Basset Hound

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Basset Hound
BassetHound profil.jpg
Tan and white Basset Hound
Nicknames Basset, Hush Puppy
Country of origin Great Britain
France
Traits
Weight male: 55–75 pounds (25–34 kg)
female: 45–65 pounds (20–29 kg)
Height male: 12–15 inches (30–38 cm)
female: 11–14 inches (28–36 cm)
Coat Smooth, short and close
Colour Generally black, white and tan (tri-colour) or tan/lemon and white (bi-colour); but any recognised hound colour acceptable.
Litter size 6 - 8 puppies
Life span Median 11–12 years
Dog (Canis lupus familiaris)

The Basset Hound is a short-legged breed of dog of the hound family, as well as one of six recognized Basset breeds in France; furthermore, Bassets are scent hounds that were originally bred for the purpose of hunting rabbits and hare. Their sense of smell for tracking is second only to that of the Bloodhound.[1] The name Basset is derived from the French word bas, meaning "low", with the attenuating suffix -et, together meaning "rather low". Basset Hounds are usually Bicolours or Tricolours of standard hound colouration.

In this article, "Basset" (with a capital B) is used to distinguish the modern breed from other basset-type dogs.

Description[edit]

Adult Basset Hound
Eight-week-old Basset Hound

Appearance[edit]

Bassets are large, short, solid and long, with curved sabre tails held high over their long backs. An adult dog weighs between 20 and 35 kilograms (44 and 77 lb). This breed, relative to size, is heavier-boned than any other.[2]

This breed, like its ancestor the Bloodhound, has a hanging skin structure, which causes the face to occasionally look sad; this, for many people, adds to the breed's charm. The dewlap, seen as the loose, elastic skin around the neck, and the trailing ears which along with the Bloodhound are the longest of any breed, help trap the scent of what they are tracking. Its neck is wider than its head. This, combined with the loose skin around its face and neck means that flat collars can easily be pulled off. The looseness of the skin results in the Basset's characteristic facial wrinkles. The Basset's skull is characterised by its large Dolichocephalic nose, which is second only to the Bloodhound in scenting ability and number of olfactory receptor cells.

The Basset's short legs are due to a form of dwarfism. Their short stature can be deceiving; Bassets are long and can reach things on table tops that other dogs of similar height can not. Because Bassets are so heavy and have such short legs, they are not able to hold themselves above water for very long when swimming.

Coat[edit]

The coat of a Basset is medium-short, smooth and hard, and sheds frequently.

Any true hound colour is acceptable in Basset Hounds, and no one colour is preferred over any other.[3]

The source of colour is the E Locus (MC1R), which has four alleles: EM, EG, E, and e. The EM, E and e alleles are present in the Basset Hounds. The E allele allows for the production of both red and black pigments, so is present with the majority of colour patterns in Basset Hounds.

Red and Lemon colours are caused by the e allele of MC1R. The e allele is recessive, so red and lemon dogs are homozygous e/e. Lemon dogs are lighter in colour than Reds, but the genetic mechanism that dilutes phaeomelanin in this instance is unknown. No black hairs will be present on either Red or Lemon dogs. If there are any black hairs, the dog is officially a tricolour.

The EM allele produces a black mask on the face that may extend up around the eyes and onto the ears. This pattern is most easily seen on Mahogany dogs, although any Basset colour pattern may express the EM allele, except for "red and white" or "lemon and white" due to e/e. [4]

Many Bassets have a clearly defined white blaze and a white tip to their tail, intended to aid hunters in finding their dogs when tracking through underbrush.

The Basset Hound coat is naturally oily, giving off a distinctive "hound scent," which is natural to the breed.[5]

Temperament[edit]

Basset Hounds are renowned for their gentle, docile demeanor.[6]

The Basset Hound is a friendly, outgoing, and playful dog. They can be extremely tolerant of children and other pets. Bassets are considered a vocal breed.

Health[edit]

An adult Basset Hound with a puppy
Basset Hound puppy

Ears[edit]

Basset Hounds have large pendulous ears,[7] (known as "leathers") that do not allow air to circulate inside them, like other breeds with erect or more open ears. This can result in infections and ear mites if their ears are not kept clean and dry.[8] If their ears are allowed to dangle on the ground or in food on a daily basis, they may develop chronic and potentially fatal ear diseases. Young puppies trip over their long ears and may bite their ears accidentally if they dangle in their food. This can lead to infection if they break the skin.

