Baron Calthorpe, of Calthorpe in the County of Norfolk, was a title in the Peerage of Great Britain. It was created in 1796 for Sir Henry Gough, 2nd Baronet, who had previously represented Bramber in Parliament. Born Henry Gough, he had assumed the additional surname of Calthorpe upon inheriting the Elvetham and Norfolk estates of his maternal uncle, Sir Henry Calthorpe, in 1788. The Baronetcy, of Edgbaston in the County of Warwick, had been created in the Baronetage of Great Britain on 6 April 1728 for Lord Calthorpe's father Henry Gough, who represented Totnes and Bramber in the House of Commons. He was the husband of Barbara, daughter of Reynolds Calthorpe. Three of Lord Calthorpe's sons, the second, third and fourth Barons, both succeeded in the titles. The latter sat as a Member of Parliament for Hindon and Bramber. In 1845 he assumed by Royal licence for himself the surname of Gough only. His eldest son, the fifth Baron, represented East Worcestershire in Parliament as a Liberal. The fifth Baron's younger brother, the seventh Baron (who succeeded his elder brother, the sixth Baron), was a Lieutenant-General in the Army. The latter's son, the eighth Baron, was succeeded by his grandson, the ninth Baron. The titles became extinct on the death of the ninth Baron's younger brother, the tenth Baron, in 1997.
The famous British architect Sir John Soane was the ancestor of the 8th, 9th and 10th barons.
Gough baronets, of Edgbaston (1728)
- Sir Henry Gough, 1st Baronet (died 1774)
- Sir Henry Gough, 2nd Baronet (1748–1798) (created Baron Calthorpe in 1796)
Barons Calthorpe (1796)
- Henry Gough-Calthorpe, 1st Baron Calthorpe (died 1798)
- Hon. Henry Gough-Calthorpe (1784–1790)
- Charles Gough-Calthorpe, 2nd Baron Calthorpe (1786–1807)
- George Gough-Calthorpe, 3rd Baron Calthorpe (1787–1851)
- Frederick Gough-Calthorpe, 4th Baron Calthorpe (1790–1868)
- Frederick Henry William Gough-Calthorpe, 5th Baron Calthorpe (1826–1893)
- Augustus Cholmondeley Gough-Calthorpe, 6th Baron Calthorpe (1829–1910)
- Hon. Walter Gough-Calthorpe (1873–1906)
- Somerset John Gough-Calthorpe, 7th Baron Calthorpe (1831–1912)
- Somerset Frederick Gough-Calthorpe, 8th Baron Calthorpe (1862–1940), Captain, married Effie Dunsmuir, daughter of Hon. Robert Dunsmuir, M.E.C., of Craigdarroch, Victoria, B.C., and his wife, Joanna, at St. George's, Hanover Square, London, England, in March, 1900.
- Ronald Arthur Somerset Gough-Calthorpe, 9th Baron Calthorpe (1924–1945), eldest son of The Honourable Frederick Gough-Calthorpe (d. 1935) and his wife Dorothy (d. 1985), née Vernon-Harcourt. The 9th Baron, having served in World War II, was killed in an aeroplane accident in October 1945, aged 21.
- Peter Waldo Somerset Gough-Calthorpe, 10th Baron Calthorpe (1927–1997), was educated at Stowe and succeeded his elder brother as the 10th and last Baron Calthorpe in 1945. He served as a Lieutenant in the Welsh Guards in Palestine and later became an airline pilot, serving as managing director of Mercury Airlines 1960-1965. He also wrote two novels under the pseudonym Peter Somerset in 1966-1967. He married firstly in 1956 (dissolved in 1971) Saranne Frances Alexander (d. 1984), of Dublin, and secondly in 1979 Elizabeth Young, of Guildford, Surrey, who survives him as the last Lady Calthorpe. Lord Calthorpe later resided on the Isle of Man.
- Morgan, Henry James Types of Canadian women and of women who are or have been connected with Canada : (Toronto, 1903)