Bathurst, New Brunswick

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Bathurst
City
City of Bathurst
Ville de Bathurst
Looking north at Bathurst waterfront, with Holy Family church in background.
Looking north at Bathurst waterfront, with Holy Family church in background.
Coat of arms of Bathurst
Coat of arms
Motto: See What Awaits You
Bathurst is located in New Brunswick
Bathurst
Bathurst
Location within New Brunswick.
Coordinates: 47°37′N 65°39′W / 47.62°N 65.65°W / 47.62; -65.65
Country  Canada
Province  New Brunswick
County Gloucester
Parish Bathurst
Settled 1600's
Town Status 1912
City Status 1966
Electoral Districts   
Federal

Acadie—Bathurst
Provincial Bathurst
Government[1]
 • Type City Council
 • Mayor[2] Paolo Fongemie
 • Councillors[2]
Area[3]
 • Land 91.86 km2 (35.47 sq mi)
 • Urban 69.85 km2 (26.97 sq mi)
 • Metro 2,087.97 km2 (806.17 sq mi)
Highest elevation 62 m (203 ft)
Lowest elevation 0 m (0 ft)
Population (2011)[3]
 • City 12,275
 • Density 133.6/km2 (346/sq mi)
 • Urban 18,154
 • Urban density 260/km2 (700/sq mi)
 • Metro 30,424
 • Metro density 15/km2 (40/sq mi)
 • Pop 2006-2011 Decrease 3.5%
 • Dwellings 6,257
Time zone AST (UTC-4)
 • Summer (DST) ADT (UTC-3)
Postal code(s) E2A
Area code(s)
Highways
Route 8
Route 11
Route 134
Route 180

Route 315
Route 322
Route 430
NTS Map 021P12
GNBC Code DAFQX
Website www.bathurst.ca

Bathurst (2011 population; UA 12,275; CA population 13,424) is the county seat for Gloucester County, New Brunswick, and is at the estuary of the Nepisiguit River.[4]

History[edit]

Map of Bathurst Harbour prior to 1900, drawn by W. F. Ganong.

Bathurst had been the location of the annual Mi'kmaq summer coastal community of Nepisiguit prior to European settlement.[5][6] Europeans first reached the shores of the Baie des Chaleurs when in 1534 it was named by Jacques Cartier.[7] Early settlers from France came to the area in the 17th century in what became part of the colony of Acadia. In 1607 Samuel de Champlain sailed into the Miramichi,[8] and in 1636, Nicolas Denys was granted a seignory by the French crown, apparently the third grant in the colony of Acadie.[9] Jean Jacques Enaud, who hailed from the French Basque Country, was granted in 1638 the seignory at the southeastern gap of the harbor later named Alston Point.[10][11] Remark is made on William Francis Ganong's map of Bathurst Harbour, depicted here at left, of the residence of Nicolas Denys and the seignory of Gobin.

Little is known about the region between the death of Nicholas Denys in 1688 and the Treaty of Utrecht (1713), whereby Louis XIV ceded the territory of Acadia to Anne, Queen of Great Britain. Although it was marked as an inlet, the Nepisiguit river was not noted in a British map dated 1744,[12] although by 1755 Thomas Jefferys illustrates the "Nipisiki River" and "Nipisighit Bay".[13] Historians remark the Battle of the Restigouche in June 1760 (one of the final events in the Seven Years' War) in the Baie des Chaleurs, and various other incidents as the colony of Nouvelle France expired.[14]

According to Gamaliel Smethurst, a trader who supposedly was permitted there by Governor Murray, the British attempted to remove the remaining scattered Acadians from the Nepisiguit basin and Caraquet in late October 1761. Following the formal fall of this part of Acadia to British control in 1763 by the Treaty of Paris, the region saw the arrival of numerous English and Scottish settlers, eager to exploit the region's natural resources. Some grants were rewards for good and loyal service with the King's arms: for example, Captain Arthur Goold of the Royal Marines[15] was granted 2,000 acres on both sides of the Nepisiguit River mouth on 9 September 1784 in what is now known as East Bathurst.[16][17]

One of the Scotsmen was Hugh Munro, who arrived in 1794[18] and who around 1800 was the founder of “the first and most ancient establishment” in the timber trade of Nepisiguit Bay.[18] In 1807 Munro was appointed a justice of the peace and judge of the Inferior Court of Common Pleas for Northumberland County,[18] and in 1828 was elected to sit in the 9th New Brunswick Legislature when the county of Gloucester was given its first representative.

The first St. George’s Anglican Church was built in 1825 and consecrated as a place of worship in 1836.[19] The Anglican burial ground near the old post office dates to 1823.

Plan of the Town of Bathurst, New Brunswick as it appeared in November 1828. The Nepisiguit River mouth is off to the right.

The community, which up to 1828 had been named St. Peters,[18] was renamed by the Governor, Sir Howard Douglas (1823–1831), in honor of Henry Bathurst, 3rd Earl Bathurst (1762–1834), Secretary of State for the Colonies of the British government.

Joseph Cunard, attracted by the county's timber resources, set up a branch of his family's shipbuilding firm here around 1823.[20] By 1828, he was elected to the Legislative Assembly of New Brunswick, and was variously a justice of the peace and served on the board of health for the county. Joseph's brother Samuel Cunard was also a landowner in Bathurst. The age of timber ships drew to a close in 1848 with the 1848 launch of Brunel's SS Great Britain, the revolutionary iron-hulled steamship. This event caused Joseph's shipbuilding firm to founder, and with it went New Brunswick's economy. Samuel went on to manage the Cunard Line.

The Gloucester County Grammar School, later known as the Bathurst Grammar School, opened its doors on 1 October 1835 under the direction of Charles Lloyd. He provided room and board for 24 pounds per annum if the student was under 10 years of age; older students were charged two pounds more. At least two private schools were active elsewhere in the County during the same era.[21]

The town map of 1836 shows "public landing" government docks at the water end of the four downtown streets, Douglas, King, Murray, and Black (now Main), as well as the western end of Water (now Main) Street. The town extends as far south as Munro Street; glebe lots were located between King and Murray, south of Munro.

The Annual Report of the Department of Fisheries for 1868 lists a so-called "Marine Hospital" located in Bathurst, and the place of work for a Fisheries Officer. Bathurst once had a fish processing plant. Navigation in this County consisted of the carrying of wood, fish and grindstones from Bathurst to Britain, ports of the Dominion, Newfoundland, Miquelon, the United States, South America and Italy. In the wood trade, Bathurst employed in 1868 vessels of from 50 to 1,200 tons. The beacons at that time were unlit, a cause of some concern.[22]

In 1871 Bathurst had a population of 600.[23]

On 14 December 1872, Justice William End was assassinated, likely by a ruffian whom he had earlier jailed for four months. The suspect left Bathurst soon afterwards and was never apprehended.[24]

Bathurst Grammar School became graded in 1874.[25]

The opening of the Intercolonial Railway of Canada in 1876 (shown at the left hand side in the Ganong map) provided a fast connection from the port of Bathurst to the rest of North America which was essential for developing the region's principal industries in forestry and zinc mining. For example, the St. Lawrence Lumber Co., which is depicted in the Ganong map at the mouth of the Nepisiguit River, was managed in the late 19th century by Kennedy Francis Burns of Miramichi.[26]

W.J. Kent opened his eponymous department store in 1884 on Main Street, at the tender age of 23. The organization has since that time expanded into New Brunswick's major cities as a lumber yard and hardware store.

In 1886, after a fire had destroyed its Temperance Hall, the Roman Catholic Church began construction of what is now known as the Sacré-Coeur Cathedral. The diocese of Chatham was removed to Bathurst in 1938, and what had been up til then a church now became a cathedral.[27]

The county courthouse at Bathurst.

The imposing (county) courthouse and jail at St. Patrick Street—built from the same sandstone as other official buildings of the period—dates from 1900. This replaced an earlier, and more modest, wood frame building. The jail function has been decommissioned for some years, in favour of the provincial facility at Dalhousie.

In 1904 Bathurst was a seaport, a port of entry on the Intercolonial Railway and the Caraquet and Gulf Shore Railway and a town with a post office, 35 stores, six hotels, a steam sawmill, a shingle mill, a flour mill, three fish freezers, two carriage factories, a printing shop, three churches and a population of 3,000.[23] That year, John P. Leger formed a private venture called the Bathurst Electric and Water Power Company, with aim to erect and operate at Tetagouche River Falls a hydro-electric plant. Electricity had arrived in Bathurst, twenty-two years after the Pearl Street Station had illuminated New York.[28]

Bathurst's former post office and customs house, designed in 1884 by Thomas Fuller

