Basdeo Panday

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Basdeo Pandey)
Jump to: navigation, search
The Right Honourable
Basdeo Panday
PBS SC MP
Basdeo Panday.jpg
Sampson Nanton interviews Prime Minister of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago Basdeo Panday in 1997.
5th Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago
In office
9 November 1995 – 24 December 2001
President Noor Mohamed Hassanali
A. N. R. Robinson
Preceded by Patrick Manning
Succeeded by Patrick Manning
Leader of United National Congress
In office
10 September 2006 – 24 January 2010
Preceded by Winston Dookeran
Succeeded by Kamla Persad-Bissessar
In office
16 October 1988 – 2 October 2005
Preceded by Inaugural holder
Succeeded by Winston Dookeran
Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
12 January 1987 – 8 February 1988
Preceded by Errol Mahabir
Succeeded by Sahadeo Basdeo
Leader of the Opposition
In office
17 December 2007 – 24 February 2010
Preceded by Kamla Persad-Bissessar
Succeeded by Kamla Persad-Bissessar
In office
17 October 2002 – 23 April 2006
Preceded by Patrick Manning
Succeeded by Kamla Persad-Bissessar
In office
10 September 1990 – 8 November 1995
Preceded by Patrick Manning
Succeeded by Patrick Manning
In office
1976 – 29 October 1986
Preceded by Raffique Shah
Succeeded by Patrick Manning
Minister of National Security
In office
25 January 2001 – 24 December 2001
Member of Parliament
for Couva North
In office
25 February 2010 – 8 April 2010
In office
5 April 2002 – 28 August 2002
In office
24 September 1976 – 18 September 1981
In office
9 February 1988 – 9 September 1990
Personal details
Born (1933-05-25) 25 May 1933 (age 84)
St. Julien Village, Princes Town, Trinidad and Tobago
Political party United National Congress (1989-present)
Other political
affiliations
Workers and Farmers Party
United Labour Front
National Alliance for Reconstruction
Spouse(s) Norma Mohammed (died 1981)
Oma Ramkisson
Children Mickela Panday
Nicola Panday
Vastala Panday
Niala Panday
Relatives Rabindranath Panday (brother)
Subhas Panday (brother)
Leela Panday (sister)
Residence San Fernando, Trinidad and Tobago
Education University of London
Occupation Lawyer
Politician
Trade unionist

Basdeo Panday PBS SC MP (born 25 May 1933) is a Trinidad and Tobago politician, lawyer and trade unionist who served as Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago from 1995 to 2001. First elected to Parliament in 1976 as the Member for Couva North, Panday served as Leader of the Opposition five times between 1976 and 2010 and was a founding member of the United Labour Front (ULF), the National Alliance for Reconstruction (NAR), and the United National Congress (UNC). He served as leader of the ULF and UNC, and was President General of the All Trinidad Sugar and General Workers' Trade Union.

He is the former Chairman and party leader of the United National Congress. In 2006, Panday was convicted of failing to declare a bank account in London and imprisoned; however, on March 20, 2007, that conviction was quashed by the Court of Appeal. On May 1 he decided to resign as Chairman of the United National Congress, but the party's executive refused to accept his resignation. He lost the party's internal elections on January 24, 2010 to Deputy Leader and now former Prime Minister Kamla Persad-Bissessar.

In 2006, he was awarded the Pravasi Bharatiya Samman by the Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs.

Early life[edit]

Panday was born in St. Julien Village, Princes Town, Trinidad and Tobago.[1][2] His grandparents were from British India, and came under the Indian indenture system.[3][4] He attended university in London, obtaining degrees in law, economics, and drama.[1] He also appeared in several acting roles, including Nine Hours to Rama (1963), Man in the Middle (1964), and The Brigand of Kandahar (1965).[5] He returned to Trinidad in 1965.[6]

Political career[edit]

Early years[edit]

Panday's political career began in 1966, when he joined the Workers' and Farmers' Party and made an unsuccessful run for Parliament.[1][6] In 1972, he was appointed as an opposition senator.[6] The following year he was recruited to the All Trinidad Sugar and General Workers' Trade Union (then the All Trinidad Sugar Estates and Factory Workers Union). He staged an internal coup, becoming the union's President General.[7]

