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Batangas Provincial Capitol
Location in the Philippines
|Region||Calabarzon (Region IV-A)|
|Founded||December 8, 1581|
|• Type||Province of the Philippines|
|• Governor||Vilma Santos-Recto (Liberal)|
|• Vice Governor||Jose Antonio Leviste II (Liberal)|
|• Total||3,119.75 km2 (1,204.54 sq mi)|
|Area rank||46th out of 80|
|• Rank||8th out of 80|
|• Density||760/km2 (2,000/sq mi)|
|• Density rank||7th out of 80|
|• Independent cities||0|
|• Component cities||3|
|• Districts||1st to 6th districts of Batangas|
|Time zone||PHT (UTC+8)|
|ZIP code||4200 to 4234|
|ISO 3166 code||PH-BTG|
|Spoken languages||Batangas Tagalog,English|
Batangas or Bataŋgas, is a province in the Philippines located in the CALABARZON region in the island of Luzon. Its capital is the city of Batangas and is bordered by the provinces of Cavite and Laguna to the north and Quezon to the east. Across the Verde Island Passages to the south is the island of Mindoro and to the west lies the South China Sea. Poetically, Batangas is often referred to by its ancient name Kumintáng.
Batangas is one of the most popular tourist destinations near Metro Manila. It is home to the well-known Taal Volcano, one of the Decade Volcanoes, and Taal Heritage town, a small picturesque town that has ancestral houses and structures dating back to the 19th century. The province also has several beaches and diving spots including Anilao in Mabini, Sombrero Island in Tingloy, Ligpo Island in Bauan, Matabungkay in Lian, Punta Fuego in Nasugbu, Calatagan and Laiya in San Juan.
Batangas City has the second largest international seaport in the Philippines after Metro Manila. The identification of the city as an industrial growth center in the region and being the focal point of the CALABARZON program resulted to the increasing number of business establishments in the city's Central Business District (CBD) as well as numerous industries operating at the province's industrial parks.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Culture
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Economy
- 7 Government
- 8 Flora and fauna
- 9 References
- 10 External links
The first recorded name of the province was Kumintáng, whose political centre was the present-day Balayan and was the most progressive town of the region. An eruption of the Taal Volcano destroyed a significant portion of the town, causing residents to transfer to Bonbon (now Taal), the name eventually encompassing the bounds of the modern province.
The term Batangan means a raft which the people used so that they could fish in the nearby Taal Lake. It also meant the numerous logs found in the Calumpang River, the body of water that runs through the northeastern portion of the town and assumes the shape of a tuning fork.
Long before the arrival of the Spaniards in the Philippines, large centers of population already thrived in Batangas. Native settlements lined the Pansipit River, a major waterway. The province had been trading with the Chinese since Yuan Dynasty until first phase of Ming Dynasty in the 13th and 15th century. Inhabitants of the province were also trading with Japan and India.
Archaeological findings show that before the settlement of the Spaniards in the country, the Tagalogs, especially the Batangueños, had a high level of civilization. This was shown by some jewelry, made from a chambered nautilus' shell, where some tiny holes were drilled by some tube.
Later, the prehistoric Batangueños was influenced by India as shown in some ancient potteries. A Buddhist image was reproduced in mould on a clay medallion in bas-relief from the Municipality of Calatagan. According to experts, the image in the pot strongly resembles the iconographic portrayal of Buddha in Siam, India, and Nepal. The pot shows Buddha Amithaba in the tribhanga pose inside an oval nimbus. Scholars also noted that there is a strong Mahayanic orientation in the image, since the Boddhisattva Avalokitesvara was also depicted.
||This section possibly contains original research. (May 2015)|
One of the major archaeological finds was in January 1941, where two crude stone figures were found in Palapat in the Municipality of Calatagan. They were later donated to the National Museum. One of them was destroyed during World War II.
Eighteen years later, a grave was excavated in the nearby Punta Buaya. Pieces of brain coral were carved behind the heads of the 12 remains that were found. The site was named Likha (meaning "Create"). The remains were accompanied by furniture that could be traced as early as the 14th century. Potteries, as well as bracelets, stoneware, and metal objects were also found in the area, suggesting that the people who lived there had an extensive contact with people from as far as China.
