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Baronia brevicornis.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Lepidoptera
Family: Papilionidae
Subfamily: Baroniinae
Bryk, 1913
Genus: Baronia
Salvin, 1893
Species: B. brevicornis
Binomial name
Baronia brevicornis
Salvin, 1893

Baronia brevicornis, commonly known as the short-horned baronia, is a species of butterfly in the family Papilionidae. It is monotypic within the genus Baronia.[2] It is endemic to a very small area of Mexico, where the distribution is patchy and restricted.[3][4]

The genus is named after a Mr Baron who collected the first specimen in the Sierra Madre region of Mexico. The species was then described by Salvin.[5]

Morphological characteristics include an abdominal scent organ in females.[6][7]

Baronia is unique among swallowtail butterflies in having an Acacia species, Acacia cochliacanha (family Leguminosae) as its larval food plant.[8][9]


Baronia brevicornis is of particular importance due to its relict nature and uncertain relationship to other subfamilies such as the Parnassiinae. It is now considered to represent the monotypic subfamily Baroniinae. The butterfly is considered as the most primitive extant papilionid taxon and shares some features with the fossil taxon Praepapilio.


  • B. b. brevicornis
  • B. b. rufodiscalis


  1. ^ M. Gimenez Dixon (1996). "Baronia brevicornis". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 1996: e.T2594A9460402. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.1996.RLTS.T2594A9460402.en. Retrieved 6 January 2018.
  2. ^ "BARONIA - Butterflies and Moths of the World". Retrieved 6 December 2016.
  3. ^ Luis-Martinez, A.; J. Llorente-Bousquets; Isable Vargas-Fernandez & A. D. Warren (2003). "Biodiversity and biogeography of Mexican butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea)" (PDF). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. 105 (1): 209–224. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 September 2009.
  4. ^ Llorente-Bousquets, J & A. Luis-Martinez (1993) Conservation-oriented analysis of Mexican butterflies: Papilionidae (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea). In Ramammorthy, T.P., J. Fa, R. Bye y A. Lot (Eds.). 1993. The biological diversity of Mexico: origins and distributions. Oxford University Press. PDF Archived 23 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  5. ^
  6. ^ Robbins, Robert K. (1989). "Systematic implications of butterfly leg structures that clean the antennae". Psyche. 96: 209–222. doi:10.1155/1989/43420.
  7. ^ Häuser, C. L. (1992). "A new abdominal scent organ in females of Baronia brevicornis (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae)". Zoologischer Anzeiger. 229 (1/2): 54–62.
  8. ^ Collins, N. Mark; Morris, Michael G. (1985). Threatened Swallowtail Butterflies of the World: The IUCN Red Data Book. Gland & Cambridge: IUCN. ISBN 978-2-88032-603-6 – via Biodiversity Heritage Library.
  9. ^ Savela, Markku (16 Feb 2008). "Baronia". Lepidoptera and some other life forms. Retrieved 9 November 2010.

Illustrated works:

  • Edwin Möhn, 2002 Schmetterlinge der Erde, Butterflies of the world Part XIIII (14), Papilionidae VIII: Baronia, Euryades, Protographium, Neographium, Eurytides. Edited by Erich Bauer and Thomas Frankenbach Keltern: Goecke & Evers; Canterbury: Hillside Books. ISBN 978-3-931374-87-7 All species and subspecies are included, also most of the forms. Several females are shown the first time in colour.
  • Lewis, H. L., 1974 Butterflies of the World ISBN 0-245-52097-X Page 23, figure 6, female.

External links[edit]