Basal forebrain

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Basal forebrain
Basal Forebrain Monakhos 2007.png
The Basal Forebrain
Latin pars basalis telencephali
MeSH D066187
NeuroNames 1997
NeuroLex ID birnlex_1560
TA A14.1.09.401
FMA 77700
Anatomical terms of neuroanatomy

The basal forebrain structures are located to the front of and below the striatum. They include the nucleus accumbens, nucleus basalis, diagonal band of Broca, substantia innominata, and the medial septal nucleus. These structures are important in the production of acetylcholine, which is then distributed widely throughout the brain. The basal forebrain is considered to be the major cholinergic output of the central nervous system (CNS).


Acetylcholine is known to promote wakefulness in the basal forebrain. Stimulating the basal forebrain gives rise to acetylcholine release, which induces wakefulness and REM sleep, whereas inhibition of acetylcholine release in the basal forebrain by adenosine causes slow wave sleep.

Adenosine acts on A1 receptors of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain. This results in hyperpolarization of cholinergic neurons, which inhibits the release of acetylcholine.

Nitric oxide production in the basal forebrain is both necessary and sufficient to produce sleep.[1]

Clinical significance[edit]

Acetylcholine affects the ability of brain cells to transmit information to one another, and also encourages neuronal plasticity, or learning. Thus, damage to the basal forebrain can reduce the amount of acetylcholine in the brain and impair learning. This may be one reason why basal forebrain damage can result in memory impairments such as amnesia and confabulation. One common cause of basal forebrain damage is an aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery.[2]