Bashkir language

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Bashkir
Башҡортса, Башҡорт теле
Pronunciation[bɑʃˈqort tɘˈlɘ] (About this soundlisten)
Native toRussia (Bashkortostan)
RegionVolga, Ural region
EthnicityBashkirs
Native speakers
1.4 million (2010 census)[1]
Turkic
Early form
Cyrillic (Bashkir alphabet)
Official status
Official language in
Bashkortostan (Russia)
Regulated byInstitute of history, language and literature of the Ufa Federal research center the RAS
Language codes
ISO 639-1ba
ISO 639-2bak
ISO 639-3bak
Glottologbash1264
Linguasphere44-AAB-bg
Bashkir language in the Russian Empire (1897).svg
Geographic distribution of Bashkir language in the Russian Empire according to 1897 census
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Bashkir (/ˈbɑːʃkɪər, ˈbæʃ-/; Bashkir: Башҡортса Bashqortsa, Башҡорт теле Bashqort tele, [bɑʃˈqort tɘˈlɘ] (About this soundlisten)) is a Turkic language belonging to the Kipchak branch. It is co-official with Russian in Bashkortostan. It is spoken by approximately 1.4 million native speakers in Russia, as well as in Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Estonia and other neighboring post-Soviet states, and among the Bashkir diaspora. It has three dialect groups: Southern, Eastern and Northwestern.

Speakers[edit]

Bashkirs in Russia by administrative districts (raions) in 2010
Idioma baskir.png

Speakers of Bashkir mostly live in the Russian republic of Bashkortostan. Many speakers also live in Tatarstan, Chelyabinsk, Orenburg, Tyumen, Sverdlovsk and Kurgan Oblasts and other regions of Russia. Minor Bashkir groups also live in Kazakhstan and other countries.

Classification[edit]

Bashkir together with Tatar belongs to the Bulgaric (Russian: кыпчакско-булгарская) subgroups of the Kipchak languages. They both share the same vocalism and the vowel shifts (see below) that make both the languages stand apart from most other Kipchak and Oghuz Turkic languages.

However, Bashkir differs from Tatar in several important ways:

  • Bashkir has dental fricatives /θ/ and /ð/ in the place of Tatar (and other Turkic) /s/ and /z/. Bashkir /θ/ and /ð/, however, cannot begin a word (there are exceptions: ҙур zur 'big', and the particle/conjunction ҙа/ҙә źa/źä). The only other Turkic language with a similar feature is Turkmen. However, in Bashkir /θ/ and /ð/ are two independent phonemes, distinct from /s/ and /z/, whereas in Turkmen [θ] and [ð] are the two main realizations of the common Turkic /s/ and /z/. In other words, there are no /s/ and /z/ phonemes in Turkmen, unlike Bashkir which has both /s/ and /z/ and /θ/ and /ð/.
  • The word-initial and morpheme-initial /s/ is turned into /h/. An example of both features can be Tatar сүз süz [syz] and Bashkir һүҙ hüź [hyθ], both meaning "word".
  • Common Turkic // (Tatar /ɕ/) is turned into Bashkir /s/, e.g., Turkish ağaç [aˈatʃ], Tatar агач aghach [ɑˈʁɑɕ] and Bashkir ағас aghas [ɑˈʁɑs], all meaning "tree".
  • The word-initial /ʑ/ in Tatar always corresponds to /j/ in Standard Bashkir, e.g., Tatar җылы cyly [ʑɤˈlɤ] and Bashkir йылы yyly [jɤˈlɤ], both meaning "warm". However, the eastern and northern dialects of Bashkir have the /j/ > /ʑ~ʒ/ shift.

The Bashkir orthography is more explicit. /q/ and /ʁ/ are written with their own letters Ҡ ҡ and Ғ ғ, whereas in Tatar they are treated as positional allophones of /k/ and /ɡ/, written К к and Г г.

