May 28, 1917|
Brooklyn, New York, U.S.
|Died||September 30, 2012
Manhattan, New York, U.S.
|Spouse(s)||Gloria Gordon (divorced; 2 children)
Lisa Feiner (m. 1980)
|Awards||Newcomb Cleveland Prize (1953)|
Barry Commoner (May 28, 1917 – September 30, 2012) was an American biologist, college professor, and politician. He was a leading ecologist and among the founders of the modern environmental movement. He ran for president of the United States in the 1980 U.S. presidential election on the Citizens Party ticket. He served as editor of Science Illustrated magazine.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Career in academia
- 3 Influence
- 4 Political activism
- 5 Personal life
- 6 Death and legacy
- 7 Bibliography
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Commoner was born in Brooklyn, New York, on May 28, 1917, the son of Jewish immigrants from Russia. He received his bachelor's degree in zoology from Columbia University in 1937 and his master's and doctoral degrees from Harvard University in 1938 and 1941, respectively.
Career in academia
After serving as a lieutenant in the United States Navy during World War II, Commoner moved to St. Louis, Missouri, where he became a professor of plant physiology at Washington University. He taught there for 34 years and during this period, in 1966, he founded the Center for the Biology of Natural Systems to study "the science of the total environment".
In the late 1950s, Commoner became well known for his opposition to nuclear weapons testing, becoming part of the team which conducted the Baby Tooth Survey, demonstrating the presence of Strontium 90 in children's teeth as a direct result of nuclear fallout. In 1958, he helped found the Greater St. Louis Committee on Nuclear Information. Shortly thereafter, he established Nuclear Information, a mimeographed newsletter published in his office, which later went on to become Environment magazine. Commoner went on to write several books about the negative ecological effects of atmospheric (i.e., above-ground) nuclear testing. In 1970 he received the International Humanist Award from the International Humanist and Ethical Union.
The Closing Circle
In his 1971 bestselling book The Closing Circle, Commoner suggested that the American economy should be restructured to conform to the unbending laws of ecology. For example, he argued that polluting products (like detergents or synthetic textiles) should be replaced with natural products (like soap or cotton and wool). This book was one of the first to bring the idea of sustainability to a mass audience. Commoner suggested a left-wing, eco-socialist response to the limits to growth thesis, postulating that capitalist technologies were chiefly responsible for environmental degradation, as opposed to population pressures. He had a long-running debate with Paul R. Ehrlich, author of The Population Bomb and his followers, arguing that they were too focused on overpopulation as the source of environmental problems, and that their proposed solutions were politically unacceptable because of the coercion that they implied, and because the cost would fall disproportionately on the poor. He believed that technological, and above all social development would lead to a natural decrease in both population growth and environmental damage.
Four laws of ecology
- Everything is connected to everything else. There is one ecosphere for all living organisms and what affects one, affects all.
- Everything must go somewhere. There is no "waste" in nature and there is no "away" to which things can be thrown.
- Nature knows best. Humankind has fashioned technology to improve upon nature, but such change in a natural system is, says Commoner, "likely to be detrimental to that system"
- There is no such thing as a free lunch. Exploitation of nature will inevitably involve the conversion of resources from useful to useless forms.
Poverty and Population
Commoner examined the relationship between poverty and population growth, disagreeing with the way that relationship is often formulated. He argued that rapid population growth of the developing world is the result of its not having met adequate living standards, observing that it is poverty that “initiates the rise in population” before leveling off, not the other way around. Developing countries were introduced to these living standards, but were never able to fully adopt them, thus preventing these countries from advancing and thereby decreasing the rate of their their population growth.
Commoner's writing continues to attribute the fact that developing countries are still “forgotten” to colonialism. These developing countries were and economically remain “colonies of more developed countries”. Because Western nations introduced infrastructure developments such as roads, communications, engineering, and agricultural and medical services as a significant part of their exploitation of the developing nations' labor force and natural resources, the first step towards a “demographic transition” was met, but other stages were not achieved because the wealth created within these developing countries was “shipped out”, so to speak, to the colonizer nations, enabling the latter to achieve the more advanced "levels of demographic transition”, while the colonies continued on without achieving the second stage, which is population balancing.
“Thus colonialism involves a kind of demographic parasitism: the second population-balancing phase of the demographic transition in the advanced country is fed by suppression of that same phase in the colony”. “As the wealth of the exploited nations was diverted to the more powerful ones, their power, and with it their capacity to exploit increased. The gap between the wealth of nations grew, as the rich were fed by the poor”. This exploitation of resources taken from developing nations, regardless of whether it was legal, led to an unforeseen problem: rapid population growth. This can be seen in the analysis by Nathan Keyfitz, a demographer, that concluded, “the growth of industrial capitalism in the Western nations during the period 1800–1950 resulted in the development of a one-billion excess in the world population, largely in the tropics".
