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A batholith (from Greek bathos, depth + lithos, rock) is a large emplacement of igneous intrusive (also called plutonic) rock that forms from cooled magma deep in the Earth's crust. Batholiths are almost always made mostly of felsic or intermediate rock-types, such as granite, quartz monzonite, or diorite (see also granite dome).
Although they may appear uniform, batholiths are in fact structures with complex histories and compositions. They are composed of multiple masses, or plutons, bodies of igneous rock of irregular dimensions (typically at least several kilometers) that can be distinguished from adjacent igneous rock by some combination of criteria including age, composition, texture, or mappable structures. Individual plutons are crystallized from magma that traveled toward the surface from a zone of partial melting near the base of the Earth's crust.
Traditionally, these plutons have been considered to form by ascent of relatively buoyant magma in large masses called plutonic diapirs. Because the diapirs are liquified and very hot, they tend to rise through the surrounding native "country" rock, pushing it aside and partially melting it. Most diapirs do not reach the surface to form volcanoes, but instead slow down, cool, and usually solidify 5 to 30 kilometers underground as plutons (hence the use of the word pluton; in reference to the Roman god of the underworld Pluto). An alternate view is that plutons commonly are formed not by diapiric ascent of large magma diapirs, but rather by aggregation of smaller volumes of magma that ascended as dikes.
A batholith is formed when many plutons converge to form a huge expanse of granitic rock. Some batholiths are mammoth, paralleling past and present subduction zones and other heat sources for hundreds of kilometers in continental crust. One such batholith is the Sierra Nevada Batholith, which is a continuous granitic formation that makes up much of the Sierra Nevada in California. An even larger batholith, the Coast Plutonic Complex is found predominantly in the Coast Mountains of western Canada, and extends for 1,800 kilometers and reaches into southeastern Alaska.
Surface expression and erosion
A batholith is an exposed area of (mostly) continuous plutonic rock that covers an area larger than 100 square kilometers (40 square miles). Areas smaller than 100 square kilometers are called stocks. However, the majority of batholiths visible at the surface (via outcroppings) have areas far greater than 100 square kilometers. These areas are exposed to the surface through the process of erosion accelerated by continental uplift acting over many tens of millions to hundreds of millions of years. This process has removed several tens of square kilometers of overlying rock in many areas, exposing the once deeply buried batholiths.
Batholiths exposed at the surface are subjected to huge pressure differences between their former location deep in the earth and their new location at or near the surface. As a result, their crystal structure expands slightly over time. This manifests itself by a form of mass wasting called exfoliation. This form of weathering causes convex and relatively thin sheets of rock to slough off the exposed surfaces of batholiths (a process accelerated by frost wedging). The result is fairly clean and rounded rock faces. A well-known result of this process is Half Dome, located in Yosemite Valley.
List of batholiths
- Aswan Granite Batholith
- Cape Coast Batholith, Ghana
- Hook granite massif, Zambia
- Paarl Rock, South Africa
- Sibebe, Swaziland
- Mubende Batholith, Uganda
- Angara-Vitim batholith, Siberia
- Bhongir Fort Batholith, Telangana, India
- Gangdese batholith, Himalaya
- Trans-Himalayan Batholith, Himalaya
- Karakorum Batholith, Himalaya
- Tak batholith, Thailand
- Tien Shan batholith, Central Asia
- Cornubian batholith
- Leinster Batholith
- North Pennine Batholith
- Ljusdal Batholith
- Mt-Louis-Andorra Batholith
- Transscandinavian Igneous Belt
- Revsund Massif
- Rätan Batholith
- Småland–Värmland Belt
- Boulder Batholith
- British Virgin Islands
- Chambers-Strathy Batholith
- Enchanted Rock
- Golden Horn Batholith
- Idaho Batholith
- Kenosha Batholith
- Sierra Nevada Batholith
- South Mountain Batholith, Nova Scotia
- Peninsular Ranges Batholith, Baja and Southern California
- Stone Mountain
- Pike's Peak Granite Batholith
- Chilliwack batholith
- Wyoming batholith
- Kosciuszko Batholith, Australia
- Moruya Batholith
- Median Batholith, New Zealand
- New England Batholith Australia
- Parguaza rapakivi granite Batholith
- Peruvian Coastal Batholith
- Cordillera Blanca Batholith
- Vicuña Mackenna Batholith
- Chilean Coastal Batholith
- Panguipulli Batholith
- Patagonian Batholith
- Northern Patagonian Batholith
- Southern Patagonian Batholith
- Hall, Clarence A., Jr. (2007). Introduction to the geology of southern California and its native plants. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 22. ISBN 9780520249325.
- GLENCOE SCIENCE | Earth Science Twelfth Grade High School Textbook (Georgia); pg. 115 paragraph 1, pg. 521 question 9
- Douglas M. Morton, Fred K. Miller, Peninsular Ranges Batholith, Baja and Southern California, Geological Society of America, 2014
- Davin A. Bagdonas; Carol D. Frost; C. Mark Fanning (2016). "The origin of extensive Neoarchean high-silica batholiths and the nature of intrusive complements to silicic ignimbrites: Insights from the Wyoming batholith, U.S.A." (PDF). American Mineralogist 101: 1332–1347. Retrieved June 8, 2016.
...Neoarchean granite batholith, herein named the Wyoming batholith, extends more than 200 km across central Wyoming in the Granite and the Laramie Mountains.
- Plummer, McGeary, Carlson, Physical Geology, Eighth Edition (McGraw-Hill: Boston, 1999) pages 61–63 ISBN 0-697-37404-1
- Glazner, Bartley, Coleman, Gray, Taylor, Are plutons assembled over millions of years by amalgamation from small magma chambers?, GSA Today: Vol. 14, No. 4, pp. 4–11