Battenberg family

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Battenberg
Arms of Battenberg-Mountbatten.svg
Battenberg arms
Arms of Bulgaria 1880-1887.svg
Arms of Alexander of Battenberg, who ruled the Principality of Bulgaria from 1879 to 1886
Parent houseHesse-Darmstadt branch
of the House of Hesse
Place of originGrand Duchy of Hesse
MembersPrincess Julia of Battenberg, Princess Marie of Battenberg, Prince Louis of Battenberg
Connected membersPrincess Alice of Battenberg, Princess Louise of Battenberg, Prince George of Battenberg
Cadet branchesMountbatten family

The Battenberg family is a non-dynastic cadet branch of the House of Hesse-Darmstadt, which ruled the Grand Duchy of Hesse until 1918. The first member was Julia Hauke, whose brother-in-law Grand Duke Louis III of Hesse created her Countess of Battenberg in 1851, with the style of Illustrious Highness (H.Ill.H.), at the time of her morganatic marriage to Grand Duke Louis's brother Prince Alexander of Hesse and by Rhine. The name of the title refers to the town of Battenberg in Hesse. In 1858, the countess' title was elevated to Princess of Battenberg, with the style of Serene Highness (H.S.H.).

The Battenberg name was last used by Prince Francis Joseph of Battenberg, youngest son of the Princess of Battenberg, who died childless in 1924. In 1917, most members of the family had been residing in the British Empire and had renounced their Hessian titles, due to rising anti-German sentiment among the British during the First World War. At that point, they changed the family name to Mountbatten, an anglicised version of Battenberg. However, Juan, Count of Barcelona, a son of Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg, Queen of Spain, bore the surname of Borbón y Battenberg until his death in 1993.

Creation[edit]

Prince Alexander (1823–1888) was the third son of Grand Duke Louis II of Hesse and by Rhine and of Wilhelmina of Baden, yet it was openly rumoured that his biological father was actually Baron Augustus de Senarclens, his mother's chamberlain.[1] Prince Alexander's spouse, Julia von Hauke (1825–1895), was a mere countess, the orphaned daughter of Count von Hauke, a Polish nobleman of German ancestry who had served as a general in the Imperial Russian Army and then as Deputy Minister of War of Congress Poland.

Count von Hauke's rank was too low for his daughter's children with Prince Alexander to qualify for the succession to the throne of the Grand Duchy of Hesse. For this reason, her new brother-in-law Louis III of Hesse created the title of Countess of Battenberg (German: Gräfin von Battenberg) for her and for the couple's descendants.

In 1858, the title, which referred to the town of Battenberg in Hesse, was elevated to princely status. There was never a corresponding principality of Battenberg; the title was a non-sovereign one in the nobility of the Grand Duchy of Hesse. A previous family of counts of Battenberg had become extinct in the 14th century.[2]

After 1858, the children of this union bore the title of Prince (German: Prinz) or Princess (German: Prinzessin), with the style of Serene Highness (German: Durchlaucht).[3] Battenberg thus became the name of a morganatic cadet branch of the Grand Ducal family of Hesse, without the right of succession.[4]

Members[edit]

Relations to royal families[edit]

One of the original couple's sons, Prince Alexander of Battenberg, was made Sovereign Prince of Bulgaria; he was later forced to abdicate.

Another son, Prince Henry of Battenberg, married Princess Beatrice, the youngest daughter of Queen Victoria; their daughter, Victoria Eugenia Julia Ena, became queen consort of Spain. Her uncle Edward VII elevated her style to Royal Highness, so that she would have the necessary status to marry into the Spanish royal house.

Alexander and Julia's eldest son, Prince Louis of Battenberg, became the First Sea Lord of the Royal Navy. Due to anti-German feelings prevalent in Britain during the First World War, he anglicised his name to Mountbatten, as did his children and nephews, the sons of Prince Henry and Princess Beatrice.

