Manenguba language

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Native toCameroon
EthnicityBakossi, Mbo, Bakaka, Bassossi
Native speakers
180,000 (1995–2004)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3Variously:
mbo – Mbo
bss – Akoose
bqz – Kaka (Central Mbo)
bsi – Sosi

Manenguba, also known as Ngoe or the Mbo cluster, is a Bantu language spoken in Cameroon. It is a dialect cluster spoken by several related peoples.

The name Manenguba is the mountain range the speakers live on. Ngoe is their legendary ancestor.


The dialects in the cluster are:[3][4]

  • Koose (Akɔɔse, Bakossi)
    The principal dialect
  • Mbo (Mboo, Sambo)
  • Kaka (Bakaka, Bakaa)
  • Sosi (Bassossi)

There are many loan words from English, French and Douala.[5] When speaking of technical subjects, speakers will often revert to Pidgin English or English.[6]


  1. ^ Mbo at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Akoose at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Kaka (Central Mbo) at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Sosi at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Manenguba". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ a b Jouni Filip Maho, 2009. New Updated Guthrie List Online
  4. ^ According to Hedinger (1987), the Bafaw-Balong language included in Guthrie zone A.15 for cultural reasons needs to be excluded from Manenguba on linguistic grounds; Maho (2009) separates it as A.141.
  5. ^ "The Bakossi Language". Bakossi Cultural & Development Association. Archived from the original on 2011-03-24. Retrieved 2011-02-11.
  6. ^ Anne Schröder (2003). Status, functions, and prospects of Pidgin English: an empirical approach to language dynamics in Cameroon, Volume 1. Gunter Narr Verlag. p. 66. ISBN 3-8233-5821-9.
  • Hedinger, Robert (1987), The Manenguba Languages (Bantu A. 15, Mbo Cluster) of Cameroon

External links[edit]