On February 8, 1975, amidst the backdrop of labour struggles, Panday met with fellow union leaders George Weekes and Raffique Shah. Together, they founded the United Labour Front.[8] All three were arrested on March 18 during an attempted march from San Fernando to Port-of-Spain, but were found not guilty on April 22 "on the charge of leading a public march without permission".[9]

Panday won the Couva North seat in the 1976 general election, becoming an MP and official opposition leader.[6][10] The next year the party split into two factions and Panday was ousted as party leader in favour of Shah.[8][7] He was reinstated in 1978 after Winston Nanan, who previously supported Shah, defected to Panday and Shah resigned.[8][11]

Following a poor performance in the 1980 local elections, Panday co-founded the Trinidad and Tobago National Alliance with A. N. R. Robinson of the Democratic Action Congress and Lloyd Best of the Tapia House Group.[12][7] He retained his seat in the 1981 general election.[13]

In 1984 the National Alliance became the National Alliance for Reconstruction (NAR) and in 1985 merged with the Organisation for National Reconstruction.[14] They won a decisive victory in 1986.[15][16] Panday was named Minister of External Affairs and International Trade.[1] The party soon fractured along racial lines; Panday accused Robinson and the government of discrimination against Indians and autocratic rule. Robinson reshuffled his cabinet in response, and Panday found himself with reduced ministerial responsibilities. The infighting continued, culminating with Panday, Kelvin Ramnath, and Trevor Sudama being expelled from the party on February 8, 1988.[6][17][18]

UNC, Prime Ministership, and electoral crises[edit]

Panday and the other expelled ministers founded the Caucus for Love, Unity and Brotherhood (CLUB '88), which he revealed in October would become the United National Congress (UNC) on April 30,1989.[14][18][19] Economic decline, austerity, and racial tensions led to the NAR being swept out of power in the 1991 general election and the UNC, lead by Panday, becoming official opposition.[17][20]

The 1995 general election was a defining moment in Panday's career. The ruling PNM party called an early vote, expecting a victory. However, the election ended with the PNM and UNC holding 17 seats each, and the NAR holding 2. The UNC and NAR entered a coalition, thereby bringing the UNC into power and making Panday the first Indo-Trinidadian Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago.[21][22]

Panday once again led the UNC to victory in the 2000 election, being sworn in as Prime Minister for a second time.[23] In 2001, UNC MPs Ramesh Maharaj, Trevor Sudama, and Ralph Maraj alleged government corruption, pressuring Panday to appoint a Commission of Inquiry; Panday responded by firing Maharaj. Sudama and Maraj then resigned, leaving the UNC with a minority. Panday was thus forced to call a new election. The 2001 general election resulted in an unprecedented 18-18 tie between the UNC and PNM, sparking a constitutional crisis over who should form government.[24][25][26][11][27] Both parties agreed to abide by the decision of the president, A.N.R. Robinson, as to who would lead the government, as well as to form a unity government.[citation needed] However, Panday reneged on the agreement[citation needed] when Robinson appointed PNM leader Patrick Manning, finding his explanation for doing so (Manning's "moral and spiritual values")[28] unsatisfactory. Panday also argued that Robinson did not act in accordance with the constitution by choosing Manning, as he did not hold the majority in parliament.[24][29] He refused to accept the position of Leader of the Opposition in protest.[21]

Parliament was dissolved and new elections were called in 2002 after it was unable to elect a Speaker.[27] This time the PNM were brought back into power with the UNC playing opposition.[30] Panday's third term as Leader of the Opposition would last until 2006, when he was convicted of failing to declare a bank account in London.[31]

UNC leadership and power struggles[edit]

Basdeo Panday and the Ambassador of Finland

In September 2005, during the UNC internal elections, Panday nominated Winston Dookeran as his successor as party leader. He himself retained the position of Chairman.[32] The following month, Jack Warner called for Panday to hand over the position of Leader of the Opposition to Dookeran as well.[33][34] Panday failed to do so, and with the Opposition MPs split 8-8 on the issue, Panday remained as the leader of the Opposition[citation needed].