Short stature[edit]

Two Basset Hounds

According to the Basset Hound Club of America, the height of a Basset should not exceed 14 inches. [9]

The Basset Hound's short stature is due to the genetic condition Osteochondrodysplasia (meaning abnormal growth of both bone and cartilage).[10] Dwarfism of this type in most animals is traditionally known as Achondroplasia. Basset Hounds, Dachshunds and Bulldogs are a few of the dog breeds classified as Achondroplastic.[11][12] This bone growth abnormality may be a predisposing factor in the development of elbow dysplasia seen in the breed, which leads to arthritis of the elbow joint.[13]

Because of a basset's body build, if they fall too far, they can hurt their hips, injure their spine or break a leg. Many ageing bassets have been euthanized due to such injuries. If a puppy sustains one of these injuries, the damage can be permanent.

Other health issues[edit]

Basset Hound

In addition to ear problems, basset hounds may be susceptible to eye issues. Because of their droopy eyes, the area under the eyeball will collect dirt and become clogged with a mucus.

Basset Hounds are prone to yeast infections in the folds around the mouth, where drool can collect without thoroughly drying out.

The only recent mortality and morbidity surveys of Basset Hounds are from the UK:[14] a 1999 longevity survey with a small sample size of 10 deceased dogs[15] and a 2004 UK Kennel Club health survey with a larger sample size of 142 deceased dogs and 226 live dogs.[16] See Mortality and Morbidity below.

Longevity[edit]

Median longevity of Basset Hounds is about 10.3 years in France and 11.3 years in the UK,[14][17] which is a typical median longevity for purebred dogs and for breeds similar in size to Basset Hounds.[18] The oldest of the 142 deceased dogs in the 2004 UK Kennel Club survey was 16.7 years.[16] Leading causes of death in the 2004 UK Kennel Club survey were cancer (31%), old age (13%), gastric dilatation volvulus (11%), and cardiac (8%).

Morbidity[edit]

Among the 226 live Basset Hounds in the 2004 UKC survey, the most-common health issues noted by owners were dermatologic (such as dermatitis), reproductive, musculoskeletal (for example, arthritis and lameness), and gastrointestinal (for example, gastric dilatation volvulus and colitis).[16] Basset Hounds are also prone to epilepsy, glaucoma, luxating patella, thrombopathia, Von Willebrand disease, hypothyroidism, hip dysplasia, and elbow dysplasia.[13]

History[edit]

The earliest-known depictions of short-legged hunting dogs are engravings from the Middle Kingdom of Egypt.[19] Mummified remains of short-legged dogs from that period have been uncovered in the Dog Catacombs of Saqqara, Egypt.[20] Scent Hounds were used for hunting in both Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome.

The modern Basset Hound was bred to hunt rabbits and hare in France, a country known for its development of many breeds of scent hound. Hunting with a pack of bassets is still not uncommon in France and the UK, although it seldom occurs in the United States. [21]

St Hubert's Hound[edit]

See also: Bloodhound
An early 20th century basset-type hound

The basset type originated in France, and is descended from the 6th century hounds belonging to St Hubert of Belgium, which through breeding at the Benedictine Abbey of St. Hubert eventually became what is known as the St Hubert's Hound around 1000AD. St Hubert's original hounds are descended from the Laconian (Spartas) Hound,[22] one of four groups of dogs discerned from Greek representations and descriptions. These scent hounds were described as large, slow, 'short-legged and deep mouthed' dogs with a small head, straight nose, upright ears and long neck, and either tan with white markings or black with tan markings.[23] Laconian Hounds were reputed to not give up the scent until they found their prey. They eventually found their way to Constantinople, and from there to Europe.[22]

France[edit]

1879 woodcut of Everett Millais' first basset-type Hound 'Model' who was imported from France in 1874.

The first mention of a "basset" dog appeared in La Venerie, an illustrated hunting text written by Jacques du Fouilloux in 1585.[citation needed] The dogs in Fouilloux's text were used to hunt foxes and badgers. It is believed that the Basset type originated as a mutation in the litters of Norman Staghounds, a descendant of the St Hubert's Hound. These precursors were most likely bred back to the St. Hubert's Hound, among other derivative French hounds. Until after the French Revolution around the year 1789, hunting from horseback was the preserve of kings, large aristocratic families and of the country squires, and for this reason short-legged dogs were highly valued for hunting on foot.