One of the couple's four sons and one of their grandsons renounced their Hessian titles and were granted peerages by their cousin, George V: Prince Louis became the first Marquess of Milford Haven, while Prince Alexander, Prince Henry's eldest son, was created Marquess of Carisbrooke.

Prince Louis's second daughter, Princess Louise of Battenberg, in 1923 married the future Gustaf VI Adolf of Sweden and in 1950 became Queen Consort of Sweden. His younger son, Louis, became the last Viceroy of India. His elder daughter, Princess Alice of Battenberg, married Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark; their son, Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark (later styled as Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh), married the heir presumptive of the British throne, later Elizabeth II, after having renounced his Greek titles and taken his maternal grandfather's and uncle's surname, Mountbatten. The name Battenberg, in its anglicised form, is now a part of the personal surname, Mountbatten-Windsor, of some members of the British Royal Family.

In 1897, Prince Francis Joseph of Battenberg married Princess Anna of Montenegro,[5] a sister of Queen Elena of Italy and a maternal aunt of Alexander I of Yugoslavia.

Coats of arms[edit]

Besides those depicted above;

Family tree[edit]

Genealogical Table of the Battenberg, Mountbatten and Mountbatten-Windsor Family


Battenberg/
Mountbatten
House of Hesse-DarmstadtBritish Royal FamilyHouse of Romanov
(Russia)
Greek Royal FamilySwedish Royal FamilySpanish Royal Family
T08 Grossherzog.svg
Louis II
(1777–1848)
Grand Duke of Hesse and by the Rhine
1830—1848

Arms of the Grand Duchy of Hesse 1806-1918.svg
Crown of Saint Edward (Heraldry).svg
Victoria
Arms of the United Kingdom.svg
Albert, Prince Consort

Arms of Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.svg
Prince Charles of Hesse and by the Rhine
(1809–1877)
T08 Grossherzog.svg
Louis III
(1806–1877)
Grand Duke of Hesse and by the Rhine
1848—1877
Arms of the Grand Duchy of Hesse 1806-1918.svg
Prince Alexander of Hesse and by the Rhine
(1823–1888)
Julia v. Hauke
Mainz Arms.svg[a]
(1825–1895)
Countess, later Princess of Battenberg

BattenbergArms.svg
Marie
(1824–1880)
Empress Maria Alexandrovna
Heraldic Imperial Crown of Russia.svg
Alexander II
(1818–1881)
Emperor of
All Russia

1855—1881
Coat of Arms of Russian Empire.svg
Crown of Saint Edward (Heraldry).svg
Edward VII
Arms of the United Kingdom.svg
Alice
(1843–1878)
Grand Duchess of Hesse and by the Rhine
Arms of Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse.svg
T08 Grossherzog.svg
Louis IV
(1837–1892)
Grand Duke of Hesse and by the Rhine
1877—1892
Arms of the Grand Duchy of Hesse 1806-1918.svg
Princess Beatrice of the United Kingdom
(1857–1944)

Arms of Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg.svg
Prince Henry of Battenberg
(1858–1896)

Arms of Battenberg-Mountbatten.svg
T08 Grossherzog.svg
Prince Alexander of Battenberg
(1857–1893)
Prince of Bulgaria
(1879–1886)
Arms of Bulgaria 1880-1887.svg
Prince Francis Joseph of Battenberg
(1861–1924)
Heraldic Imperial Crown of Russia.svg
Alexander III
(1845–1894)
Emperor of All Russia
1881—1894
Coat of Arms of Russian Empire.svg
Crown of the Kingdom of Greece.svg
George I
(1845–1913)
King of Greece
1863—1913
Royal Arms of Greece (1863-1936).svg
Crown of Saint Edward (Heraldry).svg
George V
Arms of the United Kingdom.svg
T08 Grossherzog.svg
Ernest Louis
(1868–1937)
Grand Duke of Hesse and by the Rhine
1892—1918
Arms of the Grand Duchy of Hesse 1806-1918.svg
Alix
(1872–1918)
Empress of Russia
Lesser CoA of the empress Alexandra Feodorovna of Russia.svg
Heraldic Imperial Crown of Russia.svg
Nicholas II
(1868–1918)
Emperor of All Russia
1894—1917
Coat of Arms of Russian Empire.svg
Victoria
(1863–1950)
Coronet of a British Marquess.svg
Prince Louis of Battenberg[b]
(1854–1921)
Arms of Battenberg-Mountbatten.svg
from 1917 Louis Mountbatten, 1st Marquess of Milford Haven
Coronet of a British Marquess.svg
Alexander
(1886–1960)
Arms of Alexander Mountbatten, 1st Marquess of Carisbrooke.svg
from 1917 Alexander Mountbatten, Marquess of Carisbrooke
Leopold
(1889–1922)
from 1917 Lord Leopold Mountbatten
Prince Maurice of Battenberg
(1891–1914)
Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg
(1887–1969)

Arms of Princess Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg (1906).svg

Queen of Spain,1906 –1931
Heraldic Royal Crown of Spain.svg
Alfonso XIII
(1886–1941)
King of Spain
1886—1931
Arms of Spain (c.1880-1931).svg
Crown of the Kingdom of Greece.svg
Constantine I
(1868–1923)
King of Greece
1913-17 &
1920-22
Crown of Saint Edward (Heraldry).svg
George VI
Arms of the United Kingdom.svg
Georg Donatus, Hereditary Grand Duke of Hesse
(1906–1937)
Louis, Prince of Hesse and by Rhine
(1908–1968)
Princess Alice of Battenberg
(1885–1969)
Coat of Arms of Princess Alice of Battenberg (Order of Queen Maria Luisa).svg
Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark
(1882–1944)
Arms of a Prince of Greece.svg
Louise Mountbatten
(1889–1965)
Queen of Sweden
Greater coat of arms of Queen Louise (Sweden).svg
Royal crown of the King of Sweden.svg
Gustaf VI Adolf
(1882–1973)
King of Sweden
1950—1873
Great shield of arms of Sweden.svg
Coronet of a British Marquess.svg
George
(1892–1938)
Earl Mountbatten of Burma-CoA-Shield.svg
2nd Marquess of Milford Haven
Coronet of a British Earl.svg
Lord Louis Mountbatten[c]
(1900–1979)
Earl Mountbatten of Burma-CoA-Shield.svg
1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma
Infante Juan
Count of Barcelona
(1913–1993)
Coat of Arms of Juan, Count of Barcelona, after the renounce of his claim to the Throne.svg
Crown of the Kingdom of Greece.svg
Paul
(1901–1964)
King of Greece
1947—1964
Crown of Saint Edward (Heraldry).svg
Elizabeth II
(1926—)
Arms of the United Kingdom.svg
Coronet of a Child of the Sovereign.svg
Philip[d]
(1921–2021)
Duke of Edinburgh
Arms of Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.svg
Prince
Gustaf Adolf
Duke of
Västerbotten

(1906—1947)
Armoiries du Prince Gustaf Adolf Oscar de Suède.svg
Coronet of a British Marquess.svg
David Mountbatten
(1919–1970)
3rd Marquess of Milford Haven
Lady Pamela Hicks
(1929–)
Coronet of a British Earl.svg
Patricia Knatchbull
(1924–2017)
2nd Countess Mountbatten of Burma
m. John Knatchbull, 7th Baron Brabourne
Heraldic Royal Crown of Spain.svg
Juan Carlos I
(1938—)
King of Spain
1975—2014
Arms of Juan Carlos I of Spain.svg
Sophia
(1938—)
Queen of Spain
1975—2014
Personal Coat of arms of Sofia, Queen of Spain.svg
Crown of the Kingdom of Greece.svg
Constantine II
(1940—)
King of Greece
1964–73
Coronet of the British Heir Apparent.svg
Prince Charles
Prince of Wales
(1948–)