In October Panday also invited Ramesh Maharaj back into the UNC.[33] In February 2006, Panday fired senator Robin Montano, who opposed Maharaj's return to the party[35]. Three days later senator Roy Augustus resigned.[33] He replaced Montano with Tim Gopeesingh, and Augustus with former Olympic athlete Ato Boldon.[36][37]

Following his 2006 conviction, Panday's position as Leader of the Opposition was revoked. He was replaced by Kamla Persad-Bissessar.[33] On January 3, 2007, Panday was reinstated as leader of the UNC.[38]

Since early 2009 Basdeo Panday was challenged for the leadership of the party by a small coalition of Opposition MPs led by the party's deputy political leader, Warner and Maharaj.[39]

End of political career[edit]

On January 24, 2010, Panday lost his bid to be elected Political Leader of the UNC once again. He suffered a defeat at the hands of new Political Leader Kamla Persad-Bissessar. He did not contest the post of chairman hence he no longer sits on the executive of the United National Congress. On 25 February 2010 President George Maxwell Richards revoked the appointment of Panday as Leader of the Opposition and replaced him with Persad-Bissessar after the majority of Opposition MPs indicated their support for her. Panday did not participate in the general elections held on May 24, 2010 and hence his term as a Member of Parliament ended.

Panday serves as the Chief Administrator of the Basdeo Panday Foundation, a charitable organization which is situated in the Reinzi Complex in the town of Couva.

Legal problems[edit]

Charges under Integrity in Public Life Act[edit]

Secret investigations into Panday began after the 2001 election, when the Central Authority and the Anti Corruption Bureau was set up by the PNM. On September 18, 2002, Panday was charged under section 27(1)(b) of the Integrity in Public Life Act No. 8 of 1987 for failing to declare the contents of a bank account in London for the years 1997, 1998 and 1999. During the investigation, he had first stated that the funds in the account were for his children's education and that his name was added to the account to prevent problems should something happen to his wife. He did not consider the funds his own, and thus did not declare them. However, after receiving further information from the bank, he stated that the account had been opened jointly with his wife to deposit money for his open heart surgery. After his wife transferred the account to another branch she maintained and administered it, and his name remained on it out of convenience.[40][41]

On April 24, 2006, Panday was found guilty on all three counts and sentenced to two years with hard labour and a TT$ 20,000 fine. He was also denied bail, and ordered to pay the sum in the account "for each year he was charged for not making the declaration".[42] He appealed the decision, and on March 20, 2007, the Court of Appeal overturned the conviction against Panday, based on the possibility that he may not have received a fair trial.[43] A new trial under a different magistrate was ordered.[44]

The three Court of Appeal judges agreed that there was, in fact, a real possibility of bias by the Chief Magistrate in his ruling.[45] Information that surfaced later on, linked Chief Magistrate McNicolls to a multimillion-dollar land deal and a company associated with one of the main witnesses in the Basdeo Panday trial.[46] This information, along with the fact that Chief Magistrate McNicolls refused to give evidence for the criminal prosecution of the Chief Justice, which caused that prosecution to fail, were the main arguments used by Panday's lawyers in his Appeal Court hearing.

On June 26, 2012, Panday was finally acquitted of all charges. The magistrate stated that he had not been given due process.[47] However, in September 2002, the Director of Public Prosecutions (DPP) was given leave to challenge the decision.[48] On October 7, 2014, the DPP withdrew the application to review the decision. The presiding Justice stated that Panday would "face hardships and prejudice" if prosecution continued.[49]

Corruption charges[edit]

On May 31, 2005, Panday, his wife, Oma, former UNC MP Carlos John, and businessman Ishwar Galbaransingh (chairman of Northern Construction Limited) were arrested on corruption charges. The State alleged that the Pandays had received TT$250,000 on December 30, 1998 from John and Galbaransingh in exchange for giving Northern Construction a construction contract for the Piarco Airport Development Project (PADP).[50]

Panday, Oma Panday and John were placed on TT$750,000 bail, while Galbaransingh's bail was placed at TT$1,000,000. Panday refused bail and chose to remain in prison.[50] This was called a punitive bail both by supporters of the UNC and by former Attorney General Ramesh Maharaj, a sometimes political opponent of Panday.[citation needed] On June 7, 2005, bail was reduced to TT$650,000. A day later, Panday accepted bail after being jailed for over a week.

