Tan and white Basset Hound
|Common nicknames||Basset, Hush Puppy|
|Domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris)|
The Basset Hound is a short-legged breed of dog of the hound family, as well as one of six recognized Basset breeds in France. The Basset is a scent hound that was originally bred for the purpose of hunting hare. Their sense of smell for tracking is second only to that of the Bloodhound. The name Basset is derived from the French word bas, meaning "low", with the attenuating suffix -et, together meaning "rather low". Basset Hounds are usually bicolours or tricolours of standard hound colouration.
In this article, "Basset" (with a capital B) is used to distinguish the modern breed from other basset-type dogs.
Bassets are large, short, solid and long, with curved sabre tails held high over their long backs. An adult dog weighs between 20 and 35 kilograms (44 and 77 lb). This breed, relative to size, is heavier-boned than any other.
This breed, like its ancestor the Bloodhound, has a hanging skin structure, which causes the face to occasionally look sad; this, for many people, adds to the breed's charm. The dewlap, seen as the loose, elastic skin around the neck, and the trailing ears which along with the Bloodhound are the longest of any breed, help trap the scent of what they are tracking. Its neck is wider than its head. This, combined with the loose skin around its face and neck means that flat collars can easily be pulled off. The looseness of the skin results in the Basset's characteristic facial wrinkles. The Basset's skull is characterised by its large dolichocephalic nose, which is second only to the Bloodhound in scenting ability and number of olfactory receptor cells.
The Basset's short legs are due to a form of dwarfism. Their short stature can be deceiving; Bassets are long and can reach things on table tops that other dogs of similar height can not. Because Bassets are so heavy and have such short legs, they are not able to hold themselves above water for very long when swimming.
The coat of a Basset is medium-short, smooth and hard, and sheds frequently.
Any true hound colour is acceptable in Basset Hounds, and no one colour is preferred over any other.
The source of colour is the E Locus (MC1R), which has four alleles: EM, EG, E, and e. The EM, E and e alleles are present in the Basset Hounds. The E allele allows for the production of both red and black pigments, so is present with the majority of colour patterns in Basset Hounds.
Red and Lemon colours are caused by the e allele of MC1R. The e allele is recessive, so red and lemon dogs are homozygous e/e. Lemon dogs are lighter in colour than Reds, but the genetic mechanism that dilutes phaeomelanin in this instance is unknown. No black hairs will be present on either Red or Lemon dogs. If there are any black hairs, the dog is officially a tricolour.
The EM allele produces a black mask on the face that may extend up around the eyes and onto the ears. This pattern is most easily seen on Mahogany dogs, although any Basset colour pattern may express the EM allele, except for "red and white" or "lemon and white" due to e/e.
Many Bassets have a clearly defined white blaze and a white tip to their tail, intended to aid hunters in finding their dogs when tracking through underbrush.
The Basset Hound coat is naturally oily, giving off a distinctive "hound scent," which is natural to the breed.
The Basset Hound is a friendly, outgoing, and playful dog, tolerant of children and other pets.
Basset Hounds have large pendulous ears, (known as "leathers") that do not allow air to circulate inside them, like other breeds with erect or more open ears. This can result in infections and ear mites if their ears are not kept clean and dry. If their ears are allowed to dangle on the ground or in food on a daily basis, they may develop chronic and potentially fatal ear diseases. Young puppies trip over their long ears and may bite their ears accidentally if they dangle in their food. This can lead to infection if they break the skin.
According to the Basset Hound Club of America, the height of a Basset should not exceed 14 inches or 36 cm.
The Basset Hound's short stature is due to the genetic condition osteochondrodysplasia (meaning abnormal growth of both bone and cartilage). Dwarfism of this type in most animals is traditionally known as achondroplasia. Basset Hounds, Dachshunds and Bulldogs are a few of the dog breeds classified as Achondroplastic. This bone growth abnormality may be a predisposing factor in the development of elbow dysplasia seen in the breed, which leads to arthritis of the elbow joint.
Because of a basset's body build, if they fall too far, they can hurt their hips, injure their spine or break a leg. Many ageing bassets have been euthanized due to such injuries. If a puppy sustains one of these injuries, the damage can be permanent.