Basset-type hounds became popular during the reign of Emperor Napoleon III (r. 1852-1870). In 1853, Emmanuel Fremiet, "the leading sculptor of animals in his day" exhibited bronze sculptures of Emperor Napoleon III's basset hounds at the Paris Salon.[24] Ten years later in 1863 at the first exhibition of dogs held in Paris, basset hounds attained international attention.[25]

The controlled breeding of the short haired basset began in France in the year 1870. From the existing Bassets, Count Le Couteulx of Canteleu fixed a utilitarian type with straight front legs known as the Chien d'Artois, whereas Mr. Louis Lane developed a more spectacular type, with crooked front legs, known as the Basset Normand. These were bred together to create the original Basset Artésien Normand.[26]

England[edit]

French bassets were being imported into England at least as early as the 1870s. While some of these dogs were certainly Basset Artésien Normands, by the 1880s linebreeding had thrown back to a different heavier type. Everett Millais, who is considered to be the father of the modern Basset Hound, bred one such dog, Nicholas, to a Bloodhound bitch named Inoculation through artificial insemination in order to create a heavier basset in England in the 1890s. The litter was delivered by caesarean section, and the surviving pups were refined with French and English bassets.[27] The first breed standard for what is now known as the Basset Hound was made in Great Britain at the end of 19th century.[28] This standard was updated in 2010.[29]

Hunting with bassets[edit]

The Basset Hound was bred to hunt. Its keen nose and short stature are suited to small-game hunting on foot, and it particularly enjoys running in a pack. There are a number of groups that promote hunting with bassets.

There is a variety of Basset Hound developed purely for hunting by Colonel Morrison that were admitted to the Masters of Basset Hounds Association in 1959 via an Appendix to the Stud Book. This breed differs in being straighter and longer in the leg and having shorter ears.[30]

In popular culture[edit]

Jason the Hush Puppies dog

On February 27, 1928, Time magazine featured a basset hound on the front cover.[31] The accompanying story was about the 52nd annual Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show at Madison Square Garden as if observed by the basset hound puppy.

Many cartoon dogs are based on the basset, such as Barnyard Dawg and Tex Avery's Droopy, with several Bassets appearing in animated Disney films. Syndicated comic strip Fred Basset has been a regular feature in newspapers since 1963.

Various advertising logos feature basset hounds. The logo for Hush Puppies brand shoes prominently features a basset hound whose real name is Jason.[32] Basset hounds are occasionally referred to as "hush puppies" for that reason. A basset hound also serves as the companion to the lonely Maytag Man in Maytag appliance advertisements. Tidewater Petroleum advertised its "Flying A" gasoline using a basset hound named Axelrod.

Some artists, such as director Mamoru Oshii and webcomic artist Scott Kurtz regularly feature their pet Bassets in their work.

In the early days of television, Elvis Presley sang "Hound Dog" to a basset hound named Sherlock on The Steve Allen Show on July 1, 1956. A basset called Morgan (1946–1960) was discovered by Herbie Sanford, the producer of The Garry Moore Show, on which he appeared frequently. He was also seen on The Jackie Gleason Show, Captain Video (where he played a dog from Pluto), and The Kyle MacDonnell Show as well as in a Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis movie. His last appearance was in a drama, where he co-starred with Tom Bosley. Lassie had a basset friend named Pokey early in the Lassie television series. Other TV bassets include:

Bassets in film include:

Related breeds[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hart, Ernest H. This Is the Basset Hound, T.F.H. Books, 1974. ISBN 0-87666-241-6
  2. ^ American Kennel Club. "Basset Hound". American Kennel Club. Retrieved 2015-06-08. 
  3. ^ "Official Breed Standard". Basset Hound Club Of America. Retrieved June 14, 2015. 
  4. ^ Drega, Dana. "Ph.D". Basset Hound Coat Colours. Retrieved June 15, 2015. 
  5. ^ "Basset Hound". Vetstreet.com. Retrieved June 15, 2015. 
  6. ^ Liebers, Arthur; Hardy, Dorothy. How to Raise and Train a Basset Hound, T.F.H. Publications, Jersey City, New Jersey, 1959.
  7. ^ Dog Ear Types at Caninest.com; Archived April 13, 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ "Care of a Basset Hound". Delsharlabassethounds.com. Retrieved 8 December 2014. 
  9. ^ "Official Basset Hound Standard". Basset Hound Club of America. Retrieved June 14, 2015. 
  10. ^ Martínez, Simón; Fajardo, Raúl; Valdés, Jesús; Ulloa-Arvizu, Raúl; Alonso, Rogelio (January 2007). "Histopathologic study of long-bone growth plates confirms the basset hound as an osteochondrodysplastic breed". Can J Vet Res. 71 (1): 66–69. 
  11. ^ Jones, T; Hunt, R (1979). "The musculoskeletal system". In Jones, T; Hunt, R. Veterinary Pathology (5th ed.). Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger. pp. 1175–1176. 
  12. ^ Willis, MB (1989). "Inheritance of specific skeletal and structural defects". In Willis, MB. Genetics of the Dog (1st ed.). Great Britain: Howell Book House. pp. 119–120. 
  13. ^ a b "Elbow Dysplasia (Ununited Anconeal Process)". Genetic Welfare Problems of Companion Animals. ufaw.org.uk: Universities Federation for Animal Welfare. Retrieved 10 February 2015. 
  14. ^ a b "Breed Longevity Data". Users.pullman.com. Retrieved 8 December 2014. 
  15. ^ Michell, AR (1999). "Longevity of British breeds of dog and its relationships with sex, size, cardiovascular variables and disease". Veterinary Record 145: 625–629. 
  16. ^ a b c "Purebred Dog Health Survey Results". TheKennelClub.org. Retrieved 8 December 2014. 
  17. ^ Leroy, G. G.; Phocas, F.; Hedan, B.; Verrier, E.; Rognon, X. (2015). "Inbreeding impact on litter size and survival in selected canine breeds". The Veterinary Journal 203: 74. doi:10.1016/j.tvjl.2014.11.008. 
  18. ^ "Breed Weight and Lifespan". Users.pullman.com. Retrieved 8 December 2014. 
  19. ^ Zedda, M.; Manca, P.; Chisu, V.; Gadau, S.; Lepore, G.; Genovese, A.; Farina, V. (2006). "Ancient Pompeian Dogs – Morphological and Morphometric Evidence for Different Canine Populations, Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia". Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C 35 (5): 319–324. 
  20. ^ "Pictures: Millions of Puppy Mummies in Egypt Labyrinth". National Geographic. Retrieved 8 December 2014. 
  21. ^ "Basset History". Basset Hound Club of America. 
  22. ^ a b Campbell Thornton, Kim; Earle-Bridges, Michele (1998). Bloodhounds: Everything about Purchase, Care, Nutrition, Breeding, Behavior, and Training. Barron's Educational Series. ISBN 0764103423. Retrieved January 15, 2016. 
  23. ^ "Dogs in Rome and Greece". Penelope.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 8 December 2014. 
  24. ^ Fusco, Peter and H. W. Janson, eds., The Romantics to Rodin, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1980, p. 272.
  25. ^ Leighton, Robert (1907). The New Book of the Dog. Cassell and Company, Ltd. ISBN 978-1-151-75332-8. 
  26. ^ Breed standard, Basset Artésien Normand (DOC file) at FCI.be; Archived November 1, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  27. ^ "The Early History of the Basset Hound in England, 1874-1921". Basset.net. Retrieved 8 December 2014. 
  28. ^ "Standard of the Breed Bassethound with Comments by Iva Černohubová". Bohemia-horrido.com. Retrieved 8 December 2014. 
  29. ^ Breed standard, Basset Hound 2010 (DOC file) at FCI.be; Archived November 1, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  30. ^ All About Dogs. Orbis Publishing Ltd. 1974. ISBN 0-85613-033-8. 
  31. ^ "Magazine Cover: Baby Basset Hound". Time. republished at Time.com. February 27, 1928. Retrieved 8 December 2014. 
  32. ^ "Jason's Hush Puppies Scrapbook". Arnold-family.net. Retrieved 30 September 2014. 

External links[edit]