The presence of dining utensils also suggested that prehistoric Batangueños believed in the idea of life-after-death, since someone might need a plate where he would eat or chalices where he could drink. This also related the Batangueños to its neighbors in Asia, where it was a custom to bury some furniture with the dead.
Like the nearby tribes, the Batangan or the early Batangueños were non-aggressive people. Partly because most of the tribes in the immediate environs are related to them by blood. Some weapons Batangans used included the bakyang (bows and arrows), the bangkaw (spears), and the suwan (bolo).
Though highly superstitious, the use of amulet (talisman) showed that these people believed in the presence of higher beings and other things unseen. Thus, there is a strong connection between the Batangans and nature.
Although it is widely accepted that the term Tagalog came from the word 'Taga-Ilog' or "river dwellers" (referring to the Pasig River), Wang The-Ming pointed out in his writings that Batangas was the real centre of the Tagalog tribe, which he then identified as Ma-yi. According to this Chinese Annals, Ma-yi had its centre in the Province and extends to as far as Cavite, Laguna, Rizal, Quezon, Bataan, Bulacan, Mindoro, Marinduque, Nueva Ecija, some parts of Zambales, and Tarlac. However, many historians interchangeably use the term Tagalog and Batangueño.
Henry Otley Beyer, an American archaeologist, also showed in his studies that the early Batangueños had a special affinity with the precious stone known as the jade. He named the Late Paleolithic Period of the Philippines as the Batangas Period in recognition of the multitude of jade found in the excavated caves in the province. Beyer identified that the jade-cult reached the province as early as 800 B.C. and lasted until 200 B.C.
In 1570, Spanish generals Martin de Goiti and Juan de Salcedo explored the coast of Batangas on their way to Manila and came upon a Malay settlement at the mouth of Pansipit River. In 1572, the town of Taal was founded and its convent and stone church were constructed later.
Officially, the Province of Bonbon was founded by Spain in 1578, through Fr. Estaban Ortiz and Fr. Juan de Porras. It was named after the name that was given to it by the Muslim natives who inhabited the area.
In 1581, the Spanish government abolished the Bonbon Province and created a new province which came to be known as Balayan Province. The new province was composed of the present provinces of Batangas, Mindoro, Marinduque, southeast Laguna, and Camarines. After the devastating eruption of Taal Volcano in 1754, the old town of Taal, present day San Nicolas, was buried. The capital was eventually transferred to Batangas (now a city) in fear of further eruptions where it has remained to date.
In the same years that de Goiti and Salcedo visited the province, the Franciscan missionaries came to Taal, which later became the first Spanish settlement in Batangas and one of the earliest in the Philippines. In 1572, the Augustinians founded Taal in the place of Wawa, now San Nicolas, and from there began preaching in Balayan and in all the big settlements around the lake of Bombon (Taal). The Augustinians, who were the first missionaries in the diocese, remained until the revolution against Spain. Among the first missionaries were eminent men which included Alfonso de Albuquerque, Diego Espinas, Juan de Montojo, and others.
During the first ten years, the whole region around the Lake of Bombon was completely Christianized. It was done through the preaching of men who had learned the first rudiments of the language of the people. At the same time, they started writing manuals of devotion in Tagalog, such as novenas, and had written the first Tagalog grammar that served other missionaries who came.
Foundation of important parishes followed throughout the years: 1572, the Taal Parish was founded by the Augustinians; 1581, the Batangas Parish under Fray Diego Mexica; 1596, Bauan Parish administered by the Augustinian missionaries; 1605, Lipa Parish under the Augustinian administration;1774, Balayan Parish was founded; 1852, Nasugbu Parish; and 1868, Lemery Parish.
The town of Nasugbu became an important centre of trade during the Spanish occupation of the country. It was the site of the first recorded battle between two European Forces in Asia in Fortune Island, Nasugbu, Batangas. In the late part of the 20th Century, the inhabitants of Fortune Island discovered a sunken galleon that contained materials sold in the Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade.
Batangas was also among the first of the eight Philippine provinces to revolt against Spain and also one of the provinces placed under Martial Law by Spanish Governor-General Ramon Blanco on August 30, 1896. This event was given distinction when Marcela Agoncillo, also a native of the province, made the Philippine Flag, which bears a sun with eight rays to represent these eight provinces.