Arms of Charles, Prince of Wales.svg
Coronet of a Child of the Sovereign.svg
Anne, Princess Royal
(1950–)
Arms of Anne, the Princess Royal.svg
Coronet of a Child of the Sovereign.svg
Prince Andrew, Duke of York
(1960–)
Arms of Andrew, Duke of York.svg
Coronet of a Child of the Sovereign.svg
Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex
(1964–)
Arms of Edward, Earl of Wessex.svg
Royal crown of the King of Sweden.svg
Carl XVI Gustaf
(1946–)
King of Sweden
1973—
Great shield of arms of Sweden.svg
Coronet of a British Marquess.svg
George Mountbatten
(1961–)
4th Marquess of Milford Haven
Lord Ivar Mountbatten
(1963–)
Coronet of a British Earl.svg
Norton Knatchbull
(1947–)
3rd Earl Mountbatten of Burma
Lord Mountbatten of Burma-CoA-Knatchbull-Shield.svg
6 othersHeraldic Royal Crown of Spain.svg
Felipe VI
(1968–)
King of Spain
2014—
Arms of Spanish Monarch.svg
Pavlos
Crown Prince
(1967—)
Arms of the Crown Prince of Greece.svg

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ This coat of arms is reported in the "Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe", by Jiri Louda and Michael Maclagan, Clarkson N. Potter, Inc. Publishers, New York, 1981, p216, table 109. While these arms are virtually the same as the city of Mainz, it is a common heraldic law that identical arms are allowed when the bearers are of different nations, but within a nation they are not (see for England, Warbelton v Gorges and Scrope v Grosvenor). However, Wikipedia reports a different set of arms for the family at the article on Hauke-Bosak (Hauke Counts.jpg. However, these arms are for the family in Russia, and the reference given is an expired page in the Polish Wikipedia. There is no reference for the family seen in the Rietstap Armorial General.
  2. ^ Admiral of the Fleet, RN
    GCB, GCVO, KCMG, PC
    First Sea Lord, RN (1912–14)
  3. ^ Admiral of the Fleet, RN
    KG GCB OM GCSI GCIE GCVO DSO PC FRS
    Chief of Combined Operations, Chiefs of Staff Committee (UK) and Combined Chiefs of Staff (US & UK) (1941–1943)
    Supreme Allied Commander,  South East Asia Command(1943–1946)
    Viceroy and Governor-General of India(1947)
    Governor-General of India(1947-48)
    Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean Fleet, RN (1952–1954)
    Fourth Sea Lord, RN (1950–1952)
    First Sea Lord, RN (1955-59)
    Chief of the Defence Staff (1959–1965)
  4. ^ Prince Philip was born a member of the Danish and Greek Royal House of Glucksborg and was known as Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark.
    On his marriage he became a naturalized British subject, disclaimed his Greek and Danish titles, and adopted his mother's maiden name of Mountbatten as his surname. As documented in the Mountbatten family and Mountbatten-Windsor articles, the dynastic name of the British Royal Family remains Windsor. However, the personal surname of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip's descendants is Mountbatten-Windsor (e.g. Archie Mountbatten-Windsor, James Mountbatten-Windsor, Viscount Severn and Lady Louise Mountbatten-Windsor).
    Philip was created Duke of Edinburgh on his marriage. In 1957, Queen Elizabeth created him a British Prince.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hugo Vickers, Alice: Princess Andrew of Greece (2000), p. 8
  2. ^ Norman Davies, Europe: A History (1997), p. 809
  3. ^ Hugh Montgomery-Massingberd, Burke's Royal Families of the World, Vol. 1 (1977), p. 213
  4. ^ Hugo Young, Political Lives (2001), p. 531
  5. ^ The Annual Register (1898), p. 27

External links[edit]

Battenberg family
House of Battenberg
Cadet branch of the House of Hesse-Darmstadt
Preceded by Ruling House of Bulgaria
1879–1886
Succeeded by