In 1911, James Hamet Dunn, who was born in West Bathurst in 1874, returned to Bathurst to endow its first hospital, located on the Riverside Drive grounds of what was once a Doctor's office. It burned to the ground in 1917, and an expanded 35-bed structure was rebuilt in its place. The hospital eventually would grow to 60 bed capacity, and house a school of nursing. Damaged by fire in January 1951, the Dunn Hospital would pass into collective memory.[29]

Bathurst was incorporated as a town in 1912,[23] just prior to the closure in 1913 of the decade-old Drummond Mines Limited iron mine at the Bathurst Mining Camp,[30][31] and the 1915 arrival of water and sewer service to individual residences.[32] The town of Bathurst's first mayor was P.J. Burns, who has a street (along Coronation Park) named after him.

The Drummond Mine property was eventually acquired by the Dominion Steel and Coal Company, who operated it more successfully.[33]

The Bathurst Power and Paper Company Ltd. built a mill in Bathurst, New Brunswick in 1914. Majority control of the company was obtained in the late 1930s by Arthur J. Nesbitt and his partner Peter A. T. Thomson through their holding company, Power Corporation of Canada. In the early 1960s, Power Corporation bought the Consolidated Paper Company. When Paul Desmarais acquired control of Power Corporation in 1968, the two companies were merged to become Consolidated-Bathurst Inc. In 1989, the company was sold to Stone Container Corporation of Chicago, Illinois who renamed it Stone Consolidated Inc.

Peter Veniot, the owner since 1891 of Bathurst's French-language newspaper was the first Acadian premier of the province of New Brunswick. He succeeded upon resignation Walter Foster as Premier in 1923, after a varied career in provincial government and as a civil servant. As Minister of Public Works in the Foster cabinet, Veniot was responsible for the creation of the New Brunswick Electric Power Commission, latterly NB Power. He was a supporter of the Maritime Rights Movement, which advocated more power for the Maritime provinces in Canadian confederation. His government was defeated in the 1925 provincial election, and he went on to become a Minister in the cabinet of Mackenzie King. All that remains of his newspaper, the Courier des Provinces Maritimes, is a nameplate on its building at 174 St. Andrew Street, which was latterly converted to a rooming house.

1930s bird’s eye view of Bathurst, likely taken from College Sacre-Coeur. Looking east at railway in foreground, harbour and city in background.

In 1921 the College Sacre-Coeur, a Roman Catholic residential high school for Acadians, was relocated to Bathurst from its previous home in Caraquet. The anglophone Bathurst High School was founded in 1926, with the closure of the Grammar School which had outgrown its premises on St. Andrew Street.

A sanatorium for the care of tuberculosis patients was opened in May 1931. Named Our Lady of Lourdes of the Lady Dunn Institution, it was endowed by Sir James Dunn (as he then was called) and his wife. It was staffed by the Religious Hospitallers of St. Joseph, and located at Vallee Lourdes, just north of town on a 1,000 acre farm which today houses the Chaleur Regional Hospital.[29]

For several years during the 1940s, Bathurst was home to Louis Robichaud, while he studied at the College Sacre-Coeur, in order to study for the Juvénat Saint-Jean-Eudes. He demurred from the priestly vocation and, after a period at Laval University, instead studied law by correspondence at UNB while he articled at a Bathurst law firm. He met the woman who later became his wife in 1950 here at a wedding.[34]

Plan of the Town and Region of Bathurst, New Brunswick in 1958.

In April 1954, a new 80-foot antenna broadcast CHSJ signals to Bathurst from New Brunswick's only television station in Saint John.[35] From 1958 onwards, the francophone CHAU station would broadcast on Channel 5 from its transmitter on Mount St. Joseph near Carleton, Quebec.[36] Radio came to Bathurst in 1955, on CKBC run by the Bathurst Broadcasting Company.[37]

Edward Byrne, QC, who had been Mayor of Bathurst from April 1949 to April 1951, was asked to chair the Royal Commission on Finance and Municipal Taxation in New Brunswick in 1960 by Robichaud, who then was Premier. He completed his report on 4 November 1963, and Robichaud later used his work to justify monumental changes in how the province is run.[38][39][40][41]

Bathurst was incorporated as a city in 1966.[23]

In 1972 the Bathurst Alpine Papermakers won the Hardy Cup, defeating The Rosetown Red Wings 3-0 at the old Bathurst Arena. The Hardy cup was the Canadian national Intermediate "A" ice hockey championship from 1967 until 1984.

In 1998, the Laval Titan QMJHL franchise relocated to Bathurst, taking the name Acadie–Bathurst Titan. They play at the K.C Irving center in Bathurst

The Nepisiguit Centennial Museum/Cultural Centre (established 1967) was designated in October 2005 a local historic place under the provincial Community Planning Act.[42] The Herman J. Good V.C Branch No.18 Royal Canadian Legion War Museum (established 1956) was designated in December 2005 a local historic place.[43]

On the evening of 27 March 2015, the Munro St. home of the Bathurst Agricultural Society—which had celebrated its 125th anniversary the previous year[44][45]—was destroyed by fire.[46][47] The society had been formed on 3 May 1853 to assist farmers by providing education, seeds and purebred livestock, and in as of 2014 sold a variety of agricultural-related products including livestock feed.[45] The Bathurst Farmer's Market, which had been housed in the same building, eventually moved to near the old Post Office building on Main St. The Society was quickly re-housed in the former location of Save Easy on Rough Waters Drive.[48][49]

On the evening of 27 November 2015, a fire destroyed four historic commercial buildings at the corner of Main Street and King Avenue. Fifty people in apartments above the stores lost everything and prominent office space was destroyed, including buildings that housed Birds Eye View pet store, Au Cafe Gourmet, local fabric store Christie's, the old stone-faced Bank of Montreal, and a wine bar. All the animals in the pet store perished, and electricity service was temporarily suspended to about 450 NB Power customers in the area. Mayor Stephen Brunet said it was a busy and successful corner: "Every building was part of the history of downtown and there for many, many years. It's going to be a big hole in downtown." The previous week, an abandoned building down the street on King Avenue was destroyed by fire, causing Mayor Brunet concerns. The Downtown Bathurst Revitalization Corporation and the local chapter of the Canadian Red Cross were active in the efforts to support the afflicted.[50][51][52][53][54] The fire was believed to have started at the back of one of the buildings that went up in flames.[55]

Economy[edit]

The Bathurst Mining Camp provided for almost 50 years a lot of jobs to the regional economy. The Brunswick Mine facility closed in April 2013.[56][57][58][59] Unemployment hit over 20% in northern New Brunswick in March 2013 as a result.[60]

Bathurst is located, and has a station, on the Canadian National railway line. Via Rail provides a Wednesday, Friday and Sunday passenger service in both directions. The economy is primarily focused on mining, fishing and forestry. Other sectors include: tourism, phone call centres, manufacturing, and provincial and federal government. The service sector is the city's largest employer. The city is serviced by one health care facility, Chaleur Regional Hospital.

A regional Tax Services Canada and a Transport Canada Marine Safety Service centre are located in the old downtown. Bathurst Marina is listed as an official Port of Entry for small vessels.[61][62][63] It is listed as a non-compulsory pilotage zone.[64] The port authority was transferred in February 2003 to a private consortium.[65] Bathurst is located 50 km south of the deep-water Port of Belledune, where a petroleum tank farm and a coal-fired electrical generating station are located.[66]

On December 17, 2010, it was determined that an environmental assessment was required in relation to an expansion of a sawmill project because the Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency considered providing financial assistance to the proponent. The project consists of building an expansion of approximately 297 square meters (m2) that will be added to the existing building of approximately 372 m2.[67]

Bathurst is one of four airports in the province with regularly-scheduled flights. Bathurst Airport accommodates general aviation, along with service to Montreal, Quebec via Air Canada.

The Smurfit-Stone paper mill (formerly part of the Power Corporation of Canada empire) ceased operations in 2009, and the plant is in process of being demolished. The 225ac of industrial wasteland was sold on in January 2010 to the Green Investment Group partners. Their goal is to create innovative, alternative energy projects that enhance the Bathurst region and Northern New Brunswick. The plan anticipates attracting companies that utilize technologies focusing on energy generation, alternative fuels and waste-to-energy conversion.[68] The property was as of July 2015 in violation of the city's dangerous and unsightly premises bylaw, but the owner is located outside the country, and was unwilling to deal with the property despite being given final notice by the city.[69] There are almost a $1 million in back taxes and environmental reclamation costs associated with the former mill site.[69] There were almost $1 million in back taxes and environmental reclamation costs associated with the former mill site as of July 2015.[69] The provincial Department of Environment and Local Government Minister, Brian Kenny, issued a ministerial order, which required the company to clean up the site within 120 days, but the deadline passed on 14 August, so the file was passed on to the Attorney-General in order to determine whether charges would be laid.[70]

GDF Suez operates the inland Caribou Wind Park energy farm approximately 70 km west of Bathurst under a Power Purchase Agreement scheme contracted with NB Power, with a nominal power output of 100MW.[71]

Geography[edit]

A topographic map of Bathurst.

Bathurst is situated at the southernmost part of Chaleur Bay on Bathurst Harbour, an estuary at the mouth of four rivers: the Nepisiguit River, the Middle River, Little River, and the Tetagouche River. Two spits of land, Carron Point and Alston Point, form the enclosure for the harbour. Youghall Beach Provincial Park lies to the north of town.[72] Bathurst is located 90 km south of Dalhousie, and 90 km north of Miramichi.

The refuse facility of Bathurst is located south of the city, in Allardville. The so-called Red Pine solid waste facility provided by the Chaleur Regional Service Commission serves, in addition to Bathurst, municipalities all over north-eastern New Brunswick. The city's sewage treatment plant is located within the harbor, at the northern end of Riverside Drive, behind the Canadian Tire. City water comes from the Little River.

Government and politics[edit]

Bathurst has a Mayor–council form of government, with seven at-large councillors. Elections are held quadrennially in May, as are all since 2004 local governments in New Brunswick. Mayor Fongemie won over a field of four candidates with 3,064 votes; the next candidate garnered 1,831 votes.[2] In 2016, 21 candidates put their names on the ballot.[73] The minimum number of votes needed for election was 2,347. Councillor Stever won more votes than the Mayor.[2]

At the New Brunswick general election, 2014, 4,367 residents of Bathurst West-Beresford elected Brian Kenny, while 4,431 residents in Bathurst East-Nepisiguit-Saint-Isidore chose Denis Landry. Both are member of the New Brunswick Liberal Association, and both are cabinet ministers in the Brian Gallant government.

Bathurst is a part of the Acadie—Bathurst federal riding, and represented since 2015 in Ottawa by Liberal Party of Canada member Serge Cormier.

Demographics[edit]

Bathurst is officially bilingual with French, Irish, Scottish and English heritage. The city is also home to Míkmaq natives, with the Papineau First Nations (Kekwapskuk) community located on the outskirts of the city. Recent immigration to Bathurst has brought residents from new countries.[when?]

Population[edit]

Historical Census Data - Bathurst, New Brunswick[76]
Year Pop. ±%
1871 600 —    
1901 1,044 +74.0%
1911 960 −8.0%
1921 3,327 +246.6%
1931 3,300 −0.8%
1941 3,554 +7.7%
Year Pop. ±%
1951 4,453 +25.3%
1961 5,494 +23.4%
1971 16,674 +203.5%
1981 15,705 −5.8%
1986 14,683 −6.5%
1991 14,409 −1.9%
Year Pop. ±%
1996 13,815 −4.1%
2001 12,924 −6.4%
2006 12,714 −1.6%
2011 12,275 −3.5%

Language[edit]

Canada Census Mother Tongue - Bathurst, New Brunswick[76]
Census Total
French
English
French & English
Other
Year Responses Count Trend Pop % Count Trend Pop % Count Trend Pop % Count Trend Pop %
2011
11,865
5,860 Decrease 6.5% 49.39% 5,585 Decrease 2.6% 47.07% 230 Decrease 4.2% 1.94% 190 Increase 31.0% 1.60%
2006
12,385
6,265 Increase 1.0% 50.58% 5,735 Decrease 4.7% 46.31% 240 Decrease 28.4% 1.94% 145 Increase 107.1% 1.17%
2001
12,625
6,205 Decrease 6.3% 49.15% 6,015 Decrease 8.7% 47.64% 335 Increase 19.6% 2.65% 70 Decrease 12.5% 0.55%
1996
13,570
6,625 n/a 48.82% 6,585 n/a 48.53% 280 n/a 2.06% 80 n/a 0.59%

Education[edit]

Primary[edit]

Secondary[edit]

  • Bathurst High School (BHS): in English, grades 9 - 12 are taught at BHS. The school district is known administratively as "Anglophone North Subdistrict 3",[77] and Sheila Rogers was acclaimed to it in May 2016.[78]
  • École Secondaire Nepisiguit (ESN): in French, grades 9 - 12 are taught at ESN. The school district is known administratively as "Francophone Nord-est - Subdistrict 4",[79] and Danny Comeau was acclaimed to it in May 2016.[78]

Post-secondary[edit]

Post-secondary education in French is located at the Bathurst campuses of College communautaire du Nouveau-Brunswick (CCNB-NBCC). Although some few courses are offered in English at night school, Anglophones are on the whole forced to study elsewhere; the nearest campus of NBCC lies at Miramichi.

Health sector[edit]

Chaleur Regional Hospital looks after the needs of the community at 1750 Sunset Drive Bathurst, E2A 4L7, in the north of town. It was given in 2013 a rating of 'A+' by the CBC's The Fifth Estate programme in a national survey of 66 hospitals.[80][81]

Attractions[edit]

  • La Promenade Waterfront is cluster of shops, art, boutiques, a visitor information center, and an outdoor pavilion that hosts a variety of activities throughout the year. There are boardwalks with views of the Bay of Chaleur.
  • Youghall Beach Park offers swimming, volleyball, and windsurfing. Bathurst Marina is located next to the beach.
  • Bathurst has a pair of golf courses.
  • Bathurst Hospitality Days is a week-long festival with many activities for young and old. It includes four nights of concerts, featuring a mix of classic rock, Acadian and maritime music.
  • Bathurst Chamber Music Festival is an annual week-long classical music festival which features over 30 emerging musicians and composers from around Canada and abroad. It was created to help build appreciation, as well as to create a necessity for classical music within the community.

Notable people[edit]

Sir James Dunn, of Algoma Steel and Canada Steamship Lines fame, was born in West Bathurst.

Community Organizations & Churches[edit]

Bathurst is gifted with many community-based organisations, for example:

  • Synergies Chaleur[82]
  • Royal Canadian Legion, Branch No. 18
  • New Brunswick Association for Community Living[83]
  • Maison Doucet Hennessy House[84] (an architectural heritage project)
  • Anglican church[85]
  • Baptist church [86]
  • Catholic church[87]
  • United church[88]
  • Pentecostal church[89]
  • Mormon church[90]

Legend of the Phantom Ship[edit]

The Bay of Chaleur is known for its phantom ship legend, which dates back more than two centuries.[citation needed] The story claims that a sail ship burned in the waters to the north of the city - possibly from the Battle of the Restigouche - and that the ghost of the vessel and its crew is visible on the water in certain weather and light conditions to this day. Some believe it is a ghost ship from the Battle of the Restigouche whereas others believe it is merely caused by heat waves, reflections, or hallucinations. A drawing of a ghost wielding an anchor and menacing two sailors could be seen on the city's old welcome sign.[91]

Climate[edit]

The climate of Bathurst is classified as humid continental (Köppen climate classification Dfb).

Bathurst experiences four distinct seasons. Summers are warm and occasionally hot and humid. Winters are often cold, windy and snowy. Spring and Fall, although short, bring chilly to warm temperatures. In fall, late heat waves known as "Indian summer" are a common occurrence.

During winter, snow stays on ground from about December to April.

External relations[edit]

The city of Bathurst is twinned with:

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Government of New Brunswick website: Bathurst
  2. ^ a b c d Saint John Telegraph-Journal: "municipal election 2016 results", p.A4-A5 10 May 2016
  3. ^ a b c 2011 Statistics Canada Census Profile: Bathurst, New Brunswick Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "cp2011" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  4. ^ New Brunswick Provincial Archives - Bathurst
  5. ^ "Micmac Locations". Micmac Tribe. Access Genealogy. Retrieved 27 May 2014. 
  6. ^ McCarthy 1999, p. iv
  7. ^ Frink 1997, p. 19
  8. ^ Frink 1997, p. 19
  9. ^ Frink 1997, p. 23
  10. ^ McCarthy 1999, p. 76
  11. ^ Ganong has his name as "Esnault".
  12. ^ novascotia.ca: Historical Maps of Nova Scotia - "A New Chart of the Coast of New England, Nova Scotia, New France or Canada (1744)"
  13. ^ novascotia.ca: Historical Maps of Nova Scotia - "A New Map of Nova Scotia and Cape Britain and the adjacent parts of New England & Canada, 1755"
  14. ^ LeBlanc, Ronnie-Gilles: "Le camp d’Espérance, les réfugiés acadiens de la Miramichi, 1756-1761"
  15. ^ The London Gazette: no. 10234. p. . 10 August 1762.
  16. ^ archives.gnb.ca: "Index to New Brunswick Land Grants, 1784 - 1997 (RS686) - GOOLD, Arthur" Volume NS-1 Page 136 Grant number 35 Place Bay of Chaleur County Sunbury Date 1785-02-17 Accompanying plan No Acres 2000 Microfilm F16300 Comment Re-registered NS Grant of 1784/09/29
  17. ^ Allen, Patricia: "Alston Point, Bathurst, New Brunswick: An Important Community Centre throughout the Late 18th, 19th and 20th Centuries". Fredericton, NB - New Brunswick Manuscripts in Archaelogy 32, 2003
  18. ^ a b c d DCB: "MUNRO, HUGH"
  19. ^ "St. George's Anglican Church". Canada's Historic Places. Retrieved 24 June 2016. 
  20. ^ Frink 1997, p. 79
  21. ^ Picot 1978, p. 3-7
  22. ^ dfo-mpo.gc.ca: "Annual Report, Department of Fisheries"
  23. ^ a b c d archives.gnb.ca: "Where is Home? New Brunswick Communities Past and Present - Bathurst"
  24. ^ Picot 1978, p. 115-117
  25. ^ Picot 1978, p. 107
  26. ^ Thomas W Creaghan, Friesen Press - Talented Miramichiers in the Gilded Age, chapter 35: "The St. Lawrence Lumber Company"
  27. ^ "History of the Sacred Heart Parish of Bathurst". Diocese of Bathurst. Archived from the original on July 23, 2011. Retrieved 2008-10-16. 
  28. ^ McCarthy 1999, p. 89
  29. ^ a b McCarthy 1999, p. 72
  30. ^ McCarthy 1999, p. 102
  31. ^ traingeek.ca: "Nepisiguit Junction"
  32. ^ McCarthy 1999, p. 89
  33. ^ McCarthy 1999, p. 102
  34. ^ Cormier 2003
  35. ^ Smith 2006, p. 53
  36. ^ Smith 2006, p. 85
  37. ^ Smith 2006, p. 60
  38. ^ gnb.ca: "Premier's condolences on death of Edward Byrne (03/05/16)", 16 May 2003
  39. ^ unb.ca: "Royal Commission on Finance and Municipal Taxation in New Brunswick", 3 Nov 1963
  40. ^ cbc.ca: "Acadians: The ‘other revolution’", 17 Dec 1965
  41. ^ cbc.ca: "Louis Robichaud dead at 79", 7 Jan 2005
  42. ^ Nepisiguit Centennial Museum/Cultural Centre. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
  43. ^ Herman J. Good V.C Branch No.18 Royal Canadian Legion War Museum. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
  44. ^ gnb.ca: "Members’ Statement - Bathurst Agricultural Society – 125th anniversary - March 25, 2014"
  45. ^ a b atlanticfarmfocus.ca: "Bathurst Agricultural Society turns 125", 20 Mar 2014
  46. ^ max1049.ca: "UPDATED: Bathurst Agricultural Society, Farmers' Market Destroyed By Fire", 28 Mar 2015
  47. ^ cbc.ca: "Fire destroys Bathurst farming co-op", 30 Mar 2015
  48. ^ atlanticfarmfocus.ca: "New home for Bathurst Agricultural Society", 9 Apr 2015
  49. ^ max1049.ca: "Agricultural Society to Hold Emergency Opening Next Week", 10 Apr 2015
  50. ^ cbc.ca: "Bathurst fire destroys four buildings in downtown area", 28 Nov 2015
  51. ^ cbc.ca: "Downtown Bathurst fire still under investigation", 30 Nov 2015
  52. ^ ctvnews.ca: "Major fire in downtown Bathurst destroys several buildings", 28 Nov 2015
  53. ^ max1049.ca: "**UPDATED** Cause of Major Bathurst Fire May Remain Unknown: Deputy Fire Chief", 28 Nov 2015