When the Americans forbade the Philippine flag from being flown anywhere in the country, Batangas was one of the places where the revolutionaries chose to propagate their propaganda. Many, especially the revolutionary artists chose Batangas as the place to perform their plays. In an incident recorded by Amelia Bonifacio in her diary, the performance of Tanikalang Ginto in the province led not only to the arrest of the company but all of the audience. Later, the play was banned from being shown anywhere in the country.
After the attack in Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, the Japanese switched their planes to attacking the Philippines, launching major air raids throughout the country. The bombings resulted into the destruction of the Batangas Airport located in Batangas City, of which nothing remains today. Batangas was also a scene of heavy fighting between the Philippine Army Air Corps and the Japanese A6M Zero Fighter Planes. The most notable air combat battle took place at height of 3,700 metres (12,000 ft) on December 12, 1941 when 6 Filipino fighters led by Capt. Jesús Villamor engaged the numerically superior enemy of 54 Japanese bombers and fighter escorts which raided the Batangas Airfield. Capt. Jesús Villamor won the battle, suffering only one casualty, Lt. César Basa whose plane was shot down by seven intercepting enemy fighters which eventually died when he was strafed by machine gun's fire came from the A6M Zeroes.
When Gen. Douglas MacArthur ordered the overall retreat of the American-Filipino Forces to Bataan in 1942, the province was ultimately abandoned and later came under direct Japanese occupation. During this time, the Imperial Japanese Army committed many crimes against civilians including the massacre of 328 people in Bauan, 320 in Taal, 300 in Cuenca, 107 in San Jose, and 39 in Lucero.
||This section may be incomprehensible or very hard to understand. (January 2016)|
|Battle of Batangas|
|Part of World War II|
|362,000 Filipino troops
30,000 Batangueño guerrillas
65,000 American troops
|156,000 Japanese troops|
|Casualties and losses|
As part of the Philippines Campaign (1944–45), the liberation begun on January 31, 1945, when elements of the 11th Airborne Division under the U.S. Eighth Army went ashore of the beaches of Nasugbu, Batangas. However, Batangas was not yet the target of the invasion force but instead, most of its units switch north to capture Manila and by March 3, the capital was completely secured. XIV Corps of the U.S. Sixth Army continued its drive south of Luzon and by March 4, the 11th Airborne Division together with 158th Regimental Combat Team (or 158th RCT) were passed under its command. 158th Regimental Combat Team stationed in Nasugbu would have to secure the shores and nearby towns of Balayan and Batangas Bays while the 11th Airborne Division from the Tagaytay Ridge would attack the Japanese defenses north of Taal Lake and by then reaching the Lipa Corridor. The same that day, 158th RCT had captured the town of Balayan and by March 11 had reached Batangas City. In order to secure the two bays, 158th RCT would have to capture the entire Calumpang Peninsula of the town of Mabini which was still held by some elements of the Japanese 2nd Surface Raiding Base Force. Fighting continued until March 16 when the whole peninsula was finally captured. After that, 158th RCT's turn northward to meet the Japanese Fuji Force defenses at Mt. Maculot in Cuenca on March 19. Finally, 158th Regimental Combat Team capitulated on March 23 for Bicol Operations and 187th Infantry Task Force of the 11th Airborne Division was assigned to relieve their positions in the mountain. Another 11th Airborne Division task force, the 188th Infantry was ordered to dispatch their troops around Batangas City and its remaining frontiers. To the northern section, 11th Airborne Division's 511 Parachute Infantry Regiment positions in Santo Tomas and Tanauan were all relieved by the 1st Cavalry Division. By now, 11th Airborne Division's 187th and 188th Infantry Task Forces holding the southern sector and the 1st Infantry Division to the northern sector were on their way to secure the Lipa Corridor, the last major part of the Province of Batangas to be taken.
The last major offensive for the capture of the Lipa Corridor begun when 188th Infantry Task Force from Batangas City left for Lipa on March 24. The same that day, 187th Infantry Task Force launched an attack against the remaining Japanese positions in Mt. Maculot. Although still heavy fighting continued until April 17, the bulk of its forces headed also for the invasion of the Lipa Corridor. The final capture of Mt. Maculot came by April 21.
