Barry Lyndon

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Barry Lyndon
Barry Lyndon A.jpg
Theatrical release poster by Jouineau Bourduge
Directed byStanley Kubrick
Produced byStanley Kubrick
Screenplay byStanley Kubrick
Based onThe Luck of Barry Lyndon
by William Makepeace Thackeray
CinematographyJohn Alcott
Edited byTony Lawson
Hawk Films
Peregrine Productions
Distributed byWarner Bros.
Release date
  • 18 December 1975 (1975-12-18)
Running time
187 minutes[1]
CountryUnited Kingdom
United States
Budget$12 million[2]
Box office$20.2 million[3]

Barry Lyndon is a 1975 British-American period drama film by Stanley Kubrick, based on the 1844 novel The Luck of Barry Lyndon by William Makepeace Thackeray. It stars Ryan O'Neal, Marisa Berenson, Patrick Magee, Leonard Rossiter and Hardy Krüger. The film recounts the early exploits and later unraveling of a fictional 18th-century Irish rogue and opportunist who marries a rich widow to climb the social ladder and assume her late husband's aristocratic position. The wry and doleful unreliable narrator Michael Hordern occasionally voice-overs the story.

The film's cinematography has been described as ground-breaking. Especially notable are the long double shots, usually ended with a slow backwards zoom, the scenes shot entirely in candlelight, and the settings based on William Hogarth paintings. The exteriors were filmed on location in Ireland, England and Germany, with the interiors shot mainly in London. The production was troubled; there were logistical, political (Kubrick feared that he might be an IRA hostage target), and weather-related problems, while the relationship between Kubrick and O'Neal was especially fraught and difficult. O'Neal's performance and perceived lack of on-screen depth and ability to portray a character arc have been repeatedly criticised, even by those who consider the film as one of the director's major successes.

Barry Lyndon won four Oscars in production categories at the 1975 Academy Awards. Although some critics took issue with the film's glacial pace and restrained emotion, like many of Kubrick's works, its reputation has strengthened over time, with many now regarding it as one of his greatest achievements.


Act I[edit]

By What Means Redmond Barry Acquired the Style and Title of Barry Lyndon

An omniscient (though possibly unreliable)[4] narrator relates that in 1750s Ireland, the father of Redmond Barry is killed in a duel over a sale of some horses. The widow, disdaining offers of marriage, devotes herself to her only son.

Barry becomes infatuated with his older cousin, Nora Brady. Though she charms him during a card game, she later shows interest in a well-off British Army captain, John Quin, much to Barry's dismay. Nora and her family plan to leverage their finances through marriage, while Barry holds Quin in contempt and escalates the situation until duel when Barry shoots Quin. In the aftermath, he flees from the police towards Dublin, and is robbed by Captain Feeney, a highwayman.

Dejected, Barry joins the British Army. Some time after, he encounters Captain Grogan, a family friend. Grogan informs him that Barry did not in fact kill Quin, his dueling pistol having only been loaded with tow. The duel was staged by Nora's family to be rid of Barry so that their finances would be secured through a lucrative marriage.

His regiment is sent to Germany to fight in the Seven Years' War, where Grogan is fatally wounded by the French at the Battle of Minden. Fed up with the war, Barry deserts the army, stealing an officer courier's uniform, horse, and identification papers. En route to neutral Holland he encounters the Prussian Captain Potzdorf, who, seeing through his disguise, offers him the choice of being turned back over to the British where he will be shot as a deserter, or enlisting in the Prussian Army. Barry enlists in his second army and later receives a special commendation from Frederick the Great for saving Potzdorf's life in a battle.

