Location of Basti district in Uttar Pradesh
|Headquarters||Basti, Uttar Pradesh|
|• Lok Sabha constituencies||Basti|
|• Total||2,688 km2 (1,038 sq mi)|
|• Literacy||67.2 per cent|
|• Sex ratio||963|
|Time zone||UTC+05:30 (IST)|
|Major highways||National Highway 28|
|Average annual precipitation||1166 mm|
Basti district is one of the districts of Uttar Pradesh state, India, and a part of Basti Division. Basti town is the district headquarters. In the freedom struggle of 1857, about 250 martyrs of Amorha State were hanged by the British Government from peepal trees located at Chhawani.
Origin of name and history
Amorha Khas is a historical place situated at a distance of 41 km from the district headquarters. Its old name is Amorha, and it was once a province (state) of Raja Zalim Singh. Raja Zalim Singh's Mahal is here, old wall of mahal is still there with the mark of a bullet used by the English. The famous temple Ramrekha Mandir is here. Ramrekha Temple is one of the most ancient Hindu Mandir of Lord Ram and Goddess Sita. Lord Shri Ram stayed here for one day during his journey of Janakpur-Ayodhya. Lord Shri Rama and Sita with Lakshmana journeyed towards Ayodhya by the road called Ram Janki Marg (State Highway 72) near Chhawani.
The district lies between the parallels of 26° 23' and 27° 30' North Latitude and 82° 17' and 83° 20' East longitude. Its maximum length from north to south is about 75 km. and breadth from east to west about 70 km. The district lies between newly created district Sant Kabir Nagar on the east and Gonda on the west on the south, the Ghaghra river near Amorha Khas previously known as Amorha Province or State of Raja Zalim Singh separates it from the Faizabad and newly created district Ambedkar Nagar. On the north it is bounded by district Sidharth Nagar.
According to the 2011 census, Basti district had a population of 2,464,464, of which only 5.6% lived in urban areas. This ranked it the 178th most populous district in India. The district had a population density of 917 inhabitants per square kilometre (2,380/sq mi). Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 18.21%. Basti had a sex ratio of 963 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 67.22%. The child sex ratio of Basti was 922 females for every 1000 males.
Languages spoken in the district include Awadhi in western areas and Bhojpuri in the eastern side. The district Basti may be considered as the demarcation of the languages Awadhi and Hindi. In city, due to increase in educated population, khari boli of Hindi is also observed in daily conversations.
During the late 1800s some 6,415 people from the district of Basti migrated through the indenture system to the Fiji Islands and Suriname. A lot stayed and carried their traditions in the then British Colony.
The district have medical college named Maharishi Vashishtha Medical College  and one Rajkiya Engineering College in Government Polytechnic  . The district follows a usual 10+2+3 pattern of education as elsewhere in India. Some notable schools and institutions of the district are :
- Kendriya Vidyalaya (affiliated to CBSE)
- Central Academy (affiliated to CBSE)
- St. Basils School (affiliated to CISCE)
Basti town is the district headquarters of the district. Basti district, a part of Basti division, is formed of four tehsils: Basti, Harriya, Bhanpur and Rudhauli, and 15 development blocks, 139 Nyay Panchayats, two Parganas named Amorha & Nagar as well as 10 Gram Sabhas. The development blocks included are:
- Amorha (Pargana)
- Nagar (Pargana)
- Harraiya (Tahsil)
- Paras Rampur
- Rudhauli (Tehsil)
- Saltaua Gopal Pur
- Sau Ghat
- Shubham Nagar
- Vikram Jot
The district is noted for its cotton textiles and sugar industries. Cottage industries and small-scale industries including the manufacturing units of brassware, iron and carpentry goods, agricultural implements, bricks, agro-products, foot-wear, soaps, candles, and pottery are present here. Basti is also known for its bamboo, eucalyptus (Eucalyptus teritrornis), mango and shisham (Dalbergia sissoo) populations. Three sugar factories are housed in the district. Sugarcane, maize, paddy, pulses, wheat, barley, and potato are commonly cultivated. Most of the population depends for their livelihood on agricultural practices. The district is well-connected through NH 28 which reflects on its good economy. The city is well-connected through railways also.