188th Infantry Task Force on the other hand engaged a stiff resistance against Fuji Force's 86th Airfield Battalion on March 26. Meanwhile, to the north, 1st Cavalry Division attacked the remaining Japanese defenses in towns of Santo Tomas and Tanauan and by then meeting up with the advancing 187th and 188th Infantry Task Forces from the south. Lipa was captured by the 1st Cavalry Division on March 29. Fuji Force's 86th Airfield Battalion retreated and makes their last stand on Mt. Malepunyo where they were besieged by the 187th Infantry Task Force and 1st Cavalry Division from both north and south positions.
With the capture of Lipa, 1st Cavalry Division, 187th and 188th Infantry Task Forces continued their drive towards the Quezon Province. Only some elements of the 188th Infantry Task Force was left to clear the Batangas Mountains located southeast of province from the remaining Japanese defenses. Throughout the battle, recognized Filipino Guerrilla fighters played an important key role in the advancement of the combined American and Philippine Commonwealth troops, providing key roads and information for the Japanese location of defenses and movements. The 11th Airborne Division and attached Filipino Guerillas had 390 casualties in which 90 of it were figured dead. The Japanese however lost 1,490 men. Soon afterwards, by the end of April 1945, Batangas was liberated and fully secured for the Allied control, thus ending all the hostilities.
The establishment and founding of the military general headquarters and military camp bases of the Philippine Commonwealth Army was active and built on 1942 to 1946 and the Philippine Constabulary was active and built on 1944 to 1946 in the province of Batangas in Southern Luzon. During the engagements of the Anti-Japanese Imperial Military Operations in Manila, Southern Luzon, Mindoro and Palawan from 1942 to 1945 included the City of Manila and the Provinces of Rizal, Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, Mindoro, and Palawan and aided the local soldiers of the Philippine Constabulary, local guerrilla resistance and U.S. liberation military forces against the Japanese Imperial armed forces.[clarification needed]
Local Filipino soldiers of the 4th, 41st, 42nd, 43rd, 45th, and 46th Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army and 4th Infantry Regiment of the Philippine Constabulary was started the Battle for the Liberation of Batangas under the Southern Luzon Campaign from the Allied and Japanese forces in January to August 1945 and helping the local recognized guerrillas and American forces against the Japanese Imperial forces and ended in World War II.[clarification needed]
After Douglas MacArthur made his famous landing in the Island of Leyte, he came next to the town of Nasugbu to mark the liberation of Luzon. This historic landing is remembered by the people of Batangas every last day of January, a holiday for the Nasugbugueños.
After the Philippines was freed from America, statesmen from Batangas featured prominently in the government. These include the legislators Felipe Agoncillo, Galicano Apacible (who later became the Secretary of Agriculture), Ramon Diokno, Apolinario R. Apacible, Expedito Leviste, Gregorio Katigbak, Teodoro Kalaw, Claro M. Recto, and José Laurel, Jr.
It is also notable that when President Manuel L. Quezon left the Philippines during the Japanese Occupation, the Japanese government in the Philippines chose the Batangueño José Laurel, Sr. as the de jure President of the Puppet Republic.
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She also appointed Renato de Villa as the Chief of Constabulary and Director-General of the Integrated National Police, and later the Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. It was under his leadership that the Military remained loyal to Aquino despite the many coup d'etat attempts of Gregorio Honasan. He was also one of the influences behind the Second People Power in 2001.
During the Presidency of Joseph Estrada, he also chose four Batangueños to be his closest advisers. The group was composed of Domingo Panganiban (Department of Agriculture), Benjamin Diokno (Department of Budget and Management), Dong Apacible (Legislative Liaison), Tony "Lepili" Leviste (Board of Investments Governor), and Ped Faytaren (Economic Intelligence Chief). This is not to mention Dennis Hernandez, special assistant to Alfredo Lim of the Department of Interior and Local Government. During the Estrada Impeachment Trial, Hernando Perez, a known lawyer from Batangas City, served as private prosecutor.
