A battle-axe is a term, generally considered pejorative, for an aggressive, domineering and forceful woman. The prime example was the militant temperance activist Carrie Nation, who wielded a hatchet and made it her symbol, living in Hatchet Hall and publishing a magazine called The Hatchet. She became involved in the suffragette campaign for votes for women and this campaign further established the archetype.
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- Helen Rappaport (2001), "Nation, Carry (1846-1911)", Encyclopedia of women social reformers, 1, pp. 478–479, ISBN 978-1-57607-101-4
- Fran Grace (2001), Carry A. Nation, p. 243, ISBN 978-0-253-33846-4
- Christine Hamilton (2003), The Book of British Battleaxes, ISBN 978-1-86105-610-8
- Philip Darbyshire and Suzanne Gordon (2005), "The Battleaxe or Monstrous Figure", Professional nursing, ISBN 978-0-8261-2554-5
- Josephine Kamm (1966), Rapiers and battleaxes: the women's movement and its aftermath, Allen & Unwin