Two years later, after the war ends in 1763, Barry is employed by Captain Potzdorf's uncle in the Prussian Ministry of Police to become the servant of the Chevalier de Balibari, an expatriate Irishman and professional gambler. The Prussians suspect he is a spy and send Barry as an undercover agent to verify this. Barry reveals himself to the Chevalier right away and they become confederates at the card table, where Barry and his fine eyesight relay information to his partner. After he and the Chevalier cheat the Prince of Tübingen at the card table, the Prince accuses the Chevalier (without proof) and refuses to pay his debt and demands satisfaction. When Barry relays this to his Prussian handlers, they (still suspecting that the Chevalier is a spy) are wary of allowing another meeting between the Chevalier and the Prince. So, the Prussians arrange for the Chevalier to be expelled from the country. Barry conveys this plan to the Chevalier, who flees in the night. The next morning, Barry, under disguise as the Chevalier, is escorted from Prussian territory by Prussian army officers.

Over the next few years, Barry and the Chevalier travel the spas and parlors of Europe, profiting from their gambling with Barry forcing payment from reluctant debtors with sword duels. Seeing that his life is going nowhere, Barry decides to marry into wealth. At a gambling table in Spa, he encounters the beautiful and wealthy Countess of Lyndon. He seduces and later marries her after the death of her elderly husband, Sir Charles Lyndon. Because Lyndon is frail, sickly, and old, Barry's goading and verbal repartee ultimately send him into a fit of convulsions that ends with his death. Barry's coup-de-grace is the assertion that "he who laughs last, wins".

Act II[edit]

Containing an Account of the Misfortunes and Disasters Which Befell Barry Lyndon
Barry's first meeting with Lady Lyndon

In 1773, Barry takes the Countess' last name in marriage and settles in England to enjoy her wealth, still with no money of his own. Lord Bullingdon, Lady Lyndon's ten-year-old son by Sir Charles, does not approve of the marriage and quickly comes to despise Barry, calling him a "common opportunist" who does not truly love his mother. Barry retaliates by subjecting Bullingdon to systematic physical abuse. The Countess bears Barry a son, Bryan Patrick, but the marriage is unhappy: Barry is openly unfaithful and enjoys spending his wife's money on self-indulgent luxuries, while keeping his wife in seclusion.

Some years later, Barry's mother comes to live with him at the Lyndon estate. She warns her son that if Lady Lyndon were to die, all her wealth would go to her first-born son Lord Bullingdon, leaving Barry and his son Bryan penniless. Barry's mother advises him to obtain a noble title to protect himself. To further this goal, he cultivates the acquaintance of the influential Lord Wendover and begins to expend even larger sums of money to ingratiate himself to high society. All this effort is wasted, however, during a birthday party for Lady Lyndon. A now young adult Lord Bullingdon crashes the event where he publicly enumerates the reasons that he detests his stepfather so dearly, declaring it his intent to leave the family estate for as long as Barry remains there and married to his mother. Barry assaults Bullingdon until he is pulled off by the guests. This loses Barry the wealthy and powerful friends he has worked to entreat and he is cast out of polite society. Nevertheless, Bullingdon makes good on his word by leaving the estate and England.

In contrast to his mistreatment of his stepson, Barry proves an overindulgent and doting father to Bryan, with whom he spends all his time after Bullingdon's departure. He cannot refuse his son anything, and succumbs to Bryan's insistence on receiving a full-grown horse for his ninth birthday. Defying his parents' direct instructions that he ride the horse only in the presence of his father, the spoiled Bryan is thrown from the horse, paralyzed, and dies a few days later from his injuries.

The grief-stricken Barry turns to alcohol, while Lady Lyndon seeks solace in religion, assisted by the Reverend Samuel Runt, who had been tutor first to Lord Bullingdon and then to Bryan. Left in charge of the families' affairs while Barry and Lady Lyndon grieve, Barry's mother dismisses the Reverend, both because the family no longer needs (nor can afford, due to Barry's spending debts) a tutor and for fear that his influence worsens Lady Lyndon's condition. Plunging even deeper into grief, Lady Lyndon later attempts suicide (though she ingests only enough poison to make herself ill). The Reverend and the family's accountant Graham then seek out Lord Bullingdon. Upon hearing of these events, Lord Bullingdon returns to England where he finds Barry drunk in a gentlemen's club, mourning the loss of his son rather than being with Lady Lyndon. Bullingdon demands satisfaction for Barry's public assault, challenging him to a duel.