Other health issues
In addition to ear problems, basset hounds may be susceptible to eye issues. Because of their droopy eyes, the area under the eyeball will collect dirt and become clogged with a mucus.
Basset Hounds are prone to yeast infections in the folds around the mouth, where drool can collect without thoroughly drying out.
The only recent mortality and morbidity surveys of Basset Hounds are from the UK: a 1999 longevity survey with a small sample size of 10 deceased dogs and a 2004 UK Kennel Club health survey with a larger sample size of 142 deceased dogs and 226 live dogs. See Mortality and Morbidity below.
Median longevity of Basset Hounds is about 10.3 years in France and 11.3 years in the UK, which is a typical median longevity for purebred dogs and for breeds similar in size to Basset Hounds. The oldest of the 142 deceased dogs in the 2004 UK Kennel Club survey was 16.7 years. Leading causes of death in the 2004 UK Kennel Club survey were cancer (31%), old age (13%), gastric dilatation volvulus (11%), and cardiac (8%).
Among the 226 live Basset Hounds in the 2004 UKC survey, the most-common health issues noted by owners were dermatologic (such as dermatitis), reproductive, musculoskeletal (for example, arthritis and lameness), and gastrointestinal (for example, gastric dilatation volvulus and colitis). Basset Hounds are also prone to epilepsy, glaucoma, luxating patella, thrombopathia, Von Willebrand disease, hypothyroidism, hip dysplasia, and elbow dysplasia.
The earliest-known depictions of short-legged hunting dogs are engravings from the Middle Kingdom of Egypt. Mummified remains of short-legged dogs from that period have been uncovered in the Dog Catacombs of Saqqara, Egypt. Scent Hounds were used for hunting in both Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome.
The modern Basset Hound was bred to hunt rabbits and hare in France, a country known for its development of many breeds of scent hound. Hunting with a pack of bassets is still not uncommon in France and the UK, although it seldom occurs in the United States.
St Hubert's Hound
The basset type originated in France, and is descended from the 6th century hounds belonging to St Hubert of Belgium, which through breeding at the Benedictine Abbey of St. Hubert eventually became what is known as the St Hubert's Hound around 1000 AD. St Hubert's original hounds are descended from the Laconian (Spartas) Hound, one of four groups of dogs discerned from Greek representations and descriptions. These scent hounds were described as large, slow, 'short-legged and deep mouthed' dogs with a small head, straight nose, upright ears and long neck, and either tan with white markings or black with tan markings. Laconian Hounds were reputed to not give up the scent until they found their prey. They eventually found their way to Constantinople, and from there to Europe.
The first mention of a "basset" dog appeared in La Venerie, an illustrated hunting text written by Jacques du Fouilloux in 1585. The dogs in Fouilloux's text were used to hunt foxes and badgers. It is believed that the Basset type originated as a mutation in the litters of Norman Staghounds, a descendant of the St Hubert's Hound. These precursors were most likely bred back to the St. Hubert's Hound, among other derivative French hounds. Until after the French Revolution around the year 1789, hunting from horseback was the preserve of kings, large aristocratic families and of the country squires, and for this reason short-legged dogs were highly valued for hunting on foot.
Basset-type hounds became popular during the reign of Emperor Napoleon III (r. 1852-1870). In 1853, Emmanuel Fremiet, "the leading sculptor of animals in his day" exhibited bronze sculptures of Emperor Napoleon III's basset hounds at the Paris Salon. Ten years later in 1863 at the first exhibition of dogs held in Paris, basset hounds attained international attention.
The controlled breeding of the short haired basset began in France in the year 1870. From the existing Bassets, Count Le Couteulx of Canteleu fixed a utilitarian type with straight front legs known as the Chien d'Artois, whereas Mr. Louis Lane developed a more spectacular type, with crooked front legs, known as the Basset Normand. These were bred together to create the original Basset Artésien Normand.
