Batman: Year One

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"Batman: Year One"
Batman-Year One (cover).jpg
Cover of the first hardcover printing of Batman: Year One
PublisherDC Comics
Publication dateFebruary – May 1987
Title(s)Batman #404-407
Main character(s)Batman
Jim Gordon
Creative team
Writer(s)Frank Miller
Artist(s)David Mazzucchelli
Letterer(s)Todd Klein
Colorist(s)Richmond Lewis
Editor(s)Dennis O'Neil
Batman: Year OneISBN 0-930289-33-1
Deluxe Edition (softcover)ISBN 1401207529
Deluxe Edition (hardcover)ISBN 1401206905

"Year One", later referred to as "Batman: Year One", is an American comic book story arc published by DC Comics which recounts the superhero Batman's first year as a crime-fighter. It was written by Frank Miller, illustrated by David Mazzucchelli, colored by Richmond Lewis, and lettered by Todd Klein. Batman: Year One originally appeared in issues #404–407 of the comic book title Batman in 1987. As well as recounting Batman's early crime-fighting career, the story simultaneously examines the life of recently transferred officer James Gordon – eventually building towards their partnership.

There have been several reprints of the story: a hardcover, multiple trade paperback editions (one in standard comics paper with simpler coloring and one deluxe version with rich detailing in the colors — both colored by Richmond Lewis) and it has been included in The Complete Frank Miller Batman hardcover. The story arc was adapted into an animated feature in 2011.

Publication history[edit]


Batman (Bruce Wayne) is a superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics who debuted in "The Case of the Chemical Syndicate", a story published in Detective Comics #27 (May 1939). He was created by artist Bob Kane and writer Bill Finger to capitalize on the success of DC's other superhero Superman and was inspired by characters from pulp fiction stories, such as the Shadow.[1][2] Batman's origin story was introduced in a two-page, 12-panel story by Kane and Finger from Detective Comics #33 (Nov. 1939). In the story, a young Bruce witnesses the murder of his parents Thomas and Martha at the hands of a mugger. Bruce vows to avenge his parents' deaths by fighting crime; he takes the persona of Batman after a bat flies through his window one night. For the story, Finger lifted elements from tales published in Popular Detective and The Phantom, while Kane traced artwork of Tarzan and from Junior G-Men.[3]

In the years afterward, much of DC's continuity became convoluted and contradictory. Examples of this were present in Batman's origin: in a 1948 story, Finger gave the mugger a name (Joe Chill), and in 1956 wrote that he killed Bruce's parents on behalf of the mob. Finger also went on to suggest that the Batman persona was inspired by a bat costume Thomas wore to a masquerade ball. Other stories depicted Bruce traveling across the world to learn the skills he would need as Batman.[3] In an effort to resolve continuity errors like these in the DC Universe, Marv Wolfman and George Pérez produced the 12-issue limited series Crisis on Infinite Earths.[4] Wolfman's plans for the DC Universe after Crisis on Infinite Earths included relaunching every DC comic with a new first issue.[5]

During the production of Crisis on Infinite Earths, Frank Miller became the writer of Marvel Comics' Daredevil.[3] Miller had originally been the series' penciller,[6] but editor Dennis O'Neil soon made him the series' writer.[7] Sales rose dramatically after Miller began to write. For one critically acclaimed Daredevil story, Miller collaborated with artist David Mazzucchelli. Miller went to work for DC as well, and produced the influential four-issue limited series The Dark Knight Returns (1986). O'Neil also made the move to DC.[3]


Frank Miller, the author of "Year One", at the Fan Expo 2016 in Toronto, Canada

The contract Miller signed to produce The Dark Knight Returns also required him to write a revamped Batman origin story. While Miller handled the writing and artwork of The Dark Knight Returns, he simply wrote "Year One", while Mazzucchelli joined to pencil.[3] In the past, Miller had been overwhelmed by having to handle both writing and illustration duties.[8] Todd Klein was the story's letterer, while Mazzucchelli's wife Richmond Lewis handled coloring. O'Neil edited the issues.[3] According to O'Neil, the contract Miller and Mazzucchelli signed to produce "Year One" in the ongoing Batman series guaranteed publication within 6 months.[9]

