Basque immigration to Mexico
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (January 2011)|
|Regions with significant populations|
|Western and Northern Mexico|
|Mexican Spanish, Euskera|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Basque people and Basque diaspora,
Spanish Mexicans, French Mexicans
Seen in Mexico by the whole Euskalerria concept, basque descendants can be from Navarre, Euskadi or Iparralde. It is one of the most important and numerous groups of European people in Mexico and one of the biggest Basque diasporas in the world.
Basques can be found in every corner of Mexico, including names of cities and regions such as: Arriaga in Chiapas, Durango a State, Reynosa and Laredo in Tamaulipas, Arizpe in Sonora, Bernal in Queretaro or Narvarte in Mexico City, and even dating by the colonial times, Arizona has its name for being and extension of the New Navarre in the province of Sonora, and least not mention in California, Nevada, Idaho, Utah, Oregon and elsewhere of the Western U.S. is the Basque American familial link with Basques in Mexico.
The first Catholic archbishop in Mexico, Juan Zumarraga, was Basque. Francisco Ibarra explored northern Mexico and founded Nueva Vizcaya. Fermín de Francisco Lasuén was the founder of many of the Spanish missions in Alta California.
In 1907, the Basque community founded the Centro Vasco. This community consisted of immigrants from Navarre, Gipuzkoa, Biscay and some French Basques. There was a divide between the Basque community: the first group were rural unskilled, economic emigrants that arrived in the late 19th and early 20th century and the other were political exiles of the Spanish Civil War that tended to have technical or academic education.
A notable migrant of the former group was Braulio Iriarte who immigrated to Mexico in 1877 with no education or professional experience. He began as an employee in a bakery and after years of hard work he owned 80 bakeries and a mill. This mill, El Euskaro, founded in 1906 was one of the largest in Mexico. He also owned haciendas in Querétaro, mines in Hidalgo, large properties in Mexico City and helped found various corporations, including Grupo Modelo.
An unknown amount of Mexicans (whether mestizo or criollo) have some amount of Basque descent and that community has increased in size from immigration from Spain in the early 20th century. The Spanish Civil War in the 1930s brought over tens of thousands of refugees from the Basque Country to political asylum in Mexico and Latin America.
Most Mexicans of Basque descent are concentrated in the cities of Monterrey, Saltillo, Camargo, and the states of Jalisco, Colima, Durango, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas, and Coahuila. The Basques were important in the mining industry, many were ranchers and vaqueros (cowboys), and the rest small shops owners in major cities like Mexico City, Guadalajara and Puebla.
Basque names are found in many places throughout Northeastern Mexico, such as Durango, Reynosa,( Nuevo) Laredo, Victoria, Zuazua and Arramberri - the first province in the north of the Viceroyalty of New Spain (Mexico) to be explored and settled by the Spanish, Nueva Vizcaya, New Spain, comprised the territory of today's states of Chihuahua and Durango.
- Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, self-taught scholar and poet of the Baroque school, and nun of New Spain.
- Agustín de Iturbide, emperor of the First Mexican Empire.
- María Félix, Mexican actress of the Golden Age of Mexican cinema.
- Dolores del Río, Mexican film actress and Golden Age of Hollywood.
- Alejandro González Iñárritu, Mexican director.
- Vicente Fox, 55th President of Mexico, maternal Basque descent.
- Juan de Oñate, New Spanish explorer, colonial governor of the New Spain province of New Mexico.
- Francisco "Pancho" Villa, Mexican Revolutionary generals.
- Mariano Abasolo, Mexican revolutionist.
- José Alberto Aguilar Iñárritu, Mexican economist and politician
- Carlos Guerrero de Lizardi, Mexican professor and researcher in economics.
- Carlos María Abascal Carranza, Mexican lawyer and the Secretary of the Interior in the cabinet of Vicente Fox.
- Ignacio Elizondo, New Spanish royalist general of the Spanish army during the Mexican War of Independence.
- Clemente Aguirre, Mexican composer and music instructor.
- José Joaquín Fernández de Lizardi, Mexican writer and political journalist.
- Sergio Salvador Aguirre Anguiano, Mexican jurist and Associate Justice.
- Celso Aguirre Bernal, Mexican writer and historian.
- Ricardo Legorreta, Mexican architect.
- Luis Gatica, Mexican actor to Chilean father of Basque descent.
- Liza Echeverría, Mexican actress and model.
- Ramón Músquiz, Mexican governor of Texas from 1830 to 1831 and in 1835.
- Ricardo Pozas Arciniega, Mexican anthropologist, scientific investigator and indigenista.
- Carlos Emilio Orrantía, Mexican footballer.
- Guillermo Iberio Ortiz Mayagoitia, Mexican jurist and Supreme Court Justice.
- Manuel Peláez, Mexican military officer.
- Hilda Gaxiola, Mexican female beach volleyball player.
- Luis Echeverría, 50th President of Mexico from 1970 to 1976.
- Yuridia Francisca Gaxiola Flores, Mexican singer of Basque ancestry.
- Alberto Andrés Alvarado Arámburo, Mexican politician.
- Dolores Heredia, Mexican actress.
- Ángel César Mendoza Arámburo, Mexican politician.
- Zubiri, Nancy (2006). A Travel Guide to Basque America: Families, Feasts, and Festivals. University of Nevada Press. p. 13. ISBN 0874176328. Retrieved 22 October 2015.
- Douglass, William A.; Jon, Bilbao (2005). Amerikanuak: Basques in the New World. University of Nevada Press. p. 167. Retrieved 22 October 2015.
- Azcona Pastor, José Manuel (2004). Possible Paradises: Basque Emigration to Latin America. Publisher University of Nevada Press. ISBN 0874174449. Retrieved 22 October 2015. horizontal tab character in
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