This can also be seen in the study of India and contraceptives, in which family planning failed to reduce the birth rate because people felt that “in order to advance their economic situation”, independent children were a necessity to gain better opportunities. The studies show that “population control in a country like India depends on the economically motivated desire to limit fertility”.
The solution presented in Commoner's argument is that wealthier nations need to help the exploited or colonized countries develop and “achieve the level of welfare” that developed nations have. This is the only solution to gaining a balanced population in these developing countries. Commoner states that the only remedy for the world population crisis, which is the outcome of the abuse of poor nations by rich ones, is “returning to the poor countries enough of the wealth taken from them to give their peoples both the reason and the resources voluntarily to limit their own fertility".
His conclusion is that poverty is the main cause of the population crisis. If the reason behind overpopulation in poor nations is the exploitation by rich nations made rich by that very exploitation, then the only way to end it is to “redistribute [the wealth], among nations and within them”.
The Poverty of Power
Commoner published another bestseller in 1976, The Poverty of Power. In that book, he addressed the "Three E's" that were plaguing the United States in the 1970s: "First there was the threat to environmental survival; then there was the apparent shortage of energy; and now there is the unexpected decline of the economy." He argued that the three issues were interconnected: the industries that used the most energy had the highest negative impact on the environment; the focus on non-renewable resources as sources of energy meant that those resources were growing scarce, thus pushing up the price of energy and hurting the economy. Towards the book's end, Commoner suggested that the problem of the Three E's is caused by the capitalistic system and can only be solved by replacing it with some sort of socialism.
Making Peace with the Planet
In 1990, Commoner published Making Peace With the Planet, an analysis of the ongoing environmental crisis in which he argues that the way we produce goods needs to be reconstrued.
Time magazine introduced a section on the environment in their February 1970 issue, featured articles on the "environmental crisis", and highlighted a quote from Richard Nixon's State of the Union address, when calling it, The great question of the '70s: Shall we surrender to our surroundings or shall we make our peace with nature and begin to make reparations for the damage we have done to our air, to our land and to our water?
The magazine called Commoner, the "Paul Revere of ecology" for his work on the threats to life from the environmental consequences of fallout from nuclear tests and other pollutants of the water, soil, and air. Thus, the cover can also be considered to be a "Call to Arms", to mobilize public opinion by appeals to conscience. The following month, the first Earth Day took place, which saw 20 million Americans demonstrating peacefully in favor of environmental reform, accompanied by several events held at university campuses across the United States. The publications of Commoner are also considered influential in the decision of the Nixon administration in the following June to announce the formation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Clean Air Act of 1970.
In 1980, Commoner founded the Citizens Party to serve as a vehicle for his ecological message, and he ran for President of the United States in the 1980 U.S. Election. His vice presidential running mate was La Donna Harris, the Native-American wife of Fred Harris, a former Democratic Senator from Oklahoma, although she was replaced on the ballot in Ohio by Wretha Hanson. His candidacy for President on the Citizens Party ticket won 233,052 votes (0.27% of the total).
After his unsuccessful bid, Commoner returned to New York City and moved the Center for the Biology of Natural Systems to Queens College. He stepped down from that post in 2000. At the time of his death, Commoner was a senior scientist at Queens College.
After serving in World War II, Commoner married the former Gloria Gordon, a St. Louis psychologist. They had two children, Frederic and Lucy Commoner, and one granddaughter. Following a divorce, in 1980 he married Lisa Feiner, whom he had met in the course of her work as a public-TV producer.
Death and legacy
He was a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and has a star on the St. Louis Walk of Fame.
- Science and Survival (1966), New York: Viking OCLC 225105 - on "the uses of science and technology in relation to environmental hazards"
- The Closing Circle: Nature, Man, and Technology (1971), New York: Knopf ISBN 978-0-394-42350-0.
- The Poverty of Power: Energy and the Economic Crisis (1976), New York: Random House ISBN 978-0-394-40371-7.
- The Politics of Energy (1979), New York: Knopf ISBN 978-0-394-50800-9.
- Making Peace With the Planet (1990), New York: Pantheon ISBN 978-0-394-56598-9.
- "Long-range Air Transport of Dioxin from North American Sources to Ecologically Vulnerable Receptors in Nunavut, Arctic Canada", (2000), Commoner, Barry, Bartlett, Paul Woods, Eisl, Holger, Couchot, Kim, Center for the Biology of Natural Systems, Queens College, City University of New York, published by North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation, Montréal, Québec, Canada, September.
