Pakpak language

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Pakpak
Kata Pakpak
Native toIndonesia
RegionSumatra (northern)
EthnicityPakpak, Singkil
Native speakers
(1.2 million cited 1991)[1]
Batak
Language codes
ISO 639-3btd
Glottologbata1294

Pakpak, or Batak Dairi, is an Austronesian language of Sumatra. It is spoken in Dairi Regency, Pakpak Bharat Regency, Parlilitan district of Humbang Hasundutan Regency, Manduamas district of Central Tapanuli Regency, and Subulussalam and Aceh Singkil Regency.

Dairi Batak syllables in Batak script.

Phonology[edit]

Consonants[edit]

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive/
Affricate
voiceless p t k
voiced b d ɡ
Fricative s h
Trill r
Lateral l
Semivowel w j
  • A word-final /k/ can also be heard as a glottal stop [ʔ].

Vowels[edit]

Front Central Back
Close i u
Mid e ə o
Open a
  • Vowels /i, u, e, o/ can have shortened allophones of [ɪ, ʊ, ɛ, ɔ].[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pakpak at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  2. ^ Simbolon, Apul; Tinambunan, Raman; Pardede, Bertha (1978). Fonologi bahasa Batak Dairi. Medan: Proyek Penelitian Institut Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan.

Further reading[edit]