Barnumbirr is a creator-spirit in the Yolngu culture of Arnhem Land in Australia, who is identified as the planet Venus. She guided the first humans, the Djanggawul sisters, to Australia. The rising of Barnumbirr in the sky before sunrise marks an important ceremony of the Yolngu. As she approaches, in the early hours before dawn, the Yolngu say that she draws behind her a rope of light attached to the island of Baralku on Earth, and along this rope, with the aid of a richly decorated "Morning Star Pole", the people are able to communicate with their ancestors.
- Ronald M. Berndt (2004). Djanggawul: An Aboriginal Religious Cult of North-Eastern Arnhem Land. Routledge. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-415-33022-0.
- Ray & Cilla Norris (2009). Emu Dreaming: An Introduction to Aboriginal Astronomy. ISBN 978-0-9806570-0-5.
- Allen, Louis A. (1975). Time before morning. Cowell, NY.
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