Bath salts

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This article is about salts used when bathing. For the designer drugs, see Bath salts (drug).
Bath salts

Bath salts are water-soluble, pulverised minerals that are added to water to be used for bathing. They are said to improve cleaning, enhance the enjoyment of bathing, and serve as a vehicle for cosmetic agents.[1] Bath salts have been developed which mimic the properties of natural mineral baths or hot springs.[2] Glycerine is often added to bath salts, which enables the product to act as an emollient, humectant or lubricant. Fragrances and colors are often added to bath salts; the fragrances are used to increase users' enjoyment of the bathing experience.

Description[edit]

Substances often labeled as bath salts include magnesium sulfate (Epsom salts), sodium chloride (table salt), sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), sodium hexametaphosphate (Calgon, amorphous/glassy sodium metaphosphate), sodium sesquicarbonate, borax, and sodium citrate. Glycerin, or liquid glycerin, is another common ingredient in bath salts. Its health and beauty benefits allow it to be classified as an emollient, humectant or lubricant when used in bath salts products.

Fragrances and colors are often added to bath salts; in fact, one purpose of salts is as a vehicle or diluent to extend fragrances which are otherwise too potent for convenient use. Other common additives to bath salts are oils (agglomerating the salts to form amorphous granules, the product being called "bath beads" or "bath oil beads"), foaming agents, and effervescent agents. Bath salts may be packaged for sale in boxes or bags. Their appearance is often considered attractive or appealing, and they may be sold in transparent containers, showing off, for example, the needlelike appearance of sodium sesquicarbonate crystals.

History[edit]

The earliest systematic exposition of the different kinds of salts, their uses, and methods of extraction was published in China around 2700 years BCE. Hippocrates encouraged his fellow healers to make use of salt water to heal various ailments by immersing their patients in sea water. The ancient Greeks continued this, and in 1753 English author and physician Charles Russel published "The Uses of Sea Water".

Effects[edit]

Some bath salts such as phosphates have a detergent action that softens calloused skin and aids in exfoliation. Some bath salts act as water softeners and change the way soap rinses. Some confusion may arise after a first experience with soft water. Soap does not lather well with hard water and can leave a sticky feeling. Soft water lathers better than hard water but feels slippery for a longer time during rinsing of soap, even though the soap is coming off faster, because the soap remains soluble.

High concentrations of salts increase the density of the water and increase buoyancy, which makes the body feel lighter in the bath. Very high concentrations of salts in water are used in many isolation tank therapies. Researchers have also studied their use in treating arthritis.[3][4]

Fake products used to disguise drugs[edit]

Main article: Bath salts (drug)

To evade illegal drug laws, some companies sell a number of powdered recreational designer drugs in packages labelled "bath salts" .[5][6] The name derives from instances in which the drugs were sold disguised as true bath salts, with the package claiming that the chemical was intended for use during bathing.[7][8][9] The white powder, granules, or crystals often resemble true bath salts such as Epsom salts, but are very different chemically. The drugs' packaging often states "not for human consumption" in an attempt to circumvent drug prohibition laws.[7] These fake bath salts are mainly sold in shops selling drug paraphernalia such as head shops.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Browning, Marie (1999). Natural Soapmaking. Sterling Publishing Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0806962894. 
  2. ^ Jones, Marlene (2010). The Complete Guide to Creating Oils, Soaps, Creams, and Herbal Gels for Your Mind and Body: 101 Natural Body Care Recipes. Atlantic Publishing Company. ISBN 978-1601383693. 
  3. ^ Sukenik, S.; Neumann, L.; Buskila, D.; Kleiner-Baumgarten, A.; Zimlichman, S.; Horowitz, J. (1990). "Dead Sea bath salts for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis". Clinical and experimental rheumatology. 8 (4): 353–357. PMID 2397624. 
  4. ^ Sukenik, S.; Mayo, A.; Neumann, L.; Flusser, D.; Kleiner-Baumgarten, A.; Buskila, D. (1995). "Dead Sea bath salts for osteoarthritis of the knee". Harefuah. 129 (3–4): 100–103, 159, 103. PMID 8543232. 
  5. ^ "DEA: Chemicals Used in "Bath Salts" Now Under Federal Control and Regulation". Retrieved 28 December 2013. 
  6. ^ "Situation Report. Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts): An Emerging Domestic Threat" (PDF). United States Department of Justice: National Drug Intelligence Center. Retrieved 1 June 2013. 
  7. ^ a b Black, Matthew (25 June 2012). "What are 'bath salts'? A look at Canada's newest illegal drug". CBC News. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 28 December 2013. 
  8. ^ Spiller HA, Ryan ML, Weston RG, Jansen J (2011). "Clinical experience with and analytical confirmation of "bath salts" and "legal highs" (synthetic cathinones) in the United States". Clinical Toxicology. 49 (6): 499–505. doi:10.3109/15563650.2011.590812. PMID 21824061. 
  9. ^ Coppola M, Mondola R (2012). "Synthetic cathinones: Chemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of a new class of designer drugs of abuse marketed as "bath salts" or "plant food"". Toxicology Letters. 211 (2): 144–149. doi:10.1016/j.toxlet.2012.03.009. PMID 22459606. 

External links[edit]

The dictionary definition of bath salt at Wiktionary