Impact on Trinidadian culture and media[edit]

Impact of election[edit]

The election of the first Indo-Trinidadian prime minister was seen as the moment in which Indians "arrived" in Trinidad[51][52]. Panday took the opportunity to correct perceived wrongs against the Indian community.[52]

Religion and music[edit]

Shortly after beginning his first term as Prime Minister, Panday granted the Shouter Baptists a national holiday.[53] His political sponsorship contributed to the legitimization of the religion in the public's eye.[54] He also decreed that Indian Arrival Day would forever be named as such, rather than simply "Arrival Day" after 1996.[55]

Panday was the subject of several critical calypsos during his first year office, such has Cro Cro's Allyuh Look for Dat and Watchman's Mr. Panday Needs His Glasses[56][57]. Panday struck back in 1997 by warning of guidelines for state-sponsored competitions to prevent "taxpayers money ...[being] used to divide the society whether it be on racial or any other grounds"[58]

Language[edit]

Panday is widely associated with the word "neemakharam" (ingrate)[59][60], and has popularized the term outside of the Indo-Trinidadian community.[61] He has used the word to describe his political opponents, including Winston Dookeran, Trevor Sudama, Ramesh Maharaj, and other UNC members.[62][63]

Relationship with the press[edit]

Panday feuded with the media several times during his political career. In 1996 the Trinidad Guardian ran a front page featuring a photo of him with a drink and the headline "Chutney Rising"[64]. An incensed Panday ordered a boycott of the paper, refusing to allow their reporters access to government information. He accused editor-in-chief Jones P. Madiera of being a racist and called on his resignation. Ultimately, managing editor Alwin Chow, Madiera, and several other staff members left the Guardian and went on to form a new newspaper, The Independent.[65][66].

Panday reiterated his dissatisfaction with the press with his refusal to sign the Declaration of Chapultepec, a 1994 document affirming freedom of the press. In 1998 he stated he would not endorse the declaration "until it repudiated the “untrammelled right of the press to publish anything it wants”".[67]

Personal life[edit]

