Battle of Aleppo (2012–present)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Battle of Aleppo (2012))
Jump to: navigation, search
Battle of Aleppo
معركة حلب
Part of the Syrian Civil War
Rif Aleppo2.svg
The situation in Aleppo, as of 12 October 2015

     Syrian Army control      Opposition control      Kurdish control      Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

     Ongoing confrontation or unclear situation
Date 19 July 2012 – present
(3 years, 2 months, 3 weeks and 3 days)
Location Aleppo, Syria
  • The FSA captures numerous districts in the southern and northeastern parts of the city in late July 2012; the PYD takes control of two districts in the northern part of the city
  • The Syrian Army recaptures several districts in August and September 2012
  • Several rebel offensives are repelled by Syrian government troops in the autumn of 2012[23][24][25]
  • UNESCO World Heritage Site Ancient City of Aleppo largely destroyed in the fighting[26]
  • In mid-October 2012, rebels capture the town of Maarat al-Numaan in Idlib province, effectively cutting the main Syrian Army supply line from the south to Aleppo, via the M5 highway[27][28]
  • In early October 2013, the Syrian Army reopens a supply line from the south to Aleppo, via the town of Khanaser on the so-called "Desert Road"[29][30]
  • In November 2013, the Syrian Army captured Base 80, north of the city airport,[31] and by late February 2014, Syrian troops had advanced from the east towards the Industrial district[32]
  • In January 2014, IS is expelled from the city by other rebel groups
  • In April 2014, the Ahl Al-Sham rebel coalition establishes a truce with the PYD[33]
  • Between late May and early October 2014, the Syrian Army breaks the Aleppo prison siege (after 13 months)[34] and captures the Sheik Said industrial zone[35] and the strategic village of Handarat[36]
  • Between late February and March 2015, government offensive captures two villages north of Aleppo,[37][38] but fails in its main objective to cut rebel supply lines.[39][40] Subsequent rebel counterattack on Handarat is repelled.[41]
  • In June and July 2015, rebels capture the Rashideen district[42] and the Scientific Research Center[42][43]

Syria Syrian National Coalition/SRCC

Ansar al-Sharia[3]


Syria Syrian Arab Republic

Iranian IRGC[18]
Badr Organisation[20]
Haidar al-Karar Brigades[21]


Commanders and leaders
Formerly Abdel-Jabbar Ukaidi
(FSA Aleppo top commander)[44]
Abdul Qader Saleh [45]
(Al-Tawhid Brigade top commander)[46]
Yusef al-Jader 
(Al-Tawhid Brigade)[47]
Yussef Al-Abbas [48]
(Al-Tawhid Brigade)
Khaled Hayani 
(16th Division [FSA] (Shuhada Badr) military commander)[49]
Ebu Mohammed Suleiman
(Sultan Abdulhamid Han Brigade)[50]
Abu Mohammad
(Kata ib-Essalam)[51]
Taufik Shiabuddin
(Army of Mujahedeen)[52][53]
Abu Khalid al-Suri 
(Islamic Front)[54]
Abdulrahman al-Salameh
(Al-Nusra Front)[55]
Nujin Derik[56]
(YPG commander)
Sewsen Bîrhat [9] (YPJ commander)

Ali Abdullah Ayyoub[57]
(Chief of the General Staff)
Maher al-Assad
(4th Division)
Suheil al-Hasan
(Head of Aleppo military operations)[58]
Mohammed Akkad
(Governor of Aleppo)[59]
Abbas Samii  
(Republican Guard Commander)[60][61]
General Jabbar Drisawi 
(IRGC General)
Fauzi Ayub 
(Lebanese-Canadian Hezbollah commander)[62]
Zaino Berri  Executed
(al-Berri tribe leader)[17]
Akram al-Kabi
(Haidar al-Karar Brigades leader)[21]

Vladimir Putin
(President of Russia)
Units involved

Elements of:

Elements of: 1st Corps:

Independent units:


15,000 fighters

(rebel claims)
6,000–8,000 fighters[97]
(government claims)[98]

20,000 troops mobilized[99]
1,500 Shabiha[100]
Hezbollah fighters:

  • 2,000 (Hezbollah commander claim)
  • 4,000 (FSA claim)[101]
10,800+ overall deaths and 4,500+ missing (by April 2013)[102]
22,980 overall deaths in the whole province (by March 2015)[103]
Battle of Aleppo (2012–present) is located in Syria
Battle of Aleppo (2012–present)
The location of Aleppo within Syria
The situation in Aleppo, as of July 2015      Syrian Army control      Opposition control      Kurdish control      Ongoing confrontation or unclear situation

The Battle of Aleppo (Arabic: معركة حلب‎) is an ongoing military confrontation between the Free Syrian Army, Islamic Front, People's Defence Units and Sunni militants against the Syrian government, Hezbollah and Shiite militants, in Aleppo, the largest city in Syria.[20] The battle began on 19 July 2012 as a part of the Syrian Civil War.[104] The battle's scale and importance led combatants to name it the "mother of battles".[105] The battle has been marked by the Syrian army's indiscriminate use of barrel bombs dropped from helicopters, killing thousands of people.[106][107][108] Hundreds of thousands have been forced to evacuate. The London-based organization Syrian Observatory for Human Rights denounced the Free Syrian Army for its indiscriminate bombardment of government-held districts with gas cylinders filled with explosives, which resulted in hundreds of casualties.[109] The battle has caused catastrophic destruction to the Old City of Aleppo, a UNESCO World Heritage site.[110]


Main article: Syrian Civil War

Aleppo is Syria's largest city with a population of 2.5 million people. An UNESCO World Heritage Site, it has been descried by Time as Syria's commercial capital.[111]

Prior to the outbreak of hostilities in Aleppo in July 2012, nationwide protests against the government led by President Bashar al-Assad had occurred since 15 March 2011, as part of the Arab Spring. The inhabitants of Syria's two largest cities, Damascus and Aleppo, were initially largely uninvolved. As well as opposition protests,[112] government-organized rallies in support of itself were held.[113] Aleppo had remained undisturbed by the 16 month long conflict till 22 July, when rebel fighters from the neighbouring villages converged and penetrated into it.[114]


At the beginning of the Battle of Aleppo, rebels reportedly had between 6,000[115] and 7,000[116] fighters in 18 battalions.[117] The largest rebel group was the al-Tawhid Brigade; the most prominent was the Free Syrian Army, which was largely composed of army defectors. Most of the rebels came from the Aleppo countryside and from towns including Al-Bab, Marea, Azaz, Tel Rifaat and Manbij.[118] A resident of Aleppo reportedly accused the rebels of using civilian homes for shelter.[119] On 19 November 2012, the rebel fighters—particularly the al-Tawhid Brigade and the al-Nusra Front—initially rejected the newly formed Syrian National Coalition.[120] The next day the rebels withdrew their rejection.[121]

By December, rebel fighters were commonly looting for supplies; they switched their loyalties to groups that had more to share. This new approach led to the killing of at least one rebel commander following a dispute; fighters retreating with their loot caused the loss of a frontline position and the failure of an attack on a Kurdish neighborhood. The looting cost the rebel fighters much popular support.[122]

Islamic extremists and foreign fighters, many of whom were experienced and came from the ongoing insurgency in neighboring Iraq, joined the battle.[64] Jihadists reportedly came from across the Muslim World.[70] Jacques Bérès, a French surgeon who treated wounded fighters, reported a significant number of foreign fighters, most of whom had Islamist goals and were not directly interested in Bashar al-Assad. They included Libyans, Chechens and Frenchmen. Bérès contrasted the situation in Aleppo with that in Idlib and Homs, where foreign forces were not common.[123] Some FSA brigades cooperated with Mujahideen fighters.[64]

The government retained support in Aleppo. A rebel commander said, "around 70% of Aleppo city is with the regime". During the course of the battle, Assad lost support from Aleppo's wealthy class.[124] CBS News reported that 48 elite businessmen who were the primary financiers for the government switched sides.[125] For the first time, the Syrian Army engaged in urban warfare. They divided their forces into groups of 40 soldiers each. These were armed mostly with automatic rifles and anti-tank rockets. Artillery, tanks and helicopters were only used for support. In August 2012, the army deployed its elite units.[126] Eventually, after the rebels executed Shabiha and Zeino al-Berri, tribal leader of the al-Berri tribe, the tribe joined the fight against the rebels.[127] The Christians supported the Army and formed militias aligned with the government following the capture of their quarters by the Syrian Army.[10][11] The Christian Armenians also supported the Syrian Army. Aleppo's Armenians say Turkey supported the FSA to attack Armenians and Arab Christians. The Armenians had a militia with around 150 fighters.[12]

At the beginning of the battle, Aleppo's Kurds formed armed groups, most notably the Kurdish Salahaddin Brigade, which worked with the opposition. The Kurdish Democratic Union Party (PYD) had poor relations with both sides. The PYD's Popular Protection Committees stayed out of Arab areas and insisted the FSA stay out of the Kurdish area. They did not initially fight the Syrian Army unless attacked,[128] but later joined the opposition against pro-Assad forces. The Kurdish areas in Aleppo were mainly under PYD control.[129] Four hundred Turkmen joined the battle under Sultan Abdulhamid Han.[50]

Course of the battle[edit]

2012: Initial rebel attack and capture of Eastern Aleppo[edit]

Gunfire between rebels and security forces broke out in and around Salaheddine, a district in the city's southwest, on the night of 19 July 2012.[130] After one week of war, The Guardian wrote, "The US says it fears that the Assad regime is "lining up" to commit a massacre in Aleppo, but it has repeated its reluctance to intervene in the conflict".[131]

In late July and early August 2012, the FSA continued its offensive in Aleppo, with both sides suffering a high level of casualties. Rebel commanders said their main aim was to capture the city center.[132] Rebels seized a strategic checkpoint in Anadan, a town north of Aleppo, gaining a direct route between the city and the Turkish border—an important rebel supply base.[133] They also captured Al-Bab, northeast of the city, with an army base.[134] Later, rebels attacked the air base at Minakh, 30 km (19 mi) northwest of Aleppo, with arms and tanks captured at the Anadan checkpoint.[135] Opposition forces continued to gain territorial in the city, controlling most of eastern and southwestern Aleppo, including Salaheddine and parts of Hamdaniyeh.[136] They continued to target security centers and police stations as clashes erupted near the Air Force intelligence headquarters in Aleppo's northwestern district Zahraa.[137] Rebels over-ran several police stations and posts in the central and southern districts of Bab al-Nerab, Al-Miersa and Salhain, seizing a significant quantity of arms and ammunition.[136]

2013: Advances and counter-advances[edit]

In December 2012, the al-Nusra Front unilaterally declared a no-fly zone and threatened to shoot down commercial aircraft, alleging that the government was using them to transport loyalist troops and military supplies.[138] After multiple attacks on Aleppo International Airport, all flights were suspended on 1 January 2013.[139] The following month, the rebels seized Umayyad Mosque; during the battle, the mosque's museum caught fire and its ceiling collapsed.[140]

On 9 June, the Syrian Army announced the start of "Operation Northern Storm", an attempt to recapture territory in and around the city.[141] Between 7 and 14 June, army troops, government militiamen and Hezbollah fighters launched the operation. Over a one-week period, government forces advanced in the city and the countryside, pushing back the rebels. However, on 14 June—according to an opposition activist—the situation started reversing after rebels halted an armored reinforcement column from Aleppo that was heading for two Shiite villages northwest of the city.[142]

On 8 November, the Syrian Army launched an offensive in the rebel-held Base 80. The army, according to the residents, launched "the heaviest barrage in more than a year".[143] Al Jazeera wrote that a government victory would cut the rebels' route between the city and al-Bab.[144] Two days later, Reuters reported that the rebels had regrouped to fight the army.[145] Fifteen rebels were killed and the army recaptured the base.[146] The following month, the army besieged the city in Operation Canopus Star.[147] The army helicopter attacked with barrel bomb, killing more than a thousand people, according to the Free Syrian Army's Abu Firas Al-Halabi.[148]

2014: Syrian government encirclement of the rebels[edit]

Government forces, having lifted the siege of Aleppo in October 2013, continued their offensive in 2014, culminating in the capture of the Sheikh Najjar industrial district north of Aleppo and lifting the siege of Aleppo Central Prison, which contained a garrison of government soldiers that had resisted rebel forces since 2012, on 22 May 2014.[149] A ceasefire proposal was presented by a UN envoy in November; under the proposal the Syrian Arab Army would allow the rebels to leave Aleppo without violence and would help with their transportation. In return the militants would surrender their arms. President Assad reportedly agreed to consider taking this ceasefire plan, though no official confirmation was made.[150] The FSA rejected the plan; the FSA's military commander Zaher al-Saket said they had "learned not to trust the [Bashar al-] Assad regime because they are cunning and only want to buy time".[151]

2015: War of attrition[edit]

In early January, the rebels recaptured the Majbal (Sawmills) area of al-Brej and captured the southern entrance of the stone quarries known as al-Misat, forcing government troops to retreat to the north.[152][153] Rebels also seized the Manasher al-Brej area. They tried to advance and take control of al-Brej Hill, with which they could seize the military supply road running between Aleppo Central Prison and the Handarat and al-Mallah areas.[154] At the end of January, the rebels took control over some positions in al-Brej Hill.[155][156]

In mid-February, the Syrian Arab Army and its allies launched a major offensive in the northern Aleppo countryside with the aim of cutting the last rebel supply routes into the city and relieving the rebel siege of the Shi'a-majority towns Zahra'a and Nubl to the northwest of Aleppo.[157] They quickly captured several villages,[158] but bad weather conditions and an inability to call up reinforcements stalled the government offensive.[159] A few days later, rebels launched a counter-offensive, retaking two of four positions they had lost to government forces.[160]

On 9 March, opposition forces launched an assault on Handarat, north of Aleppo, after reportedly noticing confusion in the ranks of government troops after the February fighting.[161] Opposition sources said the rebels had captured 40–50% of the village, or possibly even 75%, while the Army remained in control of the northern portion of Handarat.[162][161] In contrast, a military source stated they still controlled 80% of Handarat.[163]

On 18 March, after almost 10 days of fighting,[164] the military had fully expelled the rebels from Handarat[165] and re-established control of the village.[166]

In preparation for a new offensive, the rebels heavily shelled government-held parts of Aleppo, leaving 43 civilians dead and 190 wounded on 15 June.[167] On 17 June, rebel forces captured the western neighborhood of Rashideen from government forces.[42][168] Throughout 19 and 20 June, a new round of rebel shelling killed 19 more civilians.[169][170]

In early July, two rebel coalitions launched an offensive against the government-held western half of the city.[171] During five days of fighting, the rebels seized the Scientific Research Center on Aleppo's western outskirts, which was being used as a military barracks. Two rebel attacks on the Jamiyat al-Zahra area were repelled. Government forces launched an unsuccessful counter-attack against the Scientific Research Center.[43][172]

In mid-October, ISIL captured four rebel-held villages northeast of Aleppo, while the Army seized the Syria-Turkey Free Trade Zone, the al-Ahdath juvenile prison and cement plant.[173]

Strategic analysis[edit]

Rebel forces expanded into the countryside south of Aleppo to control sections of the M4 and M5 highways, effectively blocking ground reinforcements for the Syrian Army. Before the end of 2012, the Syrian Army in Aleppo was receiving sporadic supplies and ammunition replenishment by air or via backroads.[174] The fall of Base 46, a large complex that reinforced and supplied government troops, was seen by experts as "a tactical turning point that may lead to a strategic shift" in the battle for Aleppo.[175] In a November 2012 intelligence report, American publisher Strategic Forecasting, Inc. described the strategic position of government forces in Aleppo as "dire", and said the Free Syrian Army had them "essentially surrounded".[176]

On 26 November 2012, rebels captured Tishrin Dam, further isolating government forces in Aleppo and leaving only one route into Aleppo.[177] By late January 2013 Deputy Prime Minister Qadri Jamil said all supply routes to Aleppo had been cut off by opposition forces, comparing the situation to the Siege of Leningrad.[178] By late February 2013, Aleppo International Airport was almost surrounded by rebel forces.[179] Later, the Syrian Army regained control of the strategic town Tel Sheigeb, allowing them to approach the airport.[180] In November 2013, the Syrian Army retook the town of al-Safira.[181] This opened a road for the government to support the besieged Kuweires Military Airbase and Aleppo Power Plant.

In February 2014, it was reported that the army planned to encircle Aleppo and impose blockades and truces. It would also try to recapture Sheikh Najjar Industrial City to rebuild the economy and provide jobs.[182] As of October 2014, the army seized Sheikh Najjar, reinforced Aleppo Central Prison and captured Handaraat, almost besieging rebel-held Aleppo. This would be difficult because Aleppo presents more logistical challenges for the army—especially for pro-government groups such as Hezbollah, which prefers fighting closer to Lebanon. Tensions peaked in early April 2014, when a Syrian Republican Guard officer allegedly killed a Hezbollah commander during an argument over the opposition advance in al-Rashadin,[183] and other pro-government militant groups sent as reinforcements, such as the National Defence Force, proved to be unreliable in combat.[184][185] Effectively cutting off access was more difficult in Aleppo because rebels controlled more terrain there than in other cities. Rebels also have a strong presence in the countryside and around the border crossings with Turkey.[186] In April 2014 government commanders inside the city were saying that contrary to implementing such a strategy, "the best [they] can do in Aleppo is just secure ... positions".[187]

The attempted encirclement involved the SAA's attacks on Bustan Al-Pasha, Khalidiyyeh, the farms of Mazra'a Halabi, Al-Amariyya and Bustan Al-Qaseer.[188] The rebels' strategic victory at the Siege of Wadi Deif resulted in threats to several main government supply lines.[189] This cast doubt on government forces' ambitions to control the road from Hama to Aleppo and the Damascus-Aleppo international road, and has been seen as a personal defeat for Syrian Arab Army Col. Suheil Al Hassan.[190]

United Nations and Arab League Envoy to Syria Staffan de Mistura proposed a pause in fighting, but opinions about implementation were divided.[191] The European Union warned that "cases of forced surrender imposed by the Assad regime through starvation sieges were labelled fallaciously as local cease-fires in the past".[192] The Southern Front of the Free Syrian Army, which has been gaining ground in Deraa province south of Damascus, warned that a freeze in fighting in Aleppo could hamper their advance, as pro-Assad forces could be redirected from Aleppo.[193]

The government's defeat at the Second Battle of Idlib in late March 2015, which helped expand the influence of the al-Nusra Front, forced IS to expand its attacks in central Syria after it failed to block the Raqqa highway that branches out to the Syrian army's main supply route to Aleppo along the Khanasir-Athriya road. IS's aim would potentially be to establish the necessary conditions to attack Idlib and al-Nusra.[194] The March–April IS offensive in central Syria led some volunteers defending the Homs-Aleppo highway to consider deserting to defend their hometowns.[195]

According to Jane's Information Group, a possible offensive on Homs by both al-Nusra Front and IS working independently might force the government to move critical forces away from Aleppo to defend key supply routes.[196] After additional opposition gains during the 2015 Jisr al-Shughur offensive, Jane's said it was no longer possible for the SAA to properly reinforce Aleppo, leaving their forces vulnerable to any opposition or IS offensive on the city. If opposition forces decided to capitalise on their gains and launch an assault towards Latakia, the prospect of soldiers deserting was raised in case they were not redeployed back to defend it, so they could themselves defend their homes against any potential rebel advance.[clarification needed][197] Syrian government minister Faisal Mekdad stated in June 2015, "All our strategic planning now is to keep the way open to Aleppo, to allow our forces to defend it".[198]

Barrel bombs[edit]

In 2014, the United Nations adopted the Resolution 2139 which ordered the end of using barrel bombs in the battle.[199] The Syrian Observatory of Human Rights claims that the Syrian army has dropped 7,000 barrel bombs in the first five months of 2015 which has claimed the lives of 3,000 people. Amnesty International cliams that barrel bombs have killed 3,000 people in 2014.[200] Channel4 claims that videos have emerged online showing the Syrian army using barrel bombs.[199]

The Syrian government has been alleged of using the barrel bombs several times. Some of them are:

  • According to Middle East Monitor reported the death of 14 people allegedly caused by the bombