Batiniyya (Arabic: باطنية, translit. Bāṭiniyyah) refers to groups that distinguish between an outer, exoteric (zāhir) and an inner, esoteric (bāṭin) meaning in Islamic scriptures. The term has been used in particular for an allegoristic type of scriptural interpretation developed among some Shia groups, stressing the bāṭin meaning of texts. It has been retained by all branches of Isma'ilism and its Druze offshoots. The Alawites practice a similar system of interpretation. Sunni writers have subsequently used the term polemically in reference to rejection of the evident meaning of scripture in favor of its bāṭin meaning. Al-Ghazali, a medieval Sunni theologian, used the term batiniyya pejoratively for the adherents of Isma'ilism. Some Shia writers have also used the term polemically. Besides, they'd[who?] called Hassan-i Sabbah and Nur al-Din Muhammad II as the head of the Hukumat-ee Malāāhedah-ee Bāṭiniyyah.[page needed]
- Halm, H. "BĀṬENĪYA". Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved 4 August 2014.
- Hodgson, M.G.S. "Bāṭiniyya". Encyclopaedia of Islam. 1 (2nd ed.). Brill. pp. 1098–1099.
- Mitha, Farouk (2001). Al-Ghazali and the Ismailis: A Debate on Reason and Authority in Medieval Islam. I.B.Tauris. p. 19. ISBN 978-1-86064-792-5.
- Balcıoğlu, Tahir Harimî (1940). Hilmi Ziya Ülken, ed. Türk tarihinde mezhep cereyanları (in Turkish). İstanbul: Kanaat Yayınları, Ahmed Sait tab'ı. Chapter on Alamut Batiniyya: (Baba İshâk, Şirâz’da Mûhy’id-Dîn’in derslerine devam ederken Şîʿa-i Bâtın’îyye’nin Elemût’taki Dâ’î Â’zamı “Hükümet-i Melâhide-i Bâtın’îyye Reisi Nûr’ûd-Dîn Muhammed Sâni” tarafından Anadolu Dâ’îliği’ne atandı.)
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