Battle of Abritus
|Battle of Abrittus|
|Part of the Roman-Gothic Wars of the 3rd century AD, the Roman-Germanic wars and the Crisis of the Third Century|
Relief depicting a battle between Romans and Goths. Decoration on the Ludovisi Battle sarcophagus, dated to 250–260.
|Commanders and leaders|
Trajan Decius †|
Herennius Etruscus †
|Casualties and losses|
The Battle of Abritus, also known as the Battle of Forum Terebronii, occurred near Abritus (modern Razgrad) in the Roman province of Moesia Inferior in the summer of 251 between the Roman Empire and a federation of Scythian tribesmen under the Goth king Cniva. The Roman army of three legions was soundly defeated, and Roman emperors Decius and his son Herennius Etruscus were both killed in battle. They became the first Roman emperors to be killed by a foreign enemy. It was one of the worst defeats suffered by the Roman Empire against Germanics, rated by the Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus as on par with the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest in AD 9, the Marcomannic invasion of Roman Italy in 170, and the Battle of Adrianople in 378.
In 250–251, a barbarian coalition under the Gothic king Cniva crossed the Roman Danube frontier, defeated the Roman Emperor Decius at Beroe and captured the city of Philippopolis with the help of treason and a stratagem, taking booty and captives. In the summer of 251, as Cniva's force began to return home, Decius, along with his son and co-emperor Herennius Etruscus, fell upon the Goths with an army of three Roman legions.
In the battle that ensued, Cniva divided his army into three groups, including one concealed behind a swamp. The Romans achieved initial success against a part of the Gothic army, but were then ambushed in the swamp by Cniva's hidden force and massacred under a barrage of Gothic missiles. Herennius was probably killed by an arrow prior to or during the battle and Decius died in the midst of the chaos and slaughter, buried under the mud. Their bodies were never found. The Goths went on to capture the Imperial treasury of gold coins.
The new Roman Emperor Trebonianus Gallus was forced to allow the Goths to return home with their loot and prisoners. The defeat was a complete disaster for Rome, with the emperor's death leading to more political instability and the loss of troops permitting repeated barbarian invasions in the region for the next two decades. The barbarians would not be expelled from Roman territory until 271.
The long-debated location of Abritus was believed to have been established (1 kilometre (0.62 miles) east of the city of Razgrad) after the excavations published by T. Ivanov in 1969 and 1971. However recent work has shown that the location of the battle is about 15 kilometres (9.3 miles) northwest of Abritus, in the valley of the river Beli Lom, to the south of the village of Dryanovets near the site known locally as "Poleto"(the Field). This is evidenced by the large number of Roman coins and arms including swords, shields, spears, armour, greaves, and even military tentpoles found by archaeologists and local residents on the site which must be the last Roman camp. For example, in 1952 a pottery vessel was found at ‘Poleto’ containing about 30 aurei in mint condition dating from Gordian III to Trajan Decius.
Soon after Decius ascended to the throne in 249, barbarian tribes invaded the Roman provinces of Dacia, Moesia Superior and Moesia Inferior. Two factors had contributed to growing unrest in the area north of Danube. First, Decius' predecessor Philip the Arab had refused to continue payments, initiated by Emperor Maximinus Thrax in 238, of annual subsidies to the aggressive tribes of the region. Second and more important, there were continuous movements of new peoples since the time of Emperor Severus Alexander. Decius may also have taken with him troops from the Danube frontier, in order to depose Philip in 249. He probably had with him three legions: legio XIV Gemina from Carnuntum, legio IV Flavia Felix from Singidunum, and legio VII Claudia from Viminacium and/or their vexillationes.
The resultant military vacuum would inevitably attract invaders.
The course of events is not clear. It seems that in 250 the Carpi invaded Dacia, eastern Moesia Superior and western Moesia Inferior. At the same time, a tribal coalition under Cniva crossed the Roman frontier, probably advancing in two columns. Whether these were consisted only of Goths is rather unlikely so the name "Scythians" by which the Greek sources called them (a geographical definition) seems more appropriate. It is quite possible that other people of Germanic and Sarmatian origin (like Bastarnae, Taifals and Hasdingian Vandals), perhaps Roman deserters as well, had joined the invaders. However, the name of the king is indeed Gothic and probably genuine.
The first column of Cniva's army, a detachment of about 20,000 or so likely led by the chieftains Argaith and Gunteric, besieged Marcianopolis, without success it seems. Then they probably headed south to besiege Philippopolis (now Plovdiv in Bulgaria). Cniva's main column of 70,000 under the King himself crossed Danube at Oescus then headed eastwards to Novae, where he was repelled by the provincial governor (and future emperor) Trebonianus Gallus. Then the invaders headed south to plunder Nicopolis ad Istrum where Decius defeated them but not decisively. After these initial setbacks, the barbarians moved southwards through Haemus mountain and Decius pursued them (likely through the Shipka Pass) to save Philippopolis. This time Decius' army was taken by surprise while resting at Beroe/Augusta Traiana. The Romans were heavily defeated in the ensuing battle. Decius was forced to withdraw his army to the north at Oescus, leaving Cniva ample time to ravage Moesia and finally capture Philippopolis in the summer of 251, in part with the help of its commander, a certain Titus Julius Priscus who had proclaimed himself Emperor. It seems that Priscus, after receiving the news of the defeat at Beroe, thought that the Goths would spare him and the city. He was wrong and was probably killed when the city fell. Then the Scythians began returning to their homeland, laden with booty and captives, among them many of senatorial rank.
