Connor, was released September 26, 2008. The film was a selection of the 2007 Toronto International Film Festival. Featured in the film are Amiri Baraka, Lenny Bruce, William S. Burroughs, Jim Carroll, Elsa Dorfman, Lawrence Ferlinghetti, Allen Ginsberg, Al Goldstein, Erica Jong, Ray Manzarek, Michael McClure, Henry Miller, John Rechy, Ed Sanders, Floyd Salas, John Sayles, Gore Vidal, John Waters and Malcolm X.
Rosset was awarded the French title Commandeur dans l'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres in 1999. He was honored by the National Coalition Against Censorship on October 21, 2008, for his work in defending free expression. On November 19, 2008, Rosset received the lifetime achievement Literarian Award from the National Book Foundation in honor of his contributions to American publishing. In 2012, he was awarded the Norman Mailer Prize for "Distinguished Publisher".
- "Most Popular E-mail Newsletter". USA Today. February 22, 2012.
- Frank Shouldice. "Barney Rosset's Trip of a Lifetime". Retrieved July 9, 2013.
- Silverman, Al (2008). The Time of Their Lives: The Golden Age of Great American Publishers, Their Editors and Authors. New York: Truman Talley. ISBN 9780312350031.
- Campbell, James (2012-02-24). "Barney Rosset obituary". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2016-08-13.
- McCormack, Win, "Literary Fly Catcher": Barney Rosset, Evergreen Review, 104.
- Cole, Williams (March 2012). "A Life in Underground Letters | BARNEY ROSSET with Williams Cole". The Brooklyn Rail.
- Evergreen Review online
- "Rosset: My Life in Publishing and How I Fought Censorship", OR Books.
- Martin, Douglas (February 22, 2012). "Barney Rosset, Grove Press Publisher, Dies at 89". The New York Times.
- "From the Third Eye | Seven Stories Press". Sevenstories.com. Retrieved 2017-05-10.
- McGrath, Charles, "Publisher Who Fought Puritanism, and Won", The New York Times, September 23, 2008.
- Recipient of 2008 Literarian Award for Outstanding Service to the American Literary Community from the National Book Foundation
- Joyce Carol Oates (October 4, 2012). "Joyce Carol Oates Salutes Norman Mailer". The Daily Beast. Retrieved April 30, 2013.
- Briggs, Joe Bob: Profoundly Erotic: Sexy Movies that Changed History ISBN 0-7893-1314-6
- Glass, Loren. Counterculture Colophon: Grove Press, the Evergreen Review, and the Incorporation of the Avant-Garde. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2013.
- Review of Contemporary Fiction, Vol. X, no. 3, fall 1990 "Grove Press Issue"
- Barney Rosset: Rosset: My Life in Publishing and How I Fought Censorship. New York: OR Books, 2017.
- Michael Rosenthal: "Barney: Grove Press and Barney Rosset" New York: Arcade Publishing, 2017.
- Ken Jordan (Winter 1997). "Barney Rosset, The Art of Publishing No. 2". The Paris Review.
- Evergreen Review, the online home of Evergreen.
- Louisa Thomas, "The Most Dangerous Man in Publishing", Newsweek, December 15, 2008.
- "Obscene" at the Internet Movie Database
- Article about Barney Rosset in International Herald Tribune, September 2008.
- "Remembering Barney Rosset" by John Oakes, in Daily PEN American, February 27, 2012.
- Douglas Martin, "Barney Rosset Dies at 89; Defied Censors, Making Racy a Literary Staple", New York Times, February 22, 2012.
- Barney Rosset with Williams Cole, "In Conversation: A Life in Underground Letters", The Brooklyn Rail, March 2, 2012.