Labial vowel harmony in Bashkir is written explicitly, e.g. Tatar тормышым tormışım and Bashkir тормошом tormoşom, both pronounced [tormoˈʃom], meaning "my life".

Orthography[edit]

Trilingual sign in Ufa Airport in Bashkir, Russian and English

After the adoption of Islam, which began in the 10th century and lasted for several centuries, the Bashkirs began to use Turki as a written language. Turki was written in a variant of the Arabic script.

In 1923, a writing system based on the Arabic script was specifically created for the Bashkir language. At the same time, the Bashkir literary language was created, moving away from the older written Turkic influences. At first, it used a modified Arabic alphabet. In 1930 it was replaced with the Unified Turkic Latin Alphabet, which was in turn replaced with an adapted Cyrillic alphabet in 1939.

The modern alphabet used by Bashkir is based on the Russian alphabet, with the addition of the following letters: Ә ә /æ/, Ө ө /ø/, Ү ү [y], Ғ ғ /ʁ/, Ҡ ҡ /q/, Ң ң /ŋ/, Ҙ ҙ /ð/, Ҫ ҫ /θ/, Һ һ /h/.

А а Б б В в Г г Ғ ғ Д д Ҙ ҙ Е е Ё ё
Ж ж З з И и Й й К к Ҡ ҡ Л л М м Н н
Ң ң О о Ө ө П п Р р С с Ҫ ҫ Т т У у
Ү ү Ф ф Х х Һ һ Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ
Ы ы Ь ь Э э Ә ә Ю ю Я я
Letters and symbols of the Bashkir Cyrillic alphabet
Cyrillic version
(Capital)
Cyrillic version
(Small)
Pronunciation Notes
А а [ɑ], [a]
Б б [b]
В в [v], [w]
Ғ ғ [ɣ]
Д д [d]
Ҙ ҙ [ð]
Е е [jɪ̞], [ɪ̞], [je], [e]
Ё ё [jo]
Ж ж [ʒ]
З з [z]
И и [i]
Й й [j]
К к [k]
Ҡ ҡ [q]
Л л [l]
М м [m]
Н н [n]
Ң ң [ŋ]
О о [ʊ̞], [o]
Ө ө [ø]
П п [p]
Р р [r]
С с [s]
Ҫ ҫ [θ]
Т т [t]
У у [u], [w]
Ү ү [y], [w]
Ф ф [f]
Х х [χ]
Һ һ [h]
Ц ц [ts]
Ч ч [tɕ]
Ш ш [ʂ]
Щ щ [ɕɕ]
Ъ ъ [-]
Ы ы [ɯ], [ɨ]
Ь ь [ʲ]
Э э [ɪ̞], [e]
Ә ә [æ]
Ю ю [ju]
Я я [jɑ], [ja]

Phonology[edit]

Vowels[edit]

Bashkir has nine native vowels, and three or four loaned vowels (mainly in Russian loanwords).[2]

Phonetically, the native vowels are approximately thus (with the Cyrillic letter followed by the usual Latin romanization in angle brackets):

Front Back
Spread Rounded Spread Rounded
Close и i
[i]
ү ü
[y~ʉ]
у u
[u]
Mid э, е e
[ĕ~ɘ̆]
ө ö
[ø~ɵ]
ы y
[ɤ̆~ʌ̆]
о o
[o]
Open ә ä
[æ~a]
а a
[ɑ]

The two mid unrounded vowels are always short, in an unstressed position they are frequently elided, as in кеше keshe [kĕˈʃĕ] > [kʃĕ] 'person', or ҡышы qyshı [qɤ̆ˈʃɤ̆] > [qʃɤ̆] '(his) winter'.[2] Low back /ɑ/ is rounded [ɒ] in the first syllable and after [ɒ], but not in the last, as in бала bala [bɒˈlɑ] 'child', балаларға balalargha [bɒlɒlɒrˈʁɑ] 'to children'.[2] In Russian loans there are also [ɨ], [ɛ], [ɔ] and [ä], written the same as the native vowels: ы, е/э, о, а respectively.[2] The mid vowels may be transcribed as lowered near-high [ɪ̞, ʏ̞, ɯ̞, ʊ̞].