In the meantime, Decius had returned with his re-organized army, consisting of 80,000 men according to Dexippus, accompanied by his son Herennius Etruscus and the general Trebonianus Gallus, intending to defeat the invaders and recover the booty. Decius had lost a force of auxiliary soldiers due to their "wrongdoing", according to Dexippus. Archaeology has revealed the presence of three legions at the battle.
In either June, July or August of 251, the Roman army engaged the Scythians under Cniva near Abritus. The strengths of the belligerent forces are unknown, but we know that Cniva divided his forces into three units, with one of these parts concealed behind a swamp. It seems that Cniva was a skilled tactician and that he was very familiar with the surrounding terrain. Jordanes and Aurelius Victor claim that Herennius Etruscus was killed by an arrow during a skirmish before the outset of the battle and that his father addressed his soldiers as if the loss of his son did not matter. He allegedly said, "Let no one mourn. The death of one soldier is not a great loss to the Republic". However, other sources state that Herennius died with his father.
The manoeuvre of the Scythians was ultimately successful. Decius' forces defeated their opponents in the front line, but made the fatal mistake of pursuing their fleeing enemy into the swamp, where they were ambushed and routed. The immense slaughter marked one of the most catastrophic defeats in the history of the Roman Empire and resulted in the death of Decius himself.
The Goths captured Decius' treasury of tons of gold coins and many weapons which have since been discovered in many locations over Gothic territories.
"He and his son and a large number of Romans fell into the marshland; all of them perished there, none of their bodies to be found, as they were covered by the mud."
A 6th-century Byzantine scholar, Zosimus also described the total massacre of Decius' troops and the fall of the pagan emperor:
"Proceeding therefore incautiously in an unknown place, he and his army became entangled in the mire, and under that disadvantage were so assailed by the missiles of the Barbarians, that not one of them escaped with life. Thus ended the life of the excellent emperor Decius."
"he was suddenly surrounded by the barbarians, and slain, together with great part of his army; nor could he be honoured with the rites of sepulture, but, stripped and naked, he lay to be devoured by wild beasts and birds, a fit end for the enemy of God."
The supposedly treacherous behavior of Treboniannus Gallus who, according to Zosimus, signalled the final Gothic assault is not accepted today. It seems impossible that the shattered Roman legions proclaimed emperor a traitor who was responsible for the loss of so many soldiers from their ranks. Another strong point against Gallus' treason is the fact that he adopted Hostilian, the younger son of Decius, after returning to Rome.
Gallus, who became emperor upon Decius' death, negotiated a treaty with the Goths under duress, which allowed them to keep their booty and return to their homes on the other side of the Danube. It is also possible that he agreed to pay an annual tribute in return for the Goths' promise to respect Roman territory. This humiliating treaty, the contemporary spread of Plague of Cyprian with its devastating effects and the chaotic situation in the East with the Sassanian invasions left Gallus with a very bad reputation amongst the latter Roman historians. However, D. S. Potter suggests that, before the defeat at Abritus, the situation was not so serious that the available Roman forces would not be able to manage the invasions. Therefore, it is Decius' bad conduct which was responsible for the disastrous turn of the events. In any case, Gallus had no choice but to get rid of the Goths as soon as possible.
In 271, the Emperor Aurelian conclusively defeated the Goths and killed their king Cannobaudes in battle. Based on the similarity of the names, that king might coincide with the king Cniva who defeated Decius in Abritus.
- This seems to be the correct spelling. See Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, map 22. Also see title in Ivanov and Stojanov 1985
- Also spelled Trebonii. The uncertainty of the spelling comes from the imperfect transcribing of the Latin place-name into the Greek text ("τῷ λεγομένῳ φόρῳ Θεμβρωνίῳ") of George Syncellus
- de Blois 2017, p. 47.
- Ivanov and Stojanof 1985, p.1
- Archaeologists identify battlefield of 251AD Roman-Goth battle of Abritus near Bulgaria's Dryanovets, Archaeology in Bulgaria
- "The Battle of Abrittus, the Imperial Treasury and Aurei in Barbaricum, Numismatic Chronicle 173, 2013, p 159".
- Southern 2001, p.347
- Potter 2004, p.244
- "The Battle of Abrittus, the Imperial Treasury and Aurei in Barbaricum, Numismatic Chronicle 173, 2013, p 161".