The duel with pistols is held in a tithe barn.[5] A coin toss gives Bullingdon the right of first fire, but he nervously misfires his pistol as he prepares to shoot. Barry, reluctant to shoot Bullingdon, magnanimously fires into the ground, but the unmoved Bullingdon refuses to let the duel end, claiming he has not received "satisfaction". In the second round, Bullingdon shoots Barry in his left leg. At a nearby inn, a surgeon informs Barry that the leg will need to be amputated below the knee if he is to survive.

While Barry is recovering, Bullingdon re-takes control of the Lyndon estate. A few days later, Lord Bullingdon sends a very nervous Graham to the inn with a proposition: Lord Bullingdon will grant Barry an annuity of five hundred guineas a year on the condition that he leave England, with payments ending the moment should Barry ever return. Otherwise, with his credit and bank accounts exhausted, Barry's creditors and bill collectors will assuredly see that he is jailed. Defeated in mind and body, Barry accepts.

The narrator states that Barry went first back to Ireland with his mother, then once he was fully recovered, he traveled to the European continent to resume his former profession of gambler (though without his former success). Barry kept his word and never returned to England or ever saw Lady Lyndon again. The final scene (set in December 1789) shows a middle-aged Lady Lyndon signing Barry's annuity cheque as her son looks on.


It was in the reign of George III that the aforesaid personages lived and quarrelled; good or bad, handsome or ugly, rich or poor, they are all equal now.


Suits worn in Barry Lyndon
Suits worn in Barry Lyndon

Critic Tim Robey suggests that the film "makes you realise that the most undervalued aspect of Kubrick's genius could well be his way with actors."[6] He adds that the supporting cast is a "glittering procession of cameos, not from star names but from vital character players."[6]

The cast featured Leon Vitali as the older Lord Bullingdon, who would then become Kubrick's personal assistant, working as the casting director on his following films, and supervising film-to-video transfers for Kubrick. Their relationship lasted until Kubrick's death. The film's cinematographer, John Alcott, appears at the men's club in the non-speaking role of the man asleep in a chair near the title character when Lord Bullingdon challenges Barry to a duel. Kubrick's daughter Vivian also appears (in an uncredited role) as a guest at Bryan's birthday party.

Other Kubrick featured regulars were Leonard Rossiter (2001: A Space Odyssey), Steven Berkoff, Patrick Magee and Anthony Sharp (A Clockwork Orange). Philip Stone, who plays Graham, appeared in A Clockwork Orange and would go on to feature in The Shining.



After completing post production 2001: A Space Odyssey, Kubrick resumed planning a film about Napoleon. During pre-production, Sergei Bondarchuk and Dino De Laurentiis' Waterloo was released, and failed at the box office. Reconsidering, Kubrick's financiers pulled funding, and he turned his attention towards an adaptation of Anthony Burgess's 1962 novel A Clockwork Orange. Subsequently, Kubrick showed an interest in Thackeray's Vanity Fair but dropped the project when a serialised version for television was produced. He told an interviewer, "At one time, Vanity Fair interested me as a possible film but, in the end, I decided the story could not be successfully compressed into the relatively short time-span of a feature film ... as soon as I read Barry Lyndon I became very excited about it."[7]

Having earned Oscar nominations for Dr. Strangelove, 2001: A Space Odyssey and A Clockwork Orange, Kubrick's reputation in the early 1970s was that of "a perfectionist auteur who loomed larger over his movies than any concept or star."[6] His studio—Warner Bros.—was therefore "eager to bankroll" his next project, which Kubrick kept "shrouded in secrecy" from the press partly due to the furor surrounding the controversially violent A Clockwork Orange (particularly in the UK) and partly due to his "long-standing paranoia about the tabloid press."[6]