French basset hounds were being imported into England at least as early as the 1870s. While some of these dogs were certainly Basset Artésien Normands, by the 1880s linebreeding had thrown back to a different heavier type. Everett Millais, who is considered to be the father of the modern Basset Hound, bred one such dog, Nicholas, to a Bloodhound bitch named Inoculation through artificial insemination in order to create a heavier basset in England in the 1890s. The litter was delivered by caesarean section, and the surviving pups were refined with French and English bassets. The first breed standard for what is now known as the Basset Hound was made in Great Britain at the end of 19th century. This standard was updated in 2010.
Hunting with bassets
The Basset Hound was bred to hunt. Its keen nose and short stature are suited to small-game hunting on foot, and it particularly enjoys running in a pack. There are a number of groups that promote hunting with bassets.
There is a variety of Basset Hound developed purely for hunting by Colonel Morrison that were admitted to the Masters of Basset Hounds Association in 1959 via an Appendix to the Stud Book. This breed differs in being straighter and longer in the leg and having shorter ears.
In popular culture
On February 27, 1928, Time magazine featured a basset hound on the front cover. The accompanying story was about the 52nd annual Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show at Madison Square Garden as if observed by the basset hound puppy.
Many cartoon dogs are based on the basset hound, such as Barnyard Dawg and Tex Avery's Droopy, with several basset hounds appearing in animated Disney films. Syndicated comic strip Fred Basset has been a regular feature in newspapers since 1963.
Various advertising logos feature basset hounds. The logo for Hush Puppies brand shoes prominently features a basset hound whose real name is Jason. Basset hounds are occasionally referred to as "hush puppies" for that reason. A basset hound also serves as the companion to the lonely Maytag Man in Maytag appliance advertisements. Tidewater Petroleum advertised its "Flying A" gasoline using a basset hound named Axelrod.
In the early days of television, Elvis Presley sang "Hound Dog" to a basset hound named Sherlock on The Steve Allen Show on July 1, 1956. A basset called Morgan (1946–1960) was discovered by Herbie Sanford, the producer of The Garry Moore Show, on which he appeared frequently. He was also seen on The Jackie Gleason Show, Captain Video (where he played a dog from Pluto), and The Kyle MacDonnell Show as well as in a Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis movie. His last appearance was in a drama, where he co-starred with Tom Bosley. Lassie had a basset friend named Pokey early in the Lassie television series. Other TV bassets include:
- the wisecracking Cleo from The People's Choice
- Paw Pooch in Krypto the Superdog
- Columbo's dog, Dog
- Sheriff Roscoe P. Coltrane's dog, Flash, in The Dukes of Hazzard
- Henry from Emergency!
- Governor from The Governor & J.J.
- Quincey from Coach
- Sam from That's So Raven
- Chips from EastEnders
- Arthur in Our House
- Socrates in Judging Amy
- Minor in iZOMBIE
Bassets in film and animation include:
- Droopy from the MGM cartoons
- Fred, the companion of Cledus in the 1977 movie Smokey and the Bandit and its two sequels
- Gabriel, Batou's basset hound in Ghost in the Shell 2: Innocence (Gabriel is in fact director Mamoru Oshii's real life pet, and is included in many of his films including the 2001 film Avalon)
- Lafayette. in the animated film, "The Aristocats"
- In a scene most likely referencing Smokey and the Bandit, a truck driver has a Basset Hound beside him in American Pie 2.
- A Basset Hound is hit by a car and survives in The Rage: Carrie 2.
- In the feature film Monkeybone, a basset has its own nightmarish dream sequence.
- In The Cassandra Crossing a Basset is airlifted by helicopter off a doomed train, allowing officials to identify a deadly plague (and thus becomes one of the few survivors of the all-star cast disaster film).
- One in The Lost Treasure of Sawtooth Island (where it prominently appears alongside star Ernest Borgnine on the film poster/DVD cover)
- Pops in The Secret Life of Pets
- Toby in The Great Mouse Detective
- An American Werewolf in Paris
- Nanny McPhee
- Spider-Man 2
- Kit Kittredge: An American Girl
- The Smurfs
- Basset Fauve de Bretagne
- Basset Bleu de Gascogne
- Basset Artesien Normand
- Petit Basset Griffon Vendéen
- Grand Basset Griffon Vendéen
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