  54. ^ capitalfm.ca: "Businesses, community members support those affected by downtown Bathurst fire", 2 Dec 2015
  55. ^ ctvnews.ca: "Cleanup efforts underway after major fire destroys buildings in Bathurst", 2 Dec 2015
  56. ^ G+M: "Xstrata's Brunswick mine to be closed after almost 50 years", 28 Mar 2012
  57. ^ canadianminingjournal.com: "CLOSURE: Brunswick mine closes on a high note", 30 Apr 2013
  58. ^ ctvnews.ca: "Brunswick Mine closes, leaving hundreds without work", 1 May 2013
  59. ^ cbc.ca: "Bathurst mulls bleak future after mine closure", 9 May 2013
  60. ^ cbc.ca: "Brunswick Mine closes Bathurst-area operation", 1 May 2013
  61. ^ Canadian Customs - Ports of Entry (TRS/M’s)
  62. ^ "Canadian Border Services: Bathurst"
  63. ^ marinas.com: "Bathurst Marina"
  64. ^ "Atlantic Pilotage Tariff Regulations, 1996 (SOR/95-586) - SCHEDULE 1: PORT AND HARBOUR AREAS"
  65. ^ tc.gc.ca: "Transport Canada - Deproclamation Notice Subsection 2(1)"
  66. ^ Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency: "Archived - Reactivation of the former Shell Canada Petroleum Products Bulk (Designated) Oil Handling Facility at Belledune, NB, now owned by the Belledune Port Authority."
  67. ^ Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency: "Archived - Expansion of a Sawmill"
  68. ^ "Projects - Brunswick North Industrial Park – Bathurst, New Brunswick"
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  70. ^ cbc.ca: "Bathurst mill site past cleanup deadline", 19 Aug 2015
  71. ^ nbpower.com: "Annual Report 2009/10"
  72. ^ gnb.ca: "COMMODORE GEORGE WALKER AT ALSTON POINT, NEPISIGUIT 1768-1777", Manuscripts in Archaeology 31
  73. ^ gnb.ca: "Unofficial List of Municipal Election Candidates - Bathurst"
  74. ^ "2006 Community Profiles". Canada 2006 Census. Statistics Canada. March 30, 2011. Retrieved 2014-03-23. 
  75. ^ "2001 Community Profiles". Canada 2001 Census. Statistics Canada. February 17, 2012. Retrieved 2014-03-23. 
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  77. ^ http://www.electionsnb.ca/content/dam/enb/pdf/2016MunDECRHAMaps/Anglophone_North_3.pdf
  78. ^ a b http://www.gnb.ca/elections/results-resultats/2016-05-09/2016-05-09-resultsHTMLdecced-e.asp
  79. ^ http://www.electionsnb.ca/content/dam/enb/pdf/2016MunDECRHAMaps/Francophone_Nord-est_4.pdf
  80. ^ max1049.ca: "A+ For Chaleur Regional Hospital", 10 Apr 2013
  81. ^ cbc.ca: "Bathurst hospital earns A+ ranking in CBC survey", 10 Apr 2013
  82. ^ http://www.synergieschaleur.com/about.php
  83. ^ http://nbacl.nb.ca/en/contact-us
  84. ^ MAISON DOUCET HENNESSY HOUSE, BATHURST, NEW BRUNSWICK - Architectural Description and Proposed Restoration
  85. ^ historicplaces.ca: "Canada's Historic Places - St. George's Anglican Church - 432 King Avenue, Bathurst, New Brunswick, E2A, Canada"
  86. ^ http://www.bayviewubc.com/index.html
  87. ^ http://www.holyfamilychurchbathurst.com/
  88. ^ http://www.firstunited-bathurst.ca/links.php
  89. ^ http://bathurstevangelchurch.com/
  90. ^ http://www.n49.ca/biz/church-of-jesus-christ-of-latter-day-saints/nb/bathurst/1960-palmer-dr/
  91. ^ City Hall of Bathurst
  92. ^ "Bathurst A, new Brunswick". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment Canada. Retrieved 30 March 2015. 
  93. ^ "Bathurst A, New Brunswick". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment Canada. Retrieved 30 March 2015. 

References[edit]

  • Frink, Tim (1997). New Brunswick: A Short History. Saint John, NB: Stonington Books. 
  • McCarthy, Aloysius James (1997). Bay of Chaleur Forgotten Treasures. Halifax, NS: Nimbus Publishing. 
  • McCarthy, Aloysius James (1999). Historic Bathurst on the Bay of Chaleur. Halifax, NS: Nimbus Publishing. 
  • Picot, J. Ernest (1978). The Bathurst Grammar School. 
  • Smith, Ken (2006). Main Street Memories. Lockport, NS: Community Books. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Bathurst, New Brunswick at Wikimedia Commons



Coordinates: 47°37′12″N 65°39′00″W / 47.62000°N 65.65000°W / 47.62000; -65.65000 (Bathurst, New Brunswick)