Having felt compelled to set aside his plans for a film about Napoleon Bonaparte, Kubrick set his sights on Thackeray's 1844 "satirical picaresque about the fortune-hunting of an Irish rogue," Barry Lyndon, the setting of which allowed Kubrick to take advantage of the copious period research he had done for the now-aborted Napoleon.[6] At the time, Kubrick merely announced that his next film would star Ryan O'Neal (deemed "a seemingly un-Kubricky choice of leading man"[6]) and Marisa Berenson, a former Vogue and Time magazine cover model, and be shot largely in Ireland.[6] So heightened was the secrecy surrounding the film that "Even Berenson, when Kubrick first approached her, was told only that it was to be an 18th-century costume piece [and] she was instructed to keep out of the sun in the months before production, to achieve the period-specific pallor he required."[6]

Principal photography[edit]

Principal photography took 300 days, from spring 1973 through early 1974, with a break for Christmas.[8] The crew arrived in Dublin, Ireland in May 1973. Jan Harlan recalls that Kubrick "loved his time in Ireland - he rented a lovely house west of Dublin, he loved the scenery and the culture and the people". [9]

Many of the exteriors were shot in Ireland, playing "itself, England, and Prussia during the Seven Years' War."[6] Drawing inspiration from "the landscapes of Watteau and Gainsborough," Kubrick and cinematographer Alcott also relied on the "scrupulously researched art direction" of Ken Adam and Roy Walker.[6] Alcott, Adam and Walker were among those who would win Oscars for their "amazing work" on the film.[6]

Several of the interior scenes were filmed in Powerscourt House, an 18th-century mansion in County Wicklow, Republic of Ireland. The house was destroyed in an accidental fire several months after filming (November 1974), so the film serves as a record of the lost interiors, particularly the "Saloon" which was used for more than one scene. The Wicklow Mountains are visible, for example, through the window of the saloon during a scene set in Berlin. Other locations included Kells Priory (the English Redcoat encampment)[10] Blenheim Palace, Castle Howard (exteriors of the Lyndon estate), Huntington Castle, Clonegal (exterior), Corsham Court (various interiors and the music room scene), Petworth House (chapel), Stourhead (lake and temple), Longleat, and Wilton House (interior and exterior) in England, Dunrobin Castle (exterior and garden as Spa) in Scotland, Dublin Castle in Ireland (the chevalier's home), Ludwigsburg Palace near Stuttgart and Frederick the Great's Neues Palais at Potsdam near Berlin (suggesting Berlin's main street Unter den Linden as construction in Potsdam had just begun in 1763). Some exterior shots were also filmed at Waterford Castle (now a luxury hotel and golf course) and Little Island, Waterford. Moorstown Castle in Tipperary also featured. Several scenes were filmed at Castletown House outside Carrick-on-Suir, Co. Tipperary, and at Youghal, Co. Cork.

The filming took place in the backdrop of some of the most intense years of the Troubles in Ireland, during which the Provisional Irish Republican Army (Provisional IRA) was waging an armed campaign in order to bring about a United Ireland.

On 30 January 1974 while filming in Dublin City's Phoenix Park shooting had to be canceled due to the chaos caused by 14 bomb threats.[11]

One day a phone call was received and Kubrick was given 24 hours to leave the country, he left within 12 hours. The phone call was alleged that Provisional IRA had him on a hit list and Harlan recalls "Whether the threat was a hoax or it was real, almost doesn't matter ... Stanley was not willing to take the risk. He was threatened, and he packed his bag and went home" [12][9]


Special ultra-fast lenses were used for Barry Lyndon to allow filming using only natural light.
Hogarth's Country Dance (c.1745) illustrates the type of interior scene that Kubrick sought to emulate with Barry Lyndon.