In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Basti one of the country's 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640). It is one of the 34 districts in Uttar Pradesh currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF). City is also known for nationwide youth organisation National Association of Youth founded by Bhavesh Kumar Pandey and run from Basti.  The organization organizes Basti Mini Marathon every year since 2012.
Basti railway station lies on the main line connecting Lucknow with Gorakhpur and places in Bihar and Assam in the east passes through the south of the district. The main line has 7 railway stations which are, from east to west, Munderwa, Orwara, Basti, Govindnagar, Tinich, Gaur, and Babhnan within the district. There is a daily Intercity express between Gorakhpur, Basti, Gonda, and Lucknow. National Highway 28, a part of the East West Corridor project of Government of India and NHAI, also passes through Basti.
Flora and fauna
The forest cover of the district has dwindled with increasing use of land for agriculture. There are areas with high prevalence of mango (Mangifera indica), mahua (Madhuca longifolia), sal (Shorea robusta), and bamboo (Bambusa arundinacea) trees. Some of the wild animals of the district are the nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus), antelok (Anelok cervicapra), pig (Sus scrofa), wolf (Canis lupus), jackal (Conis aureus), fox (Vulpes bengalensis), hare (Lepus ruficandatus), monkey (Macaca mulatta), wild cat (Felis bengalensis) and the porcupine (Hystric leucura). Several species of game birds are also seen, including the peafowl (Pavo cristatus), the black partridge (Frencolinus francolinus) and the gray partridge (Francalinus pondicervanus). A number of migratory water fowls visit the water bodies of the district in winter, such as the goose (Anser anser), common teal (Anas crecca), red-crested pochard (Netta rufina), white-eyed pochard (Aythya rufa) and the wigeon (Mareca penelope). The cobra (Naja naja), krait (Bungarus caeruleus), and rat-snake (Ptyas mucosus) are commonly found. The Indian crocodile or naka (Crocodylus palustris), and the ghariyal (Gavialis gangeticus) are also found in the river Ghaghra. The common fish species are rohu (Lebeo rohita), bhakur (Catla catla), nain (Cirrhina mrigala), parhin (Wallagonia attu), krunch (Labeo calbasu), and tengan (Mystus seenghala).
Notable people from the district include:
- Arvind Kumar Chaudhary – former Member of Parliament for Basti (Lok Sabha constituency).
- Ram Prasad Chaudhary – former cabinet minister in UP Government.
- Harish Dwivedi – BJP elected at the 2014 Indian general elections from the Basti (Lok Sabha constituency).[Member of parliament].
- Jagdambika Pal – former chief minister of UP Government
- Sarveshwar Dayal Saxena – Hindi poet who received the government Sahitya Academy prize
- Brijesh Shandilya - playback singer from Basti Uttar Pradesh.
- Ramchandra Shukla – regarded as the first codifier of the history of Hindi literature in a scientific system
- Obaid Siddiqi – biologist (geneticist), referred to as the founder of modern biology in India; founded TIFR (Molecular Biology Dep.) and NCB, Bangalore
- Raj Kishor Singh – former cabinet minister in UP Government.
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- Benett, W.C. (1878). The final settlement report on the Gonda district. 23. p. 22. Retrieved 14 January 2017.
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- Thomas, David (17 December 1998). "Battles & Honours of Royal Navy". Pen and Sword. Retrieved 25 July 2016 – via Google Books.
- Decadal Variation In Population Since 1901
- "Basti District : Census 2011 data". census2011.co.in. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
- 2011 Census of India, Population By Mother Tongue
- Gopeshwar Tripathi, ed. (2009). "Bhojpuri: A language of India". Ethnologue: Languages of the World (16th ed.). Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
- Maharishi Vashishtha Medical College
- Rajkiya Engineering College in Government Polytechnic
- Kendriya Vidyalaya
- Ministry of Panchayati Raj (8 September 2009). "A Note on the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme" (PDF). National Institute of Rural Development. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 April 2012. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
- "NAY". Retrieved 18 January 2016.
- "Welcome – Munderwa". Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- "Welcome to NHAI". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 25 July 2016.
- Official website of Basti (U.P.) administration
- Munderwa, Basti District
- Introduction – Basti District
- Agriculture Basti
- Basti District map
- District Court of Basti