Barossa German (German: Barossadeutsch or Barossa-Deutsch) refers to a dialect of German, which was once common in South Australia. The prominent South Australian writer, Colin Thiele (1920–2006), whose grandparents were German immigrants, referred to "Barossa-Deutsch" as: "that quaintly inbred and hybrid language evolved from a century of linguistic isolation". It takes its name from the Barossa Valley, where many German people settled during the 19th century. Some words from Barossa German have entered South Australian English.
Use of the German language in Australia declined as a result of World War I. Many Germans were interned, and immigration by German people was officially banned between 1914 and 1925. In addition, the German language was actively suppressed by the Australian government during the war. For example, many placenames with German origins were changed. Lutheran schools were closed and were re-opened as state schools teaching in English.
There is some evidence that Barossa German was the first language of some people in South Australia until the late 20th century. For example, Colin Thiele claimed to have spoken nothing but German until he went to school.
Because most Germans immigrants to the Barossa were from Prussia and Silesia, Barossa German is classifiable as a Central German dialect – a sub-group of the High German (German: Hochdeutsch) dialects. It is therefore closer to Standard German, than analogous dialects spoken by German diaspora communities around the world, such as the Pennsylvania Dutch German-language dialect spoken in the United States.
The vocabulary of Barossa German includes some words from South Australian English, which is a local variant of Australian English.
Vocabulary and culture
The best-known examples of Barossa German vocabulary are words which have been adopted by South Australian English.
The Barossa is also home to kegel, a variety of nine-pin bowling, which takes place on indoor lanes (Kegelbahn), and is based on traditional German games similar to alley skittles. The Barossa town of Tanunda still features the Tanunda Kegel Club, founded in 1858.
Notes and references
- Atlas of South Australia | Barossa Valley
- Stephany Steggall, "Teller of tales that teach" (The Australian, 15 September 2006). Access date: 7 June 2007.
- ABC Radio National, "South Australian Words" (Lingua Franca, 28 February 2004). Access date: 7 June 2007.
- Dave Nutting, 2001, "Bethany — the first settlement in the Barossa Valley" German Australia (website). Access date: 9 June 2007.
- Steggall, Ibid.
- ABC Radio National, Lingua Franca, 28 February 2004, "South Australian Words"
- Skittles, Nine Pins - Online guide
- Peter Paul, 1965, Das Barossa Deutsche (MA thesis, University of Adelaide)
- Dorothy Jauncey, 2004, South Australian Words: From Bardi-Grubs to Frog Cakes, Oxford University Press. (ISBN 978-01-9551-770-5)
- Dave Nutting, 2001-2007, German Australia "German-speakers in Australia from 1788 to the Present" (English)
- Deutsche Version (German)
- ABC Radio National, "South Australian Words" (Lingua Franca, 28 February 2004).