David Mazzucchelli autographing a copy of the collected story in 2012

"Year One" was originally conceived as a graphic novel. O'Neil, who had been asked to edit several issues of Batman, was friends with Miller and was able to learn of the story. Reflecting on poor sales of Batman, O'Neil caught Miller one day while on a walk in Los Angeles and convinced him and Mazzucchelli to serialize the story in the ongoing series.[9] Miller was initially reluctant; he felt this would be hard because he had to ensure the story stayed canonical to the DC Universe, something he did not have to worry about when writing The Dark Knight Returns. In addition, Miller's pacing would have to be altered because of ongoing series' relatively small page counts. O'Neil reasoned that Crisis on Infinite Earths had completely remade the DC Universe, so Miller would be able to have the same creative freedom that The Dark Knight Returns provided.[3] He also reassured Miller that he and Mazzucchelli "weren’t going to lose anything" by serializing it.[9]

Miller has said he kept Kane and Finger's basic story for "Year One" but expanded it.[10] In writing the story, Miller looked for parts of Batman's origin that were never explored. He left the core elements, such as the murder of Bruce's parents, intact, but reduced them to brief flashbacks. Bruce's globe-trotting adventures was something Miller removed, as he found uninteresting. Rather than portraying Batman as a larger-than-life icon as he had in The Dark Knight Returns, Miller chose to characterize "Year One"'s Batman as an average, inexperienced man trying to make a change in society because Miller believed a superhero is least interesting when most effective. Examples of this include Batman underestimating his opponents, getting shot by police, and his costume being too big. The story's violence was kept street-level and gritty, emphasizing noir and realism.[3]

In illustrating, Mazzucchelli sought to make "Year One" look grimy, dark, and muted. His interpretation of Gotham City was designed to symbolize corruption, featuring muddy colors that gave the impression of the city being dirty and needing a hero. The newsprint paper used in Batman was unable to reproduce the bright coloring and visual effects of The Dark Knight Returns, so Mazzucchelli took on "Year One" with a more grounded and darker approach.[11]


In accordance with Wolfman's plans,[5] O'Neil initially saw "Year One" as the start of the second volume of Batman and expected the first part to be its first issue. However, Miller rejected this idea. He explained: "I don't need to slash through continuity with as sharp a blade as I thought. Doing the Dark Knight has shown me there's been enough good material ... I didn't feel that fleshing out an unknown part of Batman's history justified wiping out 50 years of [adventures]."[11] Thus, the four "Year One" issues bear no continuity to past issues of Batman.[11]

Title Issue Cover date
"Chapter One: Who I Am – How I Come to Be" Batman #404 February 1987
"Chapter Two: War is Declared" Batman #405 March 1987
"Chapter Three: Black Dawn" Batman #406 April 1987
"Chapter Four: Friend in Need" Batman #407 May 1987

Collected editions[edit]

One of the earliest collections of "Year One" was released in The Complete Frank Miller Batman, published by Longmeadow Press in 1989.[12] A dedicated collected edition, Batman: Year One, was published as a trade paperback in October 1997 (ISBN 0-930289-33-1). It is 96 pages long and contains the four "Year One" issues.

DC released a hardcover "deluxe edition" of Batman: Year One (ISBN 1401206905) to coincide with the release of Batman Begins in April 2005.[12] This release includes introductions by Miller and Mazzucchelli, the original penciled artwork, promotional and unseen Batman art, Lewis's color samples, and some pages of the original script, for a total of 144 pages. This edition was rereleased as a 136-page trade paperback in January 2007, with an introduction by O'Neil (ISBN 1401207529). New versions of this edition were released in 2012[12] and 2017 (ISBN 1401272940).

To celebrate Batman's 75th anniversary in November 2014, DC released a sample of "Year One" as a part of its DC Comics Essentials line of promotional comics.[13] In 2015, a special package was released that contained the story and its film adaptation (ISBN 1401260047).

In November 2016, DC released a 288-page DC Comics Absolute Edition of Batman: Year One. It comes in a slipcase with two hardcover books: one that reprints a remastered version of the story, with refined coloring; and another that reprints the original, unaltered story from 1987. Both books contain over 60 pages of bonus materials, including Miller's complete scripts.[14]


The story recounts the beginning of Bruce Wayne's career as Batman and Jim Gordon's with the Gotham City Police Department. Bruce Wayne returns home to Gotham City at the age of twenty-five from training abroad in martial arts, man-hunting, and science for the past 12 years, and James Gordon moves to Gotham City with his wife, Barbara, after a transfer from Chicago. Both are swiftly acquainted with the corruption and violence of Gotham City, with Gordon witnessing his partner Detective Arnold John Flass assaulting an African-American teen for fun.

After refusing a proposition from a teenage prostitute Holly Robinson, Bruce is reluctantly drawn into a brawl with her violent pimp and is attacked by several prostitutes, including dominatrix Selina Kyle. Two police officers shoot and take him in their squad car, but a dazed and bleeding Bruce breaks his handcuffs and causes a crash, dragging the police to a safe distance before fleeing. He reaches Wayne Manor barely alive and sits before his father's bust, requesting guidance in his war on crime. A bat crashes through a window and settles on the bust, giving him the inspiration to become the Batman.

Gordon soon works to rid corruption from the force, but, on orders from Commissioner Gillian Loeb, several officers attack him, including Flass, who personally threatens Gordon's pregnant wife. In revenge, the recovering Gordon tracks Flass down, beats him, and leaves him naked and handcuffed in the snow.

As Gordon becomes a minor celebrity for several brave acts, Batman strikes for the first time, attacking a group of thieves. Batman soon works up the ladder, even attacking Flass while the latter was accepting a drug dealer's bribe. After Batman interrupts a dinner party attended by many of Gotham's corrupt politicians and crime bosses to announce his intention to bring them to justice, including Carmine "The Roman" Falcone, Loeb orders Gordon to bring him in by any means necessary.

As Gordon tries in vain to catch him, Batman attacks Falcone, stripping him naked and tying him up in his bed and dumping his car in the river, infuriating the mob boss. Assistant District Attorney Harvey Dent becomes Batman's first ally, while Detective Sarah Essen and Gordon witness Batman save an old woman from a runaway truck, after Essen suggested Bruce Wayne as a Batman suspect. Essen holds Batman at gunpoint while Gordon is momentarily dazed, but Batman disarms her and flees to an abandoned building.

Claiming the building has been scheduled for demolition, Loeb orders a bomb to be dropped on it, forcing Batman into the fortified basement, where he abandons his utility belt as it catches fire. A SWAT team led by trigger-happy officer Branden is sent in and attempts to trap Batman in the basement. After tranquilizing Branden, Batman dodges bullets as Branden's team opens fire on him, barely managing to survive after two bullet wounds. Enraged as the team's carelessly fired bullets injure several people outside, Batman beats the team into submission and, after using a device to attract the bats of his cave to him, he flees amid the chaos. After witnessing him in action, Selina Kyle dons a costume of her own to begin a life of crime.

Gordon has a brief affair with Essen, while Batman intimidates a mob drug dealer for information. The dealer comes to Gordon to testify against Flass, who is brought up on charges. Upset with Gordon's exploits, Loeb blackmails Gordon against pressing charges with proof of his affair. After bringing Barbara with him to interview Bruce Wayne, investigating his connection to Batman, Gordon confesses the affair to her.

Batman sneaks into Falcone's manor, overhearing a plan against Gordon, but is interrupted when Selina Kyle, hoping to build a reputation after her robberies were pinned on Batman, attacks Falcone and his bodyguards, aided from afar by Batman. Identifying Falcone's plan as the morning comes, the uncostumed Bruce leaves to help.

While leaving home, Gordon spots a motorcyclist enter his garage. Suspicious, Gordon enters to see Johnny Vitti, Falcone's nephew, and his thugs holding his family hostage. Gordon decisively shoots the thugs and chases Vitti, who has fled with the baby. The mysterious motorcyclist, now revealed to the reader as Bruce Wayne, rushes out to chase Vitti. Gordon blows out Vitti's car tire on a bridge and the two fight hand-to-hand, with Gordon losing his glasses, before Vitti and James Gordon Jr. fall over the side. Bruce leaps over the railing and saves the baby. Gordon realizes that he is standing before an unmasked Batman, but says that he is "practically blind without [his] glasses", and lets Bruce go.