- Vinciguerra, Thomas (June 19, 2007). "A Conversation with Barry Commoner: At 90, an Environmentalist From the '70s Still Has Hope". The New York Times. Retrieved October 2, 2012.
- "Barry Commoner, Environmental Scientist and Scholar, Dies at 95". The New York Times. October 1, 2012. Retrieved October 1, 2012.
Barry Commoner, a founder of modern ecology and one of its most provocative thinkers and mobilizers, died Sunday in Manhattan. He was 95 and lived in Brooklyn Heights.
- Rupert Cornwell (October 6, 2012). "Barry Commoner: Scientist who forced environmentalism into the world's consciousness". The Independent. Retrieved November 8, 2012.
- "Barry Commoner, C250: Columbia Celebrates Columbians Ahead of their Time.". Archived from the original on February 14, 2008. Retrieved February 20, 2008.
- McGowan, Alan H. (March–April 2013). "Remembering Barry Commoner". Environment 55 (2): 17. doi:10.1080/00139157.2013.765312.
- Krasner, William (March–April 2013). "Baby Tooth Survey: First Results". Environment 55 (2): 18–24. doi:10.1080/00139157.2013.765314. Reprinted from Nuclear Information 4 (1), 1961
- Gottlieb, Robert. 1993. Forcing the Spring. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, p.172. ISBN 1-55963-122-8
- Herrera, Philip (May 31, 1976). "Books: Learning the Three Es". Time. Retrieved October 2, 2012.
- Commoner, Barry (May 1972). "A Bulletin Dialogue: on "The Closing Circle" - Response". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists: 17–56.
Population control (as distinct from voluntary, self-initiated control of fertility), no matter how disguised, involves some measure of political repression, and would burden the poor nations with the social cost of a situation—overpopulation—which is the current outcome of their previous exploitation, as colonies, by the wealthy nations.
- Egan, Michael (2007). Barry Commoner and the Science of Survival: The Remaking of American Environmentalism. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT. pp. 126–127. ISBN 978-0-262-05086-9.
- Miller, Stephen (October 1, 2012). "Early Voice for Environment Warned About Radiation, Pollution". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 2, 2012.
In his 1971 best seller The Closing Circle, Mr. Commoner posited four laws of ecology: that everything is connected, that everything must go somewhere, 'Nature knows best,' and 'There is no such thing as a free lunch.'
- Commoner, Barry (August–September 1975). "How Poverty Breeds Overpopulation and Not the Other Way Around". Ramparts: 1–6.
- Barry Commoner, The Poverty of Power (1976), p. 1.
- Eldon H. Franz (2001). "Ecology, Values, and Policy". BioScience 51: 469–474. doi:10.1641/0006-3568(2001)051[0469:EVAP]2.0.CO;2.
- "Fighting to Save the Earth from Man". Time. February 2, 1970.
- "Environment: Paul Revere of Ecology". Time. February 2, 1970.
- [dead link]
- "Wood County, 1980-1989" (PDF). August 4, 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 25, 2003.
- 1980 Presidential General Election Results, US Elections Atlas
- "Barry Commoner Biography". The Gale Group, Inc. Retrieved October 1, 2012.
- Lewis, Daniel (October 1, 2012). "Barry Commoner, Environmental Scientist and Scholar, Dies at 95". The New York Times. Retrieved October 1, 2012.
- Dreier, Peter (October 1, 2012). "Barry Commoner, Pioneering Environmental Scientist and Activist, Dies at 95". Huffington Post. Retrieved October 1, 2012.
- St. Louis Walk of Fame. "St. Louis Walk of Fame Inductees". stlouiswalkoffame.org. Retrieved April 25, 2013.
- Contemporary Authors (2000). Detroit: Gale
- Who's Who in America (2004). Chicago: Marquis
- Egan, Michael (2007). Barry Commoner and the Science of Survival: The Remaking of American Environmentalism. Cambridge, MA: MIT. ISBN 978-0-262-05086-9.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Barry Commoner|
- Works by or about Barry Commoner in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- Key Participants: Barry Commoner - Linus Pauling and the International Peace Movement: A Documentary History
- "Barry Commoner - Environmentalist", Flickr.com - Photo and conversation, from the New York Times
- Scientific American: Interview with Barry Commoner (June 23, 1997)
- New York Times: Scientist, Candidate and Planet Earth’s Lifeguard (October 1, 2012)
- "A Barry Commoner Quotation". solarhousehistory.com.
|Party political offices|
|Citizens Party presidential candidate