Batiniyya

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Batiniyya (Arabic: باطنية‎, romanizedBāṭiniyyah) is a religious slur used to refer to Isma'ili Shias. Sunni writers have used the term batiniyya polemically in reference to rejection of the evident meaning of scripture in favor of its bāṭin meaning.[1] Al-Ghazali, a medieval Sunni theologian, used the term batiniyya pejoratively for the adherents of Isma'ilism.[1][2] Some Shia writers, from different branches, have also used the term polemically.[3]

History[edit]

It refers to groups that distinguish between an outer, exoteric (zāhir) and an inner, esoteric (bāṭin) meaning in Islamic scriptures.[3] The term has been used in particular for an allegoristic type of scriptural interpretation developed among some Shia groups, stressing the bāṭin meaning of texts.[1] It has been retained by all branches of Isma'ilism. The Alawites practice a similar system of interpretation.[1] Batiniyya is a common epithet used to designate Isma'ili Islam, which has been accepted by Ismai'lis themselves.[4]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Hodgson, M.G.S. (1960). "Bāṭiniyya". In Gibb, H. A. R.; Kramers, J. H.; Lévi-Provençal, E.; Schacht, J.; Lewis, B. & Pellat, Ch. (eds.). The Encyclopaedia of Islam, New Edition, Volume I: A–B. Leiden: E. J. Brill. doi:10.1163/1573-3912_islam_SIM_1284. OCLC 495469456.
  2. ^ Mitha, Farouk (2001). Al-Ghazali and the Ismailis: A Debate on Reason and Authority in Medieval Islam. I.B.Tauris. p. 19. ISBN 978-1-86064-792-5.
  3. ^ a b Halm, Heinz. "BĀṬENĪYA". Encyclopedia Iranica. III. pp. 861–863. Retrieved 4 August 2014.
  4. ^ Daadbeh, Asghar, Gholami, Rahim (2013). "Bāṭiniyya". In Wilferd Madelung; Farhad Daftary (eds.). Encyclopaedia Islamica. doi:10.1163/1875-9831_isla_COM_000000100.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)