The film—as with "almost every Kubrick film"—is a "showcase for [a] major innovation in technique."[6] While 2001: A Space Odyssey had featured "revolutionary effects," and The Shining would later feature heavy use of the Steadicam, Barry Lyndon saw a considerable number of sequences shot "without recourse to electric light."[6] Cinematography was overseen by director of photography John Alcott (who won an Oscar for his work), and is particularly noted for the technical innovations that made some of its most spectacular images possible. To achieve photography without electric lighting "[f]or the many densely furnished interior scenes ... meant shooting by candlelight," which is known to be difficult in still photography, "let alone with moving images."[6]

Kubrick was "determined not to reproduce the set-bound, artificially lit look of other costume dramas from that time."[6] After "tinker[ing] with different combinations of lenses and film stock," the production obtained three super-fast 50mm lenses (Carl Zeiss Planar 50mm f/0.7) developed by Zeiss for use by NASA in the Apollo moon landings, which Kubrick had discovered.[6][13] These super-fast lenses "with their huge aperture (the film actually features the lowest f-stop in film history) and fixed focal length" were problematic to mount, and were extensively modified into three versions by Cinema Products Corp. for Kubrick so to gain a wider angle of view, with input from optics expert Richard Vetter of Todd-AO.[6][13] The rear element of the lens had to be 2.5 mm away from the film plane, requiring special modification to the rotating camera shutter.[14] This allowed Kubrick and Alcott to shoot scenes lit with actual candles to an average lighting volume of only three candela, "recreating the huddle and glow of a pre-electrical age."[6] In addition, Kubrick had the entire film push-developed by one stop.[13]

Although Kubrick's express desire was to avoid electric lighting where possible, most shots were achieved with conventional lenses and lighting, but were lit to deliberately mimic natural light rather than for compositional reasons. In addition to potentially seeming more realistic, these methods also gave a particular period look to the film which has often been likened to 18th-century paintings (which were, of course, depicting a world devoid of electric lighting), in particular owing "a lot to William Hogarth, with whom Thackeray had always been fascinated."[6]

The film is widely regarded as having a stately, static, painterly quality,[6] mostly due to its lengthy wide angle long shots. To illuminate the more notable interior scenes, artificial lights were placed outside and aimed through the windows, which were covered in a diffuse material to scatter the light evenly through the room rather than being placed inside for maximum use as most conventional films do. An example of this method occurs in the scene where Barry duels Lord Bullingdon. Though it appears to be lit entirely with natural light, one can see that the light coming in through the cross-shaped windows in the tithe barn appears blue in color, while the main lighting of the scene coming in from the side is not. This is because the light through the cross-shaped windows is daylight from the sun, which when recorded on the film stock used by Kubrick showed up as blue-tinted compared to the incandescent electric light coming in from the side.[citation needed]

Despite such slight tinting effects, this method of lighting not only gave the look of natural daylight coming in through the windows, but it also protected the historic locations from the damage caused by mounting the lights on walls or ceilings and the heat from the lights. This helped the film "fit ... perfectly with Kubrick's gilded-cage aesthetic – the film is consciously a museum piece, its characters pinned to the frame like butterflies."[6]


Barry Lyndon
Soundtrack album by various
ReleasedDecember 27, 1975 (1975-12-27)
Genreclassical, march, folk
LabelWarner Bros.
ProducerLeonard Rosenman

The film's period setting allowed Kubrick to indulge his penchant for classical music, and the film score uses pieces by Bach, Vivaldi, Paisiello, Mozart, and Schubert.[note 1] The piece most associated with the film, however, is the main title music, Handel's Sarabande from the Keyboard suite in D minor (HWV 437). Originally for solo harpsichord, the versions for the main and end titles are performed with orchestral strings, harpsichord, and timpani. The score also includes Irish folk music, including Seán Ó Riada's song Women of Ireland, arranged by Paddy Moloney and performed by The Chieftains. The British Grenadiers also features in scenes with Redcoats marching.