The Second People Power in 2001 also became an important event for the Batangueños. After Joseph Estrada was thrown off from power, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo replaced him and chose de Villa as her Executive Secretary. He was replaced by Eduardo Ermita, another Batangueño, whom she first appointed as Secretary of the Department of National Defense.
Three other Batangueños were in the Original Arroyo Cabinet, namely, Noel Cabrera from the Office of the Press Secretary, Renato Corona who was the Presidential Spokesman then later became a Supreme Court Justice, and Hernando Perez who was the Secretary of the Department of Justice.
Leandro Mendoza, who was also chief of the Philippine National Police, was appointed Secretary of the Department of Transportation and Communication upon his retirement, while Lauro Baja, former Undersecretary of the Department of Foreign Affairs was appointed the Philippine Envoy to the United Nations.
Batangas is a combination of plains and mountains, including the world's smallest volcano, Mt. Taal, with an elevation of 600 metres (2,000 ft), located in the middle of the Taal Lake. Other important peaks are Mt. Makulot with an elevation of 830 metres (2,720 ft), Mt. Talamitam with 700 metres (2,300 ft), Mt. Pico de Loro with 664 metres (2,178 ft), Mt. Batulao with 811 metres (2,661 ft), Mt. Manabo with 830 metres (2,720 ft), and Mt. Daguldol with 672 metres (2,205 ft).
The Municipality of Nasugbu is the home of the plantation of Central Azucarera Don Pedro, the Philippines' largest producer of sugar and other sugarcane products.
According to Guinness World Records, the largest island in a lake on an island is situated in Batangas (Vulcan Point, in Crater Lake, which rests in the middle of Taal Island, in Lake Taal, on the island of Luzon, where Batangas is located).
Way of life
Maria Kalaw Katigbak, a Filipino historian, was quoted to call the Batangueños the Super-Tagalogs. One particular custom in the Batangas culture is the so-called Matanda sa Dugo (lit. older by blood) practice wherein one gives respect not because of age but of consanguinity. During the early times, the custom of having very large families are very common. Thus, it may be expected that the someone's uncle could be of the same age, or even younger than himself. In this case, the older one would call the younger one in an honorary title (such as tiyo or simply kuya if they can no longer establish the relationship), not the other way around. This often draws confusion to those from other provinces who are not accustomed to such practices. This practice exists until today.
Batangueños are very regionalistic. When one learns that a person in the room is also from Batangas, expect them to be together until the end of the event. It is also expected that those in office would favour their fellow Batangueños as long as the rules could allow it. Thus the running joke, the Batangas Mafia came to existence.
They also tend to live in a large extended family. It is but common that a piece of land remains undivided until the family connection becomes to far-off related. Marriages between relatives of the fifth generation is still restrained in the Batangan culture even if Philippine laws allow it.
Batangueños are known for being religious, where devotees pay respect in such way that they make rituals, such as dances and chants (Luwa) to please them, one of these is the Passion in which it is a common sight to hear these chants during the Lenten season, a religious act still practice today. During the month of May the people of Bauan and Alitagtag celebrate the feast day of the Mahal na Poon ng Sta. Cruz, a ritual dance called the Subli is made to respect to the Poon. In the town of Taal they celebrate the feast day of the Our Lady of Caysasay and San Martin de Tours a two-day celebration where procession from the shine of the Virgin towards the Pansipit River where the fluvial procession and another procession towards the Basilica are made in honored of the Virgin Mary. Fiestas in other towns usually start in the month of May and last up to the first day of June, usually the plaza near the church becomes the center of attraction.
Mythology and literature
Scholars also identified that the ancient Batangueños, like the rest of the Tagalog Tribe, worship the Supreme Creator, known as Bathala. Lesser gods like Mayari, the goddess of the Moon and her brother Apolake, god of the sun, were also present.
In 2004, the Province of Batangas gave its Son Domingo Landicho (familiarly called Inggo be Batangueños) the Dangal ng Batangas Award (Pride of Batangas) for being the Peoples' Poet.
Musicologists identified Batangas as the origin of the kumintang, an ancient war song, which later evolved to become the signature of Filipino love songs the kundiman. From the ancient kumintang, another vocal music emerged, identified as the awit. The huluna, a psalm-like lullaby, is also famous in some towns, especially Bauan.