In the final scenes of the comic, Flass turns on Loeb, supplying Dent with evidence and testimony, and Loeb resigns. Gordon is promoted to captain and stands on the rooftop waiting to meet Batman to discuss somebody called the Joker, who is plotting to poison the reservoir.


DC's post-Crisis on Infinite Earths revamp was a major success, raising sales 22% in the first year, and DC beat Marvel in direct market sales for the first time in August and September 1987.[15] The four "Year One" issues were no exception to this. Two years before the relaunch, Batman had all-time low sales of 75,000 copies per month; "Year One" sold an average of 193,000 copies an issue, numbers not seen since the early 1970s. Despite this, it did not outsell other books like Uncanny X-Men, and the collected edition sold well but never matched the sales of The Dark Knight Returns.[3] The story, with its noir-inspired narrative and dirty violence, quickly caught the attention of readers.[16] The Los Angeles Times wrote that "Year One" offered an interesting and entertaining update to the origin of Batman.[17]

"Year One"'s characterization, particularly that of Batman and Gordon, has been praised. Hilary Goldstein (IGN) compared their journey to friendship to the plot of the film Serpico; they found that the two characters' respective story arcs—with Gordon's "illustrat[ing] the corruption in Gotham" and Batman's detailing "the transformation from man to myth"—offered an exploration of Batman's world like no other.[18] Glenn Matchett (ComicsVerse) wrote that, unlike The Dark Knight Returns, "Year One"'s Batman is more vulnerable and inexperienced, which made the story more memorable.[16] Nick Roberts (Geek Syndicate) thought the characters seemed believable,[19] and comics historian Matthew K. Manning called the characterization realistic.[11]

The story's depiction of Gotham and dark tone has also been acclaimed. Journalist James Lovegrove described "Year One" as a "noir-inflected pulp tale of vigilantism and integrity, focused on a good man doing the right thing in a dirty world" and noted the brutality of its fight sequences.[20] Jason Serafino (Complex) wrote that by ignoring many of Batman's trademark gadgets and villains, Miller managed to present Batman in a relatable and thrilling way.[21] Goldstein found every moment memorable, writing "Miller does not waste a single panel" in presenting a gritty and dark story.[18] Matchett agreed; he offered particular praise for the scenes depicting Batman clashing with the police, calling them the moment Batman began to become a legend.[16]

Mazzucchelli's art was noted as a standout.[18][16]


Before the New 52 in 2011, Batman: Year One existed in the mainstream DC continuity, and in the same continuity as the other storylines in Miller's "Dark Knight Universe", consisting of The Dark Knight Returns, its sequel The Dark Knight Strikes Again, The Dark Knight III: The Master Race, The Dark Knight Returns: The Last Crusade, Spawn/Batman, and All Star Batman and Robin the Boy Wonder.[22] However, following the New 52 reboot, Batman: Zero Year replaced Year One as the official origin for Batman and Year One was relegated to the continuity of the other Frank Miller storylines.[23]

Following Crisis on Infinite Earths, DC rebooted many of its titles. Year One was followed by Batman: Year Two, but the 1994 Zero Hour: Crisis in Time crossover erased Year Two from continuity. In another continuity re-arrangement, Catwoman: Year One (Catwoman Annual #2, 1995) posited that Selina Kyle had not actually been a prostitute, but, rather, a thief posing as one in order to commit crimes.

Launched in 1989, following the success of the film Batman, the title Batman: Legends of the Dark Knight examines crime-fighting exploits primarily, not exclusively, from the first four to five years of Batman's career. This title rotated in creative teams and time placement, but several stories directly relate to the events of Year One, especially the first arc "Batman: Shaman". In 1996 and 99', Jeph Loeb and Tim Sale created Batman: The Long Halloween and Batman: Dark Victory, two 13-issue maxiseries that recounted Batman's early years as a crime-fighter following the events of Miller's original story and retold the origins of Two-Face and Dick Grayson. The Year One story was continued in the 2005 graphic novel Batman: The Man Who Laughs, following up on Gordon informing Batman about the Joker, and thus recounting their first official encounter. Two other stories, Batman and the Monster Men and Batman and the Mad Monk tie into the same time period of Batman's career, filling in the gap between Year One and the Man Who Laughs. The comics Robin: Year One and Batgirl: Year One describe his sidekicks' origin stories.