1."Sarabande–Main Title"George Frideric HandelNational Philharmonic Orchestra2:38
2."Women of Ireland"Peadar Ó Doirnín, Seán Ó RiadaThe Chieftains4:08
3."Piper's Maggot Jig"traditionalThe Chieftains1:39
4."The Sea-Maiden"traditionalThe Chieftains2:02
5."Tin Whistles"Ó RiadaPaddy Moloney & Seán Potts3:41
6."The British Grenadiers"traditionalFifes & Drums2:12
7."Hohenfriedberger March"Frederick the GreatFifes & Drums1:12
8."Lillibullero"traditionalFifes & Drums1:06
9."Women of Ireland"Ó RiadaDerek Bell0:52
10."March from Idomeneo"Wolfgang Amadeus MozartNational Philharmonic Orchestra1:29
11."Sarabande–Duel"HandelNational Philharmonic Orchestra3:11
12."Lillibullero"traditionalLeslie Pearson0:52
13."German Dance no. 1 in C major"Franz SchubertNational Philharmonic Orchestra2:12
14."Sarabande–Duel"HandelNational Philharmonic Orchestra0:48
15."Film Adaptation of the Cavatina from Il barbiere di Siviglia"Giovanni PaisielloNational Philharmonic Orchestra4:28
16."Cello Concerto in E minor"Antonio VivaldiLucerne Festival Strings/Pierre Fournier/Rudolf Baumgartner3:49
17."Adagio from Concerto for two harpsichords in C minor"Johann Sebastian BachMünchener Bach-Orchester/Hedwig Bilgram/Karl Richter5:10
18."Film Adaptation of Piano Trio in E-flat, Op. 100 (second movement)"SchubertMoray Welsh/Anthony Goldstone/Ralph Holmes4:12
19."Sarabande–End Title"HandelNational Philharmonic Orchestra4:07
Total length:49:48


Box Office[edit]

The film "was not the commercial success Warner Bros. had been hoping for" within the United States,[6] although it fared better in Europe. In the US it earned $9.1 million.[2]

This mixed reaction saw the film (in the words of one retrospective review) "greeted, on its release, with dutiful admiration – but not love. Critics ... rail[ed] against the perceived coldness of Kubrick's style, the film's self-conscious artistry and slow pace. Audiences, on the whole, rather agreed ..."[6] This "air of disappointment"[6] factored into Kubrick's decision for his next film – Stephen King's The Shining – a project that would not only please him artistically, but also be more likely to succeed financially. Still, several other critics, including Gene Siskel, praised the film's technical quality and strong narrative, and Siskel himself counted it as one of the five best films of the year.


In recent years, the film has gained a more positive reaction. As of April 2018 it holds a 94% "Certified Fresh" rating on Rotten Tomatoes based on 64 reviews, nine of which are from the site's "top critics."[15] Roger Ebert added the film to his 'Great Movies' list on 9 September 2009, writing, "It defies us to care, it asks us to remain only observers of its stately elegance", and it "must be one of the most beautiful films ever made."[16]

Director Martin Scorsese has named Barry Lyndon as his favorite Kubrick film,[17] and it is also one of Lars von Trier's favorite films.[18] Quotations from its script have also appeared in such disparate works as Ridley Scott's The Duellists, Scorsese's The Age of Innocence, and Wes Anderson's Rushmore.[citation needed]


Award Category Recipient Result
Academy Awards[19][6] Best Picture Stanley Kubrick Nominated
Best Director Nominated
Best Adapted Screenplay Nominated
Best Production Design Ken Adam, Roy Walker and Vernon Dixon Won
Best Costume Design Milena Canonero and Ulla-Britt Söderlund Won
Best Cinematography John Alcott Won
Best Original Score Leonard Rosenman Won
British Academy Film Awards Best Film Nominated
Best Director Stanley Kubrick Won
Best Production Design Ken Adam Nominated
Best Costume Design Milena Canonero and Ulla-Britt Söderlund Nominated
Best Cinematography John Alcott Won
Golden Globe Awards Best Motion Picture – Drama Nominated
Best Director Stanley Kubrick Nominated

Source novel[edit]

Kubrick based his adapted screenplay on William Makepeace Thackeray's The Luck of Barry Lyndon (republished as the novel Memoirs of Barry Lyndon, Esq.), a picaresque tale written and published in serial form in 1844.

