Basaloid large cell carcinoma of the lung

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Basaloid large cell carcinoma of the lung, also known as "basaloid large cell lung cancer" (Bas-LCLC), is a rare histological variant of lung cancer featuring certain distinctive cytological, tissue architectural, and immunohistochemical characteristics and clinical behavior.[1]


Basaloid forms of lung carcinoma were first described in the peer-reviewed medical literature by Dr. Elisabeth Brambilla and her colleagues in 1992.[2] They were first recognized as distinct clinicopathological variants of both squamous cell and large cell lung cancers in 1999, within the third revision of the World Health Organization lung tumor typing and classification scheme.[3]


Lung cancer is a large and exceptionally heterogeneous family of malignancies.[4] Over 50 different histological variants are explicitly recognized within the 2004 revision of the World Health Organization (WHO) typing system ("WHO-2004"), currently the most widely used lung cancer classification scheme.[1]

Many recognized lung cancer variants are rare, recently described, and poorly understood.[3] However, since different forms of malignant tumors generally exhibit diverse genetic, biological, and clinical properties, including response to treatment, accurate classification of lung cancer cases are critical to ensuring that patients with lung cancer receive optimum management.[5][6]


Basaloid carcinomas of the lung (like nearly all other recognized subtypes of lung cancer) are highly associated with tobacco smoking.[7] Basaloid architecture in pulmonary carcinomas have been shown to be particularly prevalent in smokers with heavy exposure,[7]


Like other forms of lung cancer, Bas-SqCC is ultimately diagnosed after a pathologist examines a tumor sample containing viable malignant cells and tissue under a light microscope and identifies certain particular characteristics.


Staging of Bas-LCLC patients is usually performed in an analogous fashion to patients with other non-small cell lung carcinoma.[8]


Because of its rarity, there have been no clinical trials conducted on pure Bas-LCLC.[9]

Generally, variants of the 4 major lung cancer subtypes (squamous cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, large cell carcinoma) are treated according to protocols designed for the major subtype.[9]


Bas-LCLC are considered to have a particularly poor prognosis, even compared to other forms of lung cancer.[7] However, not all studies have confirmed this.[10]


  1. ^ a b Travis, William D; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Muller-Hermelink, H Konrad; Harris, Curtis C, eds. (2004). Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of the Lung, Pleura, Thymus and Heart (PDF). World Health Organization Classification of Tumours. Lyon: IARC Press. ISBN 92-832-2418-3. Retrieved 27 March 2010. 
  2. ^ Brambilla E, Moro D, Veale D et al. (September 1992). "Basal cell (basaloid) carcinoma of the lung: a new morphologic and phenotypic entity with separate prognostic significance". Hum. Pathol. 23 (9): 993–1003. doi:10.1016/0046-8177(92)90260-A. PMID 1381335. 
  3. ^ a b Brambilla E, Travis WD, Colby TV, Corrin B, Shimosato Y (December 2001). "The new World Health Organization classification of lung tumours". Eur. Respir. J. 18 (6): 1059–68. doi:10.1183/09031936.01.00275301. PMID 11829087. 
  4. ^ Roggli VL, Vollmer RT, Greenberg SD, McGavran MH, Spjut HJ, Yesner R (June 1985). "Lung cancer heterogeneity: a blinded and randomized study of 100 consecutive cases". Hum. Pathol. 16 (6): 569–79. doi:10.1016/S0046-8177(85)80106-4. PMID 2987102. 
  5. ^ Rossi G, Marchioni A, Sartori1 G, Longo L, Piccinini S, Cavazza A (2007). "Histotype in non-small cell lung cancer therapy and staging: The emerging role of an old and underrated factor". Curr Resp Med Rev 3: 69–77. doi:10.2174/157339807779941820. 
  6. ^ Vincent MD (August 2009). "Optimizing the management of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a personal view". Curr Oncol 16 (4): 9–21. doi:10.3747/co.v16i4.465. PMC 2722061. PMID 19672420. 
  7. ^ a b c Moro-Sibilot D, Lantuejoul S, Diab S et al. (April 2008). "Lung carcinomas with a basaloid pattern: a study of 90 cases focusing on their poor prognosis". Eur. Respir. J. 31 (4): 854–9. doi:10.1183/09031936.00058507. PMID 18094005. 
  8. ^ Travis WD (January 2009). "Reporting lung cancer pathology specimens. Impact of the anticipated 7th Edition TNM classification based on recommendations of the IASLC Staging Committee". Histopathology 54 (1): 3–11. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2559.2008.03179.x. PMID 19187176. 
  9. ^ a b
  10. ^ Kim DJ, Kim KD, Shin DH, Ro JY, Chung KY (December 2003). "Basaloid carcinoma of the lung: a really dismal histologic variant?". Ann. Thorac. Surg. 76 (6): 1833–7. doi:10.1016/S0003-4975(03)01296-7. PMID 14667594. 

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