During the Lenten Season, the Christian passion-narrative, called Pasyon by the natives, is expected in every corners of the province. In fact according to scholars, the very first printed version of the pasyon was authored by a layman from Rosario named Gaspar Aquino de Belen. Although de Belen's version was printed in 1702, it is still debated whether there were earlier versions.
Debates may also be done while singing. Batangueños are known for the duplo (a sung debate where each lines of the verse must be octosyllabic) and the karagatan (a sung debate where each lines of the verse must be dodecasyllabic.) The latter, whose literal meaning is "ocean", got its name from the opening lines. Always, the karagatan is opened by saying some verses that alludes the depth of the sea and comparing it to the difficulty of joining the debate. And as mentioned above, the debate must be sung.
Batangas is also the origin of the Balitao. Aside from being a form of vocal music, the Balitao is also a form of dance music. The Balitao, together with the Subli is the most famous form of dance native to Batangas.
Batangas is the birthplace of the famous Filipino soprano Conching Rosal, dubbed as the First Lady of the Philippine Operatic Stage. Lorenzo Ilustre, a local composer, also became famous for his wide array of religious and liturgical music.
The well-known Conductor and Violinist Oscar Yatco was born in Tanauan, Batangas on November 23, 1931 to a family of musicians. He served as a conductor, concert master, professor and music consultant for local orchestras such as the Manila Symphony Orchestra, the Cultural Center of the Philippine Philharmonic Orchestra; and overseas National Theater Orchestra, Wagner Festival Orchestra and State Academy of Music in Hannover, Germany.
The Maestro of Philippine Music, Ryan Cayabyab is also a Batangueño, whose mother Celerina Pujante was an operatic soprano in the 1950s, about the same time as Conching Rosal. Cayabyab composed several kinds of music, from popular to heavy classical. He also won the Onnasis Awards for best score for theatre, and also composed music for Katy! at Rama at Sita, two of the Philippines most famous Tagalog musicals.
Ogie Alcasid, known to fans as Mr. Composer, also hails from this province. A former member of the De La Salle University - Kundirana, he became one the Philippines' composer of popular music. He has composed for several major figures of Philippine popular music, aside from singing some of his compositions himself.
Aside from being politicians, the Laurel Family is a well known patron of the arts in the province, their entire generation (pioneered by Cocoy followed by Franco and now by Denise became known in the industry. Currently, Franco, together with his wife Ayen holds the copyright of Rama at Sita, a Filipino musical based on India's Ramayana.
Architecture and sculpture
As shown in its ancient churches, Batangas is home to some of the best preserved colonial architectures in the country, especially evident in the municipality of Taal.
Though not as popular as the carving industry of Laguna, Batangas is still well-known for the sculptures engraved on the countless furniture. Often, altar tables coming from Batangas was called the "friars' choice" because of its delicate beauty.
According to Milagros Covarubias-Jamir, another Filipino scholar, the furniture that came from Batangas during the colonial times was comparable to the beautiful furniture from China. The built of the furniture was so exquisite, nails of glues was never used. Still, the Batangueños knew how to maximize the use of hardwoods. As a result, furniture made about a hundred years ago are still found in many old churches and houses even today.
- Museo ng Katipunan: Barangay Bulaklakan, Lipa
- Apolinario Mabini Shrine: Marcela Agoncillo Historical Landmark, Barangay Talaga, Tanauan, Batangas
- Miguel Malvar Hospital: Leon Apacible Historical Landmark, Sto. Tomas, Batangas
- Museo ng Batangas at Aklatang Panlalawigan: includes the Dr. Jose P. Laurel Library, Tanauan, Batangas
|Source: National Statistics Office|
In the recent years, waves of migration from the Visayas had brought significant number of Visayans to the province. There are also a few who can speak Spanish, since Batangas was an important centre during the colonial period.
Batangas also has one of the highest literacy rates in the country at 96.5%, wherein the males have a slightly higher literacy rate at 97.1% than females with 95.9%. Combined average of literacy is 96%.
The dialect of Tagalog spoken in the province closely resembles the Old Tagalog spoken before the arrival of the Spanish. Hence, the Summer Institute of Linguistics  called this province the heartland of the Tagalog Language. A strong presence of the Tagalog culture is clearly visible to the present day.