The film departs from the novel in several ways. In Thackeray's writings, events are related in the first person by Barry himself. A comic tone pervades the work, as Barry proves both a raconteur and an unreliable narrator. Kubrick's film, by contrast, presents the story objectively. Though the film contains voice-over (by actor Michael Hordern), the comments expressed are not Barry's, but those of an omniscient narrator. Kubrick felt that using a first-person narrative would not be useful in a film adaptation:[20]

I believe Thackeray used Redmond Barry to tell his own story in a deliberately distorted way because it made it more interesting. Instead of the omniscient author, Thackeray used the imperfect observer, or perhaps it would be more accurate to say the dishonest observer, thus allowing the reader to judge for himself, with little difficulty, the probable truth in Redmond Barry's view of his life. This technique worked extremely well in the novel but, of course, in a film you have objective reality in front of you all of the time, so the effect of Thackeray's first-person story-teller could not be repeated on the screen. It might have worked as comedy by the juxtaposition of Barry's version of the truth with the reality on the screen, but I don't think that Barry Lyndon should have been done as a comedy.

Kubrick made several changes to the plot, including the addition of the final duel.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ The soundtrack album attributes the composition of the Hohenfriedberger March to Frederick the Great; the origin of this attribution is uncertain


  1. ^ "Barry Lyndon (A)". British Board of Film Classification. 26 November 1975. Retrieved 21 November 2014.
  2. ^ a b SECOND ANNUAL GROSSES GLOSS Byron, Stuart. Film Comment; New York Vol. 13, Iss. 2, (Mar/Apr 1977): 35-37,64.
  3. ^ "Barry Lyndon, Box Office Information". The Numbers. Retrieved 22 January 2012.
  4. ^ Miller, Mark Crispin (1976). "Barry Lyndon Reconsidered". The Georgia Review. XXX (4).
  5. ^ Ciment, Michel; Adair, Gilbert; Bononno, Robert (2003-09-01). Kubrick: The Definitive Edition. Macmillan. p. 175. ISBN 9780571211081. Retrieved 2015-04-19.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y Robey, Tim, "Kubrick's Neglected Masterpiece", in Telegraph Review (31 January 2009), pp. 16–17
  7. ^ Ciment, Michel. "Kubrick on Barry Lyndon". Archived from the original on 5 May 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-31.
  8. ^ Pramaggiore, Maria (2014-12-18). Making Time in Stanley Kubrick's Barry Lyndon: Art, History, and Empire. Bloomsbury Academic. ISBN 9781441167750.
  9. ^ a b
  10. ^ "Barry Lyndon film locations".
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^ a b c Two Special Lenses for "Barry Lyndon", by Ed DiGiulio (President, Cinema Products Corp.), American Cinematographer
  14. ^ Ciment, Michel. "Three Interviews with Stanley Kubrick". The Kubrick Site.
  15. ^ "Barry Lyndon (1975)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved June 7, 2018.
  16. ^ "Barry Lyndon (1975)". Retrieved 2010-09-25.
  17. ^ Ciment, Michel; Adair, Gilbert; Bononno, Robert (2003-09-01). Kubrick: The Definitive Edition. Macmillan. p. vii. ISBN 9780571211081. Retrieved 2015-04-19. I'm not sure if I can have a favorite Kubrick picture, but somehow I keep coming back to Barry Lyndon.
  18. ^ "'It was like a nursery - but 20 times worse'". The Guardian. 2004-01-11. Retrieved 2017-03-29.
  19. ^ "Barry Lyndon Awards". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-12-29.
  20. ^ "Visual memory" (interview). UK. Archived from the original on 10 February 2010. Retrieved 2010-03-07.

External links[edit]