- Southern 2001, p.222. Wolfram 1988, p.45
- The Cambridge Ancient History, vol XII, 38
- D. S. Potter prefers to call them "Scythians", since the 4th century "Goths" cannot be easily connected with their supposed ancestors 100 years above. See Potter 2004, p.246
- Wolfram 1988, p.45
- Potter 2004, p.245. He suggest that, since the name Cniva doesn't appear in the fictionalized genealogy of Gothic kings by Jordanes, the latter found it in a genuine 3rd century source.
- Potter 2004, p.46 and, in more detail, Wolfram 1988, pp.45,397. Although Jordanes (Getica, 91) places these chieftains under the command of Cniva's predecessor (a certain Ostrogotha), Wolfram and other scholars argue that it is plausible to regard their campaign as part of Cniva's invasion
- Jordanes, par.101.
- Bird 1994, p.129
- Wolfram 1988, p.46
- Wolfram 1988, p.46, suggests summer of 250 as the date of the fall of Philippopolis and spring of 251 as the earliest date for the beginning of Cniva's returning to his base
- Southern 2001, p.222. Bird 1994, p.129
- "The Battle of Abrittus, the Imperial Treasury and Aurei in Barbaricum, Numismatic Chronicle 173, 2013, p 161".
- Potter 2004, p.243. Gallus saw to the deification of Decius on June 24, 251
- Herwig Wolfram, Die Goten und ihre Geschichte, C. H. Beck Verlag, München, 2001, p.33. ISBN 3-406-44779-1
- Southern 2001, p.308. She conjectures August as the date of Herennius Etruscus proclamation to the rank of Augustus, then the battle could not take place before that point
- Potter 2004, p.246
- Jordanes, par.103. Aurelius Victor, par.29
- Potter 2004, p.247
- "The Battle of Abrittus, the Imperial Treasury and Aurei in Barbaricum, Numismatic Chronicle 173, 2013, p. 151".
- Zonaras, 12.20, a free translation of the following Greek text: "καὶ αὐτός τε σὺν τῷ υἱῷ καὶ πλῆθος τῶν ̔Ρωμαίων ἐνεπεπτώκει τῷ τέλματι, καὶ πάντες ἐκεῖσε ἀπώλοντο, ὡς μηδὲ τὰ σώματα αὐτῶν εὑρεθῆναι, καταχωσθέντα τῇ ἰλύϊ τοῦ τέλματος"
- Lactantius, chapter 4
- Zosimus, 1.25
- Southern 2001, p.308
- Southern 2001, p.76
- Potter 2004, p.245
- Southern 2001, p.116, 225
- Aurelius Victor, De Caesaribus, par. 29.4–5 in Liber de Caesaribus of Sextus Aurelius Victor, critical edition by H. W. Bird, Liverpool University Press, 1994, ISBN 0-85323-218-0
- Dexippus, Scythica, (fragments of a lost work which is the main known source of all later Roman and Byzantine historians and chronographers), in Die Fragmente der griechischen Historiker, entry 100, ed. Felix Jacoby, Brill Academic Publishing, 2001
- George Syncellus, Chronographia (Medieval Greek: Ἐκλογή χρονογραφίας), in Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae, ed. Dindorf, Weber, Bohn, 1829
- Jordanes, Getica, par. 101–103 from The Gothic History of Jordanes (English Version), ed. Charles C. Mierow, Arx Publishing, 2006, ISBN 1-889758-77-9
- Lactantius, De mortibus persecutorum, from Christian Classics Ethereal Library[permanent dead link]
- Zonaras, Epitome historiarum (Medieval Greek: Ἐπιτομή ἰστοριῶν), book 12, in Patrologia Graeca, ed. J. P. Migne, Paris, 1864, vol 134
- Zosimus, Historia Nova (Medieval Greek: Νέα Ἰστορία), book 1, in Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae, ed. Bekker, Weber, Bonn, 1837
- Bowman A. K., Garnsey P., Cameron A. (ed.). The Cambridge Ancient History - vol XII The Crisis of Empire, Cambridge University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-521-30199-8
- de Blois, Lukas (2017). "Invasions, Deportations, and Repopulation: Mobility and Migration in Thrace, Moesia Inferior, and Dacia in the Third Quarter of the Third Century AD". In Hekster, Olivier. The Impact of Mobility and Migration in the Roman Empire. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-33477-9.
- Ivanov Teofil and Stojanof Stojan. ABRITVS: Its History and Archaeology, Cultural and Historical Heritage Directorate, Razgrad, 1985
- Potter, David S. The Roman Empire at Bay AD 180–395, Routledge, 2004. ISBN 0-415-10058-5
- Southern, Pat. The Roman Empire from Severus to Constantine, Routledge, 2001. ISBN 0-415-23943-5
- Stillwell, Richard (ed.). Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites, 1976: "Abrittus (Razgrad), Bulgaria"
- Talbert Richard J. A. (ed.). Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-691-03169-X
- Wolfram, Herwig. History of the Goths (transl. by Thomas J. Dunlap), University of California Press, 1988, ISBN 0-520-06983-8