Linguistically, Batangueños are also known for their unique affectation of often placing the particles eh or ga (equivalent to the particle ba in Filipino), usually as a marker of stress on the sentence, at the end of their spoken sentences or speech; for example: "Ay, oo, eh!" ("Aye, yes, indeed!"). Some even prolong the particle 'eh' into 'ala eh', though it really has no meaning in itself.
The high literacy of the locals means English is also widely spoken in the province. Spanish is also understood to some extent, especially in the towns of Nasugbu, Taal, and Lemery, which still have significant Spanish-speaking minorities. Visayan is also spoken by a significant minority due to the influx of migration from the Southern Philippines.
Batangas has Abrahamic religions like Roman Catholicism which is followed by very large majority of the population at 97%. Islam, is also present which can be found mostly in Balayan, Lipa and Batangas City. Jews are 0.02% of the population. The rest are divided between other Christian Denominations.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (February 2009)|
Batangas is known for its fan knife, locally known as balisong, which has also become an industry in the province.
Pineapples are also common in Batangas. Aside from the fruit, the leaves are also useful that it becomes an industry of its own. In the Municipality of Taal, pineapple leaves are being processed to be a kind of cloth known as the gusi, which is further processed to become the Barong Tagalog, the National Costume of the Philippines.
Batangas is known for its livestock industry. Cattle from Batangas is widely sought throughout the country. The term Bakang Batangas (Batangas Cow) is actually synonymous to the country's best species of cattle. The cattle industry in Batangas is famous, that every Saturday is an auction day in the municipalities of San Juan, Bauan and Padre Garcia.
Fishing plays a very important part of the economy of the province. Although the tuna industry in the country is mainly centered in General Santos, Batangas is also known for the smaller species of the said fish. The locals even have their own names for the said fish. Some of them include the term, Tambakol, yellow-finned Berberabe, tambakulis, Tulingan, Bonito and another species also called Bonito but actually the Gymnosarda unicolor. There is also an important industry for the Tanigue.
Aside from the South China Sea, Taal Lake also provides a source of freshwater fishes to the country. The lake is home to Sardinella tawilis or simply tawilis, a species of freshwater sardine that is endemic to the lake. Taal Lake also provides farmed Chanos chanos or bangus. There is also a good volume of Oreochromis niloticus niloticus and Oreochromis aureus, both locally called tilapia. It is ecologically important to note that neither bangus nor tilapia are native to the lake. Thus they are considered invasive species to the lake.
Sugar is also a major industry. After the Hacienda Luisita, the country's former largest sugar producer, was broken-up for land reform, the Municipality of Nasugbu has been the home of the current largest sugar producing company, the Central Azucarera Don Pedro. Rice cakes and sweets are also a strong industry.
Some towns (those that are adjacent to Laguna) have a prosperous bamboo based industry, where several houses and furniture are made of bamboo. Natives say that food cooked in bamboo has an added scent and flavour. Labong or the baby bamboo is cooked with coconut milk or with other ingredients to make a Batangas delicacy.
The City of Batangas hosts the second most important international seaport in the Island of Luzon, serving as a primary entry point of goods coming from the Southern part of the country and also internationally.
Batangas Port and STAR
Batangas City is the principal port for ferry access to Mindoro, Tablas, Romblon, and other islands. Montenegro Lines is the largest of a number of passenger shipping companies operating out of Batangas. Condensate tankers offload at Batangas in sizeable quantity.
On the same day, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo also inspected a major road project in Southern Tagalog. She then inspected the P1.5-billion, 19.74 kilometer Southern Tagalog Arterial Road (STAR Tollway), Stage II-Phase 1 connecting Lipa and Batangas and the South Luzon Expressway (SLEX) road widening, expansion and the STAR Tollway development projects in Batangas.
