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|Scope of criminal liability|
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In the United States, criminal battery, or simply battery, is the use of force against another, resulting in harmful, offensive or sexual contact. It is a specific common law misdemeanor, although the term is used more generally to refer to any unlawful offensive physical contact with another person, and may be a misdemeanor or a felony, depending on the circumstances. Battery was defined at common law as "any unlawful and or unwanted touching of the person of another by the aggressor, or by a substance put in motion by him." In most cases, battery is now governed by statutes, and its severity is determined by the law of the specific jurisdiction.
- 1 Generally
- 2 Specific countries
- 3 See also
- 4 References
Specific rules regarding battery vary among different jurisdictions, but some elements remain constant across jurisdictions. Battery generally requires that:
- an offensive touch or contact is made upon the victim, instigated by the actor; and
- the actor intends or knows that their action will cause the offensive touching.
Under the Model Penal Code and in some jurisdictions, there is battery when the actor acts recklessly without specific intent of causing an offensive contact. Battery is typically classified as either simple or aggravated. Although battery typically occurs in the context of physical altercations, it may also occur under other circumstances, such as in medical cases where a doctor performs a non-consented medical procedure.
There is an offence which could be (loosely) described as battery in Russia. Article 116 of the Russian Criminal Code provides that battery or similar violent actions which cause pain are an offence.
- an unlawful application of force
- to the person of another
- resulting in either bodily injury or an offensive touching.
The common-law elements serve as a basic template, but individual jurisdictions may alter them, and they may vary slightly from state to state.
Under modern statutory schemes, battery is often divided into grades that determine the severity of punishment. For example:
- Simple battery may include any form of non-consensual harmful or insulting contact, regardless of the injury caused. Criminal battery requires intent to inflict an injury on another.
- Sexual battery may be defined as non-consensual touching of the intimate parts of another. At least in Florida, "Sexual battery means oral, anal, or vaginal penetration by, or union with, the sexual organ of another or the anal or vaginal penetration of another by any other object": See section 794.011.
- Family-violence battery may be limited in its scope between persons within a certain degree of relationship: statutes for this offense have been enacted in response to increasing awareness of the problem of domestic violence.
- Aggravated battery generally is seen as a serious offense of felony grade, involving the loss of the victim's limb or some other type of permanent disfigurement. As successor to the common-law crime of mayhem, this is sometimes subsumed in the definition of aggravated assault. In Florida, Aggravated Battery is the intentional commission of great bodily harm. Conversely, if there is no intent in Florida, then it is felony battery which is a third degree felony as opposed to a second degree felony in which aggravated battery is.
- (a) Battery is:
- (1) Intentionally or recklessly causing bodily harm to another person; or
- (2) intentionally causing physical contact with another person when done in a rude, insulting or angry manner.
- § 33. Battery defined
- Battery is the intentional use of force or violence upon the person of another; or the intentional administration of a poison or other noxious liquid or substance to another.
Battery is not defined in the Canadian Criminal Code. Instead, the Code has an offense of assault, and assault causing bodily harm.
England and Wales
Battery is an offence under the law of England and Wales.
Battery involves unlawfully touching another person (this does not include everyday knocks and jolts to which people silently consent as the result of crowds). No physical injury is necessary. Battery is distinguished from the offence of common assault, where the victim is caused to apprehend the immediate commission of a battery.
The terms "battery" and "beat" are not normally used (if at all) in statutory provisions creating offences of aggravated assault. A former exception to this was section 43 of the Offences against the Person Act 1861 (aggravated assault or battery on a female or a boy under 14). The term "assault" in such provisions generally includes battery.
There is no separate offence relating to incidents of domestic violence, except in the case of death, where the offence of causing or allowing the death of a child or a vulnerable adult may have been committed (s. 5 Domestic Violence, Crime and Victims Act 2004).
Under English law, a battery has only been committed if the correct mens rea (fault element) can be proven. In the case of battery, the mens rea of the offence is intention or recklessness (see R v. Venna  QB 421). A person acts intentionally in terms of a result when his purpose is to cause it and he may be held to act intentionally if he foresees that the result is a virtually certain consequence of his action and he nonetheless acts (see R v. Woollin  4 All ER 103; although this decision specifically applies to the law of murder, it is generally accepted that this definition of intent applies throughout the criminal law). A person acts recklessly in terms of a result when he is aware of the risk that the result will occur if he acts and he does so act where no reasonable person would (see R v. Cunningham  2 QB 396).