Historical shifts[edit]

Historically, the Old Turkic mid vowels have raised from mid to high, whereas the Old Turkic high vowels have become the Bashkir reduced mid series. (The same shifts have also happened in Tatar.)[3]

Vowel Old Turkic Tatar Bashkir Gloss
*e *et it it 'meat'
*söz süz hüź [hyð] 'word'
*o *sol sul hul 'left'
*i *it et et 'dog'
*qyz qëz [qɤ̆z] qëź [qɤ̆θ] 'girl'
*u *qum qom qom 'sand'
*kül köl köl 'ash'

Consonants[edit]

The consonants of Bashkir[2]
Labial Labio-
velar
Dental Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasals м m
/m/
н n
/n/
ң ng
/ŋ/
Plosives Voiceless п p
/p/
т t
/t/
к k
/c/
к k
/k/*
ҡ q
/q/
ь/ъ 
/ʔ/*
Voiced б b
/b/
д d
/d/
г g
/ɟ/
г g
/ɡ/*
Affricates Voiceless ц ts
/ts/*
ч ç
//*
Fricatives Voiceless ф f
/f/*
ҫ ś
/θ/
х kh
/χ/
һ h
/h/
Voiced в v
/v/*
ҙ ź
/ð/
ғ gh
/ʁ/
Sibilants Voiceless с s
/s/
ш sh
/ʃ/
Voiced з z
/z/
ж zh
/ʒ/
Trill р r
/r/
Approximants у/ү/в w
/w~ɥ/
л l
/l/
й y
/j/
Notes
^* The phonemes /f/, /v/, /ts/, //, /k/, /ɡ/, /ʔ/ are found only in loanwords, and, in the case of /ʔ/, in a few native onomatopoeic words.
  • /θ, ð/ are dental [θ, ð], and /r/ is apical alveolar []. The exact place of articulation of the other dental/alveolar consonants is unclear.

Grammar[edit]

A member of the Turkic language family, Bashkir is an agglutinative, SOV language.[2][4] A large part of the Bashkir vocabulary has Turkic roots; and there are many loan words in Bashkir from Russian, Arabic and Persian sources.

Declension of nouns[edit]

Case father mother child dog cat
Singular Nominative ата ata әсәй äsäy бала bala эт et бесәй besäy
Genitive атаның atanıng әсәйҙең äsäyźeng баланың balanıng эттең etteng бесәйҙең besäyźeng
Dative атаға atagha әсәйгә äsäygä балаға balagha эткә etkä бесәйгә besäygä
Accusative атаны atany әсәйҙе äsäyźe баланы balany этте ette бесәйҙе besäyźe
Locative атала atala әсәйҙә äsäyźä балала balala эттә että бесәйҙә besäyźä
Ablative атанан atanan әсәйҙән äsäyźän баланан balanan эттән ettän бесәйҙән besäyźän
Plural Nominative аталар atalar әсәйҙәр äsäyźär балалар balalar эттәр ettär бесәйҙәр besäyźär
Genitive аталарҙың atalarźıng әсәйҙәрҙең äsäyźärźeng балаларҙың balalarźıng эттәрҙең ettärźeng бесәйҙәрҙең besäyźärźeng
Dative аталарға atalargha әсәйҙәргә äsäyźärgä балаларға balalargha эттәргә ettärgä бесәйҙәргә besäyźärgä
Accusative аталарҙы atalarźy әсәйҙәрҙе äsäyźärźe балаларҙы balalarźy эттәрҙе ettärźe бесәйҙәрҙе besäyźärźe
Locative аталарҙа atalarźa әсәйҙәрҙә äsäyźärźä балаларҙа balalarźa эттәрҙә ettärźä бесәйҙәрҙә besäyźärźä
Ablative аталарҙан atalarźan әсәйҙәрҙән äsäyźärźän балаларҙан balalarźan эттәрҙән ettärźän бесәйҙәрҙән besäyźärźän