Two sequels titled Batman: Year Two and Batman: Year Three were released in 1987 and 1989.


After the critical failure of Batman & Robin, several attempts were made to reboot the Batman film franchise with an adaptation of "Year One". Joss Whedon and Joel Schumacher both pitched their own takes.[3] In 2000, Warner Bros. hired Darren Aronofsky to write and direct Batman: Year One. The film was to be written by Miller, who finished an early draft of the script.[24][25] The script, however, was a loose adaptation, as it kept most of the themes and elements from the graphic novel but shunned other conventions that were otherwise integral to the character.[26] It was shelved by the studio in 2001,[27] after an individual who claimed to have read Miller's script published a negative review on Ain't It Cool News.[3] In 2016, Miller stated the film was canceled because of creative differences between him and Aronofsky: "It was the first time I worked on a Batman project with somebody whose vision of Batman was darker than mine. My Batman was too nice for him. We would argue about it, and I'd say, 'Batman wouldn't do that, he wouldn't torture anybody'".[28]

In 2005, Christopher Nolan began his series, with the reboot film Batman Begins, which draws inspiration from "Year One" and other stories.[3] Batman Begins and its sequel The Dark Knight are set during the same timespan and adopt several elements directly from the graphic novel. Major characters like Commissioner Loeb, Detective Flass and Carmine 'The Roman' Falcone are featured prominently in Batman Begins. Film critic Michael Dodd argued that with each major motion picture focused on the Dark Knight's origins, the odes and references to the Year One comic increased. Comparing Mask of the Phantasm with Batman Begins he noted that "...Phantasm was a Batman story with Year One elements, while Batman Begins was a Year One story with added features".[29]

In 2011, an animated adaptation was released as a DC Universe Animated Original Movie. It was produced by Bruce Timm, co-directed by Lauren Montgomery and Sam Liu.[30] It features the voices of Benjamin McKenzie as Bruce Wayne/Batman, Bryan Cranston as James Gordon, Eliza Dushku as Selina Kyle/Catwoman, Katee Sackhoff as Sarah Essen, Grey DeLisle as Barbara Gordon, Jon Polito as Commissioner Loeb, Alex Rocco as Carmine 'The Roman' Falcone, and Jeff Bennett as Alfred Pennyworth.[31] The movie premiered at Comic-Con, with a Catwoman short shown in October.[32]

The second half of the fourth season of the Batman-based television series Gotham is inspired by Batman: Year One.[33]


  1. ^ Les Daniels. Batman - The Complete History: The Life and Times of the Dark Knight. pp. 18–20.
  2. ^ Boichel, Bill. "Batman: Commodity as Myth." The Many Lives of the Batman: Critical Approaches to a Superhero and His Media. Routledge: London, 1991. ISBN 978-0-85170-276-6, pp. 6–7.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Weldon, Glen (2016). The Caped Crusade: Batman and the Rise of Nerd Culture. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4767-5669-1. Retrieved September 10, 2017.
  4. ^ Greeberger, Robert (August 2015). "Crisis at 30: A Look Back at the Most Influential Crossover in Comics History". Back Issue! (82).
  5. ^ a b Tucker, Reed (October 2017). Slugfest. New York City: Da Capo Press. p. 152. ISBN 0306825473.
  6. ^ Sanderson, Peter; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2008). "1970s". Marvel Chronicle A Year by Year History. London, United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. p. 189. ISBN 978-0-7566-4123-8. In this issue the great longtime Daredevil artist Gene Colan was succeeded by a new penciller who would become a star himself: Frank Miller.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  7. ^ Mithra, Kuljit (February 1998). "Interview with Dennis O'Neil". Archived from the original on March 21, 2013. Retrieved May 10, 2013.
  8. ^ Cordier, Philippe (April 2007). "Seeing Red: Dissecting Daredevil's Defining Years". Back Issue!. Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing (21): 33–60.
  9. ^ a b c Greenfield, Dan (September 22, 2014). "The DENNY O'NEIL INTERVIEWS — Batman: Year One". 13th Dimension. Retrieved May 20, 2018.
  10. ^ "'Batman' Author Frank Miller". NPR. June 15, 2005. Retrieved May 22, 2018.
  11. ^ a b c d Manning, Matthew K.; Dolan, Hannah, ed. (2010). "1980s". DC Comics Year By Year A Visual Chronicle. Dorling Kindersley. p. 227. ISBN 978-0-7566-6742-9. Melding Miller's noir sensibilities, realistic characterization, and gritty action with Mazzucchelli's brilliant iconic imagery, "Year One" thrilled readers and critics alike ... as well as being one of the influences for the 2005 film Batman Begins.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  12. ^ a b c Schedeen, Jesse (March 28, 2012). "Batman: Year One - Deluxe Edition Hardcover Review". IGN. Retrieved May 28, 2018.
  13. ^ "DC Comics Essentials - Batman: Year One Special Edition #1". DC Comics. November 5, 2014. Retrieved May 28, 2018.
  14. ^ "Absolute Batman: Year One". DC Comics. November 2, 2016. Retrieved May 28, 2018.
  15. ^ Tucker, Reed (October 2017). Slugfest. New York City: Da Capo Press. p. 157. ISBN 0306825473.
  16. ^ a b c d Matchett, Glenn (September 4, 2015). "Frank Miller's Batman Part One: YEAR ONE, or How Legends are Made". ComicsVerse. Retrieved May 30, 2018.
  17. ^ Miller, Frank; Mazzucchelli, Dave (January 10, 2007). Batman: Year One (Paperback ed.). DC Comics. ISBN 0290204895.
  18. ^ a b c Goldstein, Hilary (June 17, 2005). "Batman: Year One Review". IGN. Retrieved May 30, 2018.
  19. ^ Roberts, Nick. "'Classic Comic' Review – Batman: Year One". Geek Syndicate. Retrieved May 30, 2018.
  20. ^ Lovegrove, James (2016). "Batman: Year One". The 100 Greatest Graphic Novels of All Time. Future plc (1): 92–93.
  21. ^ Serafino, Jason (January 17, 2018). "The 25 Best DC Comics Of All Time". Complex. Retrieved May 31, 2018.
  22. ^ Sanderson, Peter (2006-02-06). "Comics in Context #119: All-Star Bats on IGN". Archived from the original on 13 December 2010. Retrieved 2011-01-04.
  23. ^ "THE ASSOCIATED PRESS Announces BATMAN: ZERO YEAR". 11 March 2013. Archived from the original on 22 October 2015.
  24. ^ Dana Harris (2000-09-21). "WB sends Pi guy into the Bat Cave". Variety. Archived from the original on January 17, 2012. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  25. ^ Greenberg, James (2005-05-08). "Rescuing Batman". Los Angeles Times. p. E-10. Archived from the original on 2008-12-02. Retrieved 2019-05-11.
  26. ^ Brian Linder (2000-10-16). "The Bat-Men Speak". IGN. Archived from the original on 2008-12-06. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  27. ^ Dana Harris (2002-06-30). "WB: fewer pix, more punch". Variety. Archived from the original on January 17, 2012. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  28. ^ Kit, Borys (March 3, 2016). "A Rare Interview With Frank Miller: 'Dark Knight,' the Unmade Darren Aronofsky Batman Movie, and Donald Trump". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved May 28, 2018.
  29. ^ Dodd, Michael, "Back to the Beginning: The Evolving Influence of Batman: Year One Archived 2017-07-12 at the Wayback Machine," The Missing Slate.
  30. ^ "Batman: Year One Animated Update". June 13, 2010. Archived from the original on August 12, 2014. Retrieved June 13, 2010.
  31. ^ Kit, Borys (April 20, 2011). "'Batman: Year One' Lines Up Voice Cast, Sets Comic-Con Premiere (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved June 18, 2011.
  32. ^ "BATMAN: YEAR ONE Animated Film Sneak Peek Video & Character Designs". The Daily BLAM!. Archived from the original on 2013-01-25. Retrieved 2013-01-23.
  33. ^ "Gotham Season 4 Draws from Long Halloween & Batman: Year One Comics". Screen Rant. July 27, 2017. Archived from the original on July 28, 2017. Retrieved July 28, 2017.

External links[edit]