Basdeo Panday is married to Oma Panday (née Ramkissoon). He has four daughters: Niala, Mickela, Nicola, and Vastala. Niala was born to his first wife Norma Panday (née Mohammed), who died in 1981.[68]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Basdeo Panday". Members of Past Parliaments. Parliament of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. Retrieved 29 April 2014. 
  2. ^ "I am no Indian PM". Trinidad and Tobago Newsday. 2017-09-03. Retrieved 2017-09-03. 
  3. ^ "Tracing roots to India". The Trinidad Guardian Newspaper. 2012-05-27. Retrieved 2017-08-13. 
  4. ^ Ali, Shereen (2016-09-15). "'Race our biggest issue'". The Trinidad Guardian Newspaper. Retrieved 2017-08-12. 
  5. ^ Persad, Seeta (2006-06-08). "Panday among Indian actors on big screen". Trinidad and Tobago Newsday. Retrieved 2017-08-12. 
  6. ^ a b c d e Gunson, Phil; Chamberlain, Greg; Thompson, Andrew (2015). The Dictionary of Contemporary Politics of Central America and the Caribbean. Routledge. ISBN 1317270533. OCLC 935252831. 
  7. ^ a b c Kiely, Ray (1996). The politics of labour and development in Trinidad. Barbados: The University of the West Indies Press. pp. 135, 149. ISBN 9766400172. OCLC 34898626. 
  8. ^ a b c MacDonald,, Scott B. (1986). Trinidad and Tobago : democracy and development in the Caribbean. New York: Praeger. ISBN 9780275920043. OCLC 13270347. 
  9. ^ The legacy of Eric Williams : into the postcolonial moment. Shields, Tanya L., 1970-. Jackson. ISBN 162674694X. OCLC 899267544. 
  10. ^ "Past Ministers: Basdeo Panday". Ministry of National Security. Retrieved 2017-08-17. 
  11. ^ a b Sheppard, Suzanne (2005-04-17). "Panday's many political fallouts". Trinidad and Tobago Newsday. Retrieved 2017-09-03. 
  12. ^ "TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO Date of Elections: 9 November 1981" (PDF). PARLINE database on national parliaments. Inter-Parliamentary Union. Retrieved 2017-08-18. 
  13. ^ "AROUND THE WORLD; Trinidad's Ruling Party Gains in Election". The New York Times. 1981-11-10. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-08-18. 
  14. ^ a b Lansford, Tom (2015). Political handbook of the world 2015. Los Angeles, California: CQ Press. ISBN 1483371557. OCLC 912321323. 
  15. ^ Ameringer, Charles D (1992). Political parties of the Americas, 1980s to 1990s : Canada, Latin America, and the West Indies. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. p. 578. ISBN 0313274185. OCLC 25202496. 
  16. ^ "TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO Date of Elections: 15 December 1986" (PDF). PARLINE database on national parliaments. Inter-Parliamentary Union. Retrieved 2017-08-19. 
  17. ^ a b Payne, Anthony; Sutton, Paul K. (1993). Modern Caribbean politics. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 108–112. ISBN 0801844355. OCLC 25711755. 
  18. ^ a b Viranjini, Munasinghe (2001). Callaloo or tossed salad? : East Indians and the cultural politics of identity in Trinidad. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press. p. 244. ISBN 080148619X. OCLC 46836925. 
  19. ^ "UNC Founder". United National Congress. 2013-02-26. Retrieved 2017-08-23. 
  20. ^ Premdas, Ralph R. (April 1996). "Ethnicity and Elections in the Caribbean: A Radical Realignment of Power in Trinidad and the Threat of Communal Strife (Working Paper #224)" (PDF). Kellogg Institute Working Papers: 10 – via Helen Kellogg Institute for International Studies. 
  21. ^ a b Premdas, Ralph R. (2004-01-14). Justin Daniel. "Elections, Identity and Ethnic Conflict in the Caribbean". Pouvoirs dans la Caraïbe. Revue du CRPLC (14): 17–61. doi:10.4000/plc.246. ISSN 1279-8657. 
  22. ^ Bissessar, Marie Ann (2017). Ethnic Conflict in Developing Societies: Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, Fiji, and Suriname. Springer International Publishing. p. 103. ISBN 3319537091. OCLC 990477595. 
  23. ^ "TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO Parliamentary Chamber: House of Representatives ELECTIONS HELD IN 2000". PARLINE database on national parliaments. Inter-Parliamentary Union. Retrieved 2017-08-29. 
  24. ^ a b Buckman, Robert T. (2014). Latin America (48th ed.). Lanham, Md.: Stryker Post Publications/Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 388. ISBN 1475812280. OCLC 890072334. 