Declension of pronouns[edit]

Interrogative pronouns Personal pronouns
Case who what Singular Plural
I you (thou) he, she, it we you they
Nominative кем
kem
нимә
nimä
мин
min
һин
hin
ул
ul
беҙ
beź
һеҙ
heź
улар
ular
Genitive кемдең
kemdeng
нимәнең
nimäneng
минең
mineng
һинең
hineng
уның
unyng
беҙҙең
beźźeng
һеҙҙең
heźźeng
уларҙың
ularźıng
Dative кемгә
kemgä
нимәгә
nimägä
миңә
mingä
һиңә
hingä
уға
ugha
беҙгә
beźgä
һеҙгә
heźgä
уларға
ulargha
Accusative кемде
kemde
нимәне
nimäne
мине
mine
һине
hine
уны
unı
беҙҙе
beźźe
һеҙҙе
heźźe
уларҙы
ularźy
Locative кемдә
kemdä
нимәлә
nimälä
миндә
mindä
һиндә
hindä
унда
unda
беҙҙә
beźźä
һеҙҙә
heźźä
уларҙа
ularźa
Ablative кемдән
kemdän
нимәнән
nimänän
минән
minän
һинән
hinän
унан
unan
беҙҙән
beźźän
һеҙҙән
heźźän
уларҙан
ularźan
Demonstrative pronouns
Case Singular Plural
this that these those
Nominative был
byl
ошо
osho
шул
shul
теге
tege
былар
bylar
ошолар
osholar
шулар
shular
тегеләр
tegelär
Genitive бының
bynyng
ошоноң
oshonong
шуның
shunyng
тегенең
tegeneng
быларҙың
bylarźıng
ошоларҙың
osholarźıng
шуларҙың
shularźıng
тегеләрҙең
tegelärźeng
Dative быға
bygha
ошоға
oshogha
шуға
shugha
тегегә
tegegä
быларға
bylargha
ошоларға
osholargha
шуларға
shulargha
тегеләргә
tegelärgä
Accusative быны
byny
ошоно
oshona
шуны
shuny
тегене
tegene
быларҙы
bylarźy
ошоларҙы
osholarźy
шуларҙы
shularźy
тегеләрҙе
tegelärźe
Locative бында
bynda
ошонда
oshonda
шунда
shunda
тегендә
tegenda
быларҙа
bylarźa
ошоларҙа
osholarźa
шуларҙа
shularźa
тегеләрҙә
tegelärźä
Ablative бынан
bynan
ошонан
oshonan
шунан
shunan
тегенән
tegenän
быларҙан
bylarźan
ошоларҙан
osholarźan
шуларҙан
shularźan
тегеләрҙән
tegelärźän

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bashkir at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ a b c d e f Berta, Árpád (1998). "Tatar and Bashkir". In Johanson, Lars; Csató, Éva Á. (eds.). The Turkic languages. Routledge. pp. 283–300. ISBN 9780415082006.
  3. ^ Johanson, Lars (1998). "The History of Turkic". In Johanson, Lars; Csató, Éva Á. (eds.). The Turkic languages. Routledge. p. 92. ISBN 9780415082006.
  4. ^ "Overview of the Bashkir Language". Learn the Bashkir Language & Culture. Transparent Language. Retrieved 4 Nov 2011.

Further reading[edit]

  • Poppe, Nicholas (1997) [1964]. Bashkir Manual. Routledge. p. 186. ISBN 978-0-7007-0836-9.
  • Грамматика современного башкирского литературного языка (in Russian). Москва: Наука. 1981.
  • Дмитриев, Н. К. (1948). Грамматика башкирского языка (in Russian). Из-во АН СССР.

External links[edit]