Together with the provinces in the Island of Panay, Ilocos Sur and Pampanga, Batangas was one of the earliest province established by the Spaniards who settled in the country. It was headed by Martin de Goiti and since then it became one of the most important centres of the Philippines, not only the Tagalogs. Batangas first came to be known as Bonbon. It was named after the mystical and fascinating Taal Lake, which was also originally called Bonbon. Some of the earliest settlements in Batangas were established at the vicinity of Taal Lake. In 1534, Batangas became the first practically organized province in Luzon. Balayan was the capital of the province for 135 years from 1597-1732. In 1732, it was moved to Taal, then the flourishing and most progressive town in the province it wasn't until 1754 that the capital was destroyed by the Great Taal Eruption of 1754. It was in 1889 that the capital was moved to the present, Batangas City.
Batangas is also known in the Philippine History as the "Cradle of Noble Heroes", giving homage not only to the heroes it produced but the statesmen that came to lead the country. Among the Batangas politicians are Teodoro M. Kalaw, Apolinario Mabini, Jose Laurel, Claro M. Recto, Felipe Agoncillo and Don Apolinario Apacible
|First District||Roman H. Rosales||Ramon C. Bausas|
|Second District||Mario Vittorio A. Mariño||Dexter R. Buted||Amelia E. Alvarez|
|Third District||Alfredo C. Corona||Divina G. Balba|
|Fourth District||Rowena S. Africa||Amado Carlos A. Bolilia, IV||Mabelle D. Virtusio|
|Philippine Councilors League President||Kathleen C. Briones|
|Liga ng Mga Barangay President||Herminigildo J. Dolor|
- Elected Representatives
- 1st District: Elenita Milagros R. Ermita-Buhain
- 2nd District: Raneo E. Abu
- 3rd District: Nelson P. Collantes
- 4th District: Mark Llandro L. Mendoza
List of former governors
Flora and fauna
The malabayabas, or Philippine Teak, is endemic to Batangas. The province is also home to the kabag (Haplonycteris fischeri), one of the world's smallest fruit bats. In the Municipality of Nasugbu, wild deer still inhabit the remote areas of Barangay Looc, Papaya, Bulihan, and Dayap.
In the second half of 2006, scientists from the United States discovered that the Sulu-Sulawesi Triangle has its centre at the Isla Verde Passage, a part of the province. According to this study, made by the American Marine Biologist Dr. Kent Carpentier, Batangas' seas host more than half of the world's species of coral. It is also home to dolphins and once in a while, a passage of the world's biggest fish: the whale shark or the butanding, as the locals call it. The Municipality of San Juan has a resident marine turtle or pawikan. Pawikans like Olive Ridley sea turtle, leather back sea turtle, and green sea turtle were also prevalent in the Municipality of Nasugbu up to the present.
- "List of Provinces". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- "Population and Annual Growth Rates for The Philippines and Its Regions, Provinces, and Highly Urbanized Cities" (PDF). 2010 Census and Housing Population. National Statistics Office. Retrieved 26 August 2013.
- Batangas Airport in Brgy. Alaingilan destroyed after Japanese air raids
- Lt. César Basa's actions at the Japanese Air Raids in the Batangas Airfield
- Christine Sherman, M.J. Thurman, War Crimes, Japan's World War II, p.136
- Usage of U.S. Landing Craft during the Pacific Theater of World War II
- 158th RCT and 11th Airborne Division came under the command of XIV Corps of the U.S. Sixth Army
- 158th RCT's invasion of Balayan and Batangas city
- 158th RCT's drive towards Calumpang Peninsula against the 2nd Surface Raiding Base Force
- Disengage of 158th RCT for Bicol Operations and placement of the 11th Airborne Division
- 1st Cavalry Division relieved 511th Parachute Infantry Regiment
- 188th Infantry Task Force left for Lipa Corridor
- Final Capture of Mt. Maculot
- Fuji Force's 86th Airfield Battalion encirclement
- 1st Cavalry Division, 187th and 188th Infantry Task Force drive in Southern Luzon
- Casualties after the fight in Batangas
- "Province: Batangas". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 6 November 2013.
- "Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay: as of May 1, 2010 (CALABARZON)" (PDF). 2010 Census of Population and Housing. National Statistics Office. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- Abs-Cbn Interactive, President Arroyo inaugurates Batangas port project
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Batangas.|
- Geographic data related to Batangas at OpenStreetMap
- Official Website of the Provincial Government of Batangas
|South China Sea||Quezon|
|Isla Verde Passage
|Isla Verde Passage
|Tayabas Bay, Marinduque|