  25. ^ "TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO Parliamentary Chamber: House of Representatives ELECTIONS HELD IN 2001". PARLINE database on international parliaments. Inter-parliamentary Union. Retrieved 2017-09-03. 
  26. ^ Joseph, Francis (2006-04-26). "18-18 election tie case". Trinidad and Tobago Newsday. Retrieved 2017-09-03. 
  27. ^ a b Gregory, Tardi (2011-07-26). "CONSTITUTIONAL LIMBO IN TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO (THE UNCERTAINTY, NOT THE DANCE)*". Constitutional Forum / Forum constitutionnel. 14 (2 & 3): 2005–2: 1–6. doi:10.21991/C9CQ2C. ISSN 1927-4165. 
  28. ^ Chan Tack, Clint (2009-11-01). "Ghosts of scandals past". Trinidad and Tobago Newsday. Retrieved 2017-09-03. 
  29. ^ Joseph, Francis (2002-08-07). "Panday tells London crowd: Ramesh, Ralph, Sudama crossed the floor to PNM". Trinidad and Tobago Newsday. Retrieved 2017-09-03. 
  30. ^ "TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO Parliamentary Chamber: House of Representatives ELECTIONS HELD IN 2002". PARLINE database on national parliaments. Inter-parliamentary Union. Retrieved 2017-09-04. 
  31. ^ "Leader of the Opposition". Parliament of Trinidad and Tobago. Retrieved 2017-09-04. 
  32. ^ Bissessar, Ann Marie; La Guerre, John Gaffar (2013). Trinidad and Tobago and Guyana: race and politics in two plural societies. Lanham: Lexington Books. p. 154. ISBN 0739174711. OCLC 825047382. 
  33. ^ a b c d "Special Report: Timeline of the UNC leadership crisis". Trinidad and Tobago Newsday. 2006-04-30. Retrieved 2017-09-18. 
  34. ^ Taitt, Ria (2005-10-30). "Kamla to Jack: Just do it". Trinidad and Tobago Newsday. Retrieved 2017-09-27. 
  35. ^ Alexander, Gail (2006-02-11). "Panday clips Robin's wings". The Trinidad Guardian Newspaper. Retrieved 2017-10-19. 
  36. ^ Alexander, Gail (2007-02-04). "Panday: I'm open for talks with Robin". The Trinidad Guardian Newspaper. Retrieved 2017-10-18. 
  37. ^ Alexander, Gail (2006-02-15). "Ato wants to bridge age gap". The Trinidad Guardian Newspaper. Retrieved 2017-10-18. 
  38. ^ "Panday is back". BBCCaribbean.com. 2007-01-04. Retrieved 2017-09-05. 
  39. ^ Ramdass, Anna (2009-03-26). "Ramesh gets a chance:UNC MPs vote to fire Chief Whip, but Bas wants him to explain behaviour". One Caribbean Media Limited. Archived from the original on March 27, 2009. Retrieved 2009-03-26. 
  40. ^ Joseph, Francis (2006-04-24). "D-Day for Panday". Trinidad and Tobago Newsday. Retrieved 2017-09-04. 
  41. ^ Senior Superintendent Wellington Virgil v. Basdeo Panday (Republic of Trinidad and Tobago Magistracy). Text
  42. ^ "Former Trinidad PM sentenced to jail". BBCCaribbean.com. 2006-04-24. Retrieved 2017-09-04. 
  43. ^ Loutoo, Jada (2007-03-21). "Appeal Court quashes Panday's conviction". Trinidad Publishing Company Limited. Archived from the original on September 26, 2007. Retrieved 2007-03-27. 
  44. ^ Alexander, Gail (2007-03-21). "Basdeo Panday's appeal verdict: Ex-PM to appeal retrial". The Trinidad Guardian Newspaper. Retrieved 2017-09-05. 
  45. ^ Cummings, Stephen (2006-01-16). "Trinidad's opposition leader set to go on trial". Caribbean Net News. Archived from the original on 2007-02-03. Retrieved 2007-02-19. 
  46. ^ Bahaw, Darren (2007-03-14). "Panday seeks bias ruling against McNicolls". Trinidad & Tobago Express. Archived from the original on October 19, 2007. Retrieved 2007-03-15. 
  47. ^ Paul, Anna-Lisa (2012-06-27). "Panday freed of 11-year-old UK bank charge". The Trinidad Guardian Newspaper. Retrieved 2017-09-05. 
  48. ^ "T&T DPP gets leave to challenge Basdeo Panday's freedom". Stabroek News. 2012-09-27. Retrieved 2017-09-07. 
  49. ^ Jada, Louto (2014-10-08). "Panday's London bank acct case ends". Trinidad and Tobago Newsday. Retrieved 2017-09-07. 
  50. ^ a b Francis, Joseph (2005-06-01). "Panday goes to jail". Trinidad and Tobago Newsday. Retrieved 2017-08-12. 
  51. ^ Cornwell, Grant Hermans; Stoddard, Eve Walsh (2001). Global multiculturalism : comparative perspectives on ethnicity, race, and nation. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 35. ISBN 0742508838. OCLC 44084193. 
  52. ^ a b Wilson, Stacey-Ann (2012). Politics of Identity in Small Plural Societies: Guyana, the Fiji Islands, and Trinidad and Tobago. United States: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1137012110. 
  53. ^ Henry, Frances (2003). Reclaiming African religions in Trinidad : the socio-political legitimation of the Orisha and spiritual Baptist faiths. Barbados: University of the West Indies Press. p. 73. ISBN 9766401292. OCLC 182621537. 
  54. ^ Castor, N. Fadeke (2013-08-01). "SHIFTING MULTICULTURAL CITIZENSHIP: Trinidad Orisha Opens the Road". Cultural Anthropology. 28 (3): 475–489. doi:10.1111/cuan.12015. ISSN 1548-1360. 
  55. ^ Maharaj, Parsuram (2004-05-04). "Guyana's fight for Indian Arrival Day". Trinidad and Tobago Newsday. Retrieved 2017-10-19. 
  56. ^ Allahar, Anton (2005). Ethnicity, class, and nationalism : Caribbean and extra-Caribbean dimensions. . Lanham, Md.: Lexington Books. p. 54. ISBN 073910893X. OCLC 56904988. 
  57. ^ Ryan, Selwy (2011-08-06). "The politics of Emancipation". Trinidad Express Newspapers. Retrieved 2017-10-19. 
  58. ^ Gibbings, Wesley (1997-03-04). "MUSIC: Governments Unhappy Over Calypso Criticism". Inter Press Service News Agency. Retrieved 2017-10-19. “The state cannot allow taxpayers money to be used to divide the society whether it be on racial or any other grounds,” 
  59. ^ Grant, Lennox (2007-05-06). "Panday restoration troubles state of nerves". The Trinidad Guardian Newspaper. Retrieved 2017-10-21. In prosecuting such internal “struggles,” Mr Panday still endlessly expends political energies. Against in-party critics, he deployed the famous attack word “neemakaram.” 
  60. ^ Loubon, Michelle (2009-04-15). "Linguist launches English/Creole dictionary". The Trinidad Guardian Newspaper. Retrieved 2017-10-21. Cross countrying she collected words associated with romance (doux doux) and adventure, folklore (Crazy’s soucouyant), mythology and history, great names (Basdeo Panday’s neemakharam)... 
  61. ^ Jayaram, N.; Atal, Yogesh, eds. (2004). The Indian diaspora: dynamics of migration. New Delhi: Sage Publications. p. 168. ISBN 0761932186. OCLC 53970616. 
  62. ^ "Ramesh 'ready to fight the lion'". Trindad Express Newspapers. 2009-04-03. Retrieved 2017-10-22. 
  63. ^ "Wilson tells of flaw in Robinson's character". The Trinidad Guardian Newspaper. 2011-05-04. Retrieved 2017-10-22. 
  64. ^ Bachan-Persad, I. (2012) Press and politics in Trinidad and Tobago: A study of five electoral campaigns over ten years, 2000-2010. Unpublished Thesis. Coventry: Coventry University.
  65. ^ John, George (1996-04-02). "TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO: Govt. Meddling Sends Media Managers Packing". Inter Press Service News Agency. Retrieved 2017-10-19. 
  66. ^ "Attacks on the Press in 1997 - Trinidad and Tobago". Committee to Protect Journalists. 1998-03-02. Retrieved 2017-10-19. 
  67. ^ Gibbings, Wesley (1999-04-30). "MEDIA-CARIBBEAN: Threat to the Free Press?". Inter Press Service News Agency. Retrieved 2017-10-20. Panday said last year he had no intention of endorsing the Declaration until it repudiated the “untrammelled right of the press to publish anything it wants”. 
  68. ^ Chan Tack, Clint (2009-02-21). "Panday is a grandfather". Trinidad and Tobago Newsday. Retrieved 2017-08-12. 

External links[edit]

Preceded by
Patrick Manning
Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago
1995–2001
Succeeded by
Patrick Manning
Preceded by
Roy Richardson
Leader of the Opposition of Trinidad and Tobago
1976–1977
Succeeded by
Raffique Shah
Preceded by
Raffique Shah
Leader of the Opposition of Trinidad and Tobago
1978–1986
Succeeded by
Patrick Manning
Preceded by
Patrick Manning
Leader of the Opposition of Trinidad and Tobago
1991–1995
Succeeded by
Patrick Manning
Preceded by
Patrick Manning
Leader of the Opposition of Trinidad and Tobago
2001–2006
Succeeded by
Kamla Persad-Bissessar
Preceded by
Kamla Persad-Bissessar
Leader of the Opposition of Trinidad and Tobago
2007–2010
Succeeded by
Kamla Persad-Bissessar
Preceded by
Non-existent
Political Leader of the United National Congress
1989–2005
Succeeded by
Winston Dookeran
Preceded by
Winston Dookeran
Political Leader of the United National Congress
2006–2010
Succeeded by
Kamla Persad-Bissessar