Whether it is a statutory offence
In DPP v. Taylor, DPP v. Little  1 QB 645, 95 Cr App R 28, it was held that battery is a statutory offence, contrary to section 39 of the Criminal Justice Act 1988. This decision was criticised and in Haystead v. DPP 164 JP 396, DC, the Divisional court expressed the obiter opinion that battery remains a common law offence.
Therefore, whilst it may be a better view that battery and assault have statutory penalties, rather than being statutory offences, it is still the case that until review by a higher court, DPP v Little is the preferred authority.
Mode of trial and sentence
In England and Wales, it is a summary offence. However, where section 40 of the Criminal Justice Act 1988 applies, it can be an additional charge on an indictment. It is usually tried summarily.[quantify]
See Crown Prosecution Service Sentencing Manual for case law on sentencing (despite the title of the page, the guidance applies to battery as well as common assault). Relevant cases are:
- R v. Nottingham Crown Court ex parte Director of Public Prosections  1 Cr App R (S) 283
- R v. Dunn  2 Cr App R (S) 90
In some jurisdictions, battery has recently been constructed to include directing bodily secretions (i.e., spitting) at another person without his or her permission. Some of those jurisdictions automatically elevate such a battery to the charge of aggravated battery. In some jurisdictions, the charge of criminal battery also requires evidence of a mental state (mens rea). The terminology used to refer to a particular offense can also vary by jurisdiction. Some jurisdictions, such as New York, refer to what, under the common law, would be battery as assault, and then use another term for the crime that would have been assault, such as menacing.
Distinction between battery and assault
The overt behavior of an assault might be Person A advancing upon Person B by chasing after him and swinging a fist toward his head. The overt behavior of battery might be A actually striking B.
Battery requires (1) a volitional act that (2) results in a harmful or offensive contact with another person and (3) is committed for the purpose of causing a harmful or offensive contact or under circumstances that render such contact substantially certain to occur or with a reckless disregard as to whether such contact will result. Assault is an attempted battery or the act of intentionally placing a person in apprehension of a harmful or offensive contact with his or her person.
In some places, assault is the threat of violence against another while aggravated assault is the threat with the clear and present ability and willingness to carry it out. Likewise, battery is undesired touching of another, while aggravated battery is touching of another with or without a tool or weapon with attempt to harm or restrain.
- Assault (tort)
- Battery (tort)
- Non-fatal offences against the person in English law
- Right of self-defense
- Black's Law Dictionary Garner, p. 162
- Clark, William Lawrence; Association, American Bar (1909), Elementary Law, pp. 117–18, retrieved 2009-08-01
- "ПРЕСТУПЛЕНИЯ ПРОТИВ ЖИЗНИ И ЗДОРОВЬЯ - Уголовный кодекс РФ (УК РФ) от 13 June 1996 N 63-ФЗ \ Консультант Плюс". Consultant.ru. Retrieved 2013-07-01.
- "794.011 Sexual Battery Unspecified". offender.fdle.state.fl.us/. Florida Department of Law Enforcement. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
- "Florida Statute on Aggravated Battery". Florida Legislation.
- "Chapter 21: Crimes And Punishments PART II.--PROHIBITED CONDUCT Article 34: Crimes Against Person". kansasstatutes.lesterama.org/. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
- "SUBPART B. ASSAULT AND BATTERY (WITH RELATED OFFENSES)". legis.la.gov/. Louisiana State Legislature. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
- The Sexual Offences Act 2003, section 3
- Archbold Criminal Pleading, Evidence and Practice, 1993 supplements and 1994 and 1996 editions
- Smith, John Cyril; Hogan, Brian (1999). Criminal Law (9th ed.). London: Butterworths. p. 402. ISBN 0-406-98383-6.
- Smith, J. C.  Crim LR 900
- "Haystead v Chief Constable of Derbyshire  EWHC QB 181 (12 May 2000)". Bailii.org. Retrieved 2013-07-01.
- Smith & Hogan (2008). Criminal Law. OUP. p. 584.
- The Criminal Justice Act 1988, section 39