Close central unrounded vowel

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For the use of /ɨ/ on Wikipedia, see Help:IPA for English.
Close central unrounded vowel
ɨ
ï
IPA number 317
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɨ
Unicode (hex) U+0268
X-SAMPA 1
Kirshenbaum i"
Braille ⠴ (braille pattern dots-356) ⠊ (braille pattern dots-24)
Sound

The close central unrounded vowel, or high central unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in some languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɨ, namely the lower-case letter i with a horizontal bar. Both the symbol and the sound are commonly referred to as barred i. In American tradition this symbol (and the name "barred i") denote a slightly different sound, that of the second syllable of roses when distinct from Rosa's;[1] see also near-close central unrounded vowel.

Features[edit]

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
aɶ
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
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Occurrence[edit]

/ɨ/ is uncommon as a phoneme in Indo-European languages, occurring most commonly as an allophone in some Slavic languages. However, it is very common as a separate phoneme in the indigenous languages of the Americas and is often in phonemic contrast with other close vowels such as /i/ and /u/ both in modern living languages as well as reconstructed proto-languages (such as Proto-Uto-Aztecan). Campbell, Kaufman & Smith-Stark (1986) identify the presence of this vowel phoneme as an areal feature of a Mesoamerican Sprachbund (although that is not a defining feature of the entire area).

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Acehnese tupeue [tupɨə] 'to know' Asyik[2] and Al-Ahmadi Al-Harbi[3] describe this sound as such while Durie[4] describes it as closer to [ɯ]
Angor hüfᵻ [xɨβə] 'hot'
Czech Some dialects był [bɨɫ] 'he was' Found in some eastern Moravian, Lach and Silesian dialects. See Czech phonology
Chinese Mandarin rì About this sound [ɻɨ̹˥˩] 'day' See Mandarin phonology
English Southeastern English[5] rude [ɹɨːd] 'rude' May be rounded [ʉː], or a diphthong [ʊʉ̯~əʉ̯] instead.
Guaraní yvy [ɨʋɨ] 'earth'
Hausa[6] [example needed] Allophone of /i/.[6]
Irish Munster[7] caora [kɨ̟ːɾˠə] 'sheep' Somewhat fronted;[7] allophone of /i/ between broad consonants.[7] See Irish phonology
Kaingang fy [ɸɨ] 'seed'
Kashinawa [example needed]
Kashmiri[8] teer [ˈt̪ɨːr] 'cold'
Latgalian[9] dyžan [ˈd̪ɨʒän̪] 'very much' See Latgalian phonology
Mongolian[10] хүчир [xutʃʰɨɾɘ̆] 'difficult'
Muisca Hycha[11] hycha [hɨʂa] 'I'
Romanian înot [ɨˈn̪o̞t̪] 'I swim' See Romanian phonology
Russian[12] ты About this sound [t̪ɨ] 'you' (singular) Occurs only after unpalatalized consonants. See Russian phonology
Sahaptin[13] [kʼsɨt] 'cold' Epenthetic. No lengthened equivalent
Sama Sibutu[14] [pɨˈnɨt̪] 'beard'
Sema[15] sü [ʃɨ̀] 'to hurt' Also described as near-close [ɨ̞].[16]
Shipibo[17] tenaitianronki [ˈt̪ɨnɐi̞ti̞ɐ̃ɽõ̞ɣi̞] [translation needed] Possible realization of /ɯ/ after coronal consonants.[17]
Sirionó[18] [eˈsɨ] 'dry wood'
Swedish bi [bɨː] 'bee' Found in dialects in Närke and Bohuslän and in sociolects in Stockholm and Gothenburg. See Swedish phonology
Tamil[19] ஆனால் [äːnäːlɨ] 'but' Epenthetic vowel inserted in colloquial speech after word-final liquids; can be rounded [ʉ] instead.[19] See Tamil phonology
Tera[20] zu [zɨ] 'said'
Udmurt[21] ургетэ, ыргетэ[22] [ɨrgete] 'it growls'
Uzbek qiz [qɨz] 'girl' Allophone of /i/.
Vietnamese trưa [ʈɨə˧] 'noon' See Vietnamese phonology
Võro sysar [sɨsarʲ] 'sister'
Welsh Northern dialects[23] llun [ɬɨːn] 'picture' See Welsh phonology
Zapotec Tilquiapan[24] nɨ [nɨ] 'be sour'

The sound of Polish 〈y〉 is often represented as /ɨ/, but actually it is a close-mid advanced central unrounded vowel, more narrowly transcribed [ɘ̟].[25] Similarly, European Portuguese unstressed 〈e〉, often represented as /ɨ/, is actually a near-close near-back unrounded vowel, more narrowly transcribed using ad hoc symbols such as [ɯ̽] (mid-centralized), [ɯ̟] (fronted) and [ʊ̜] (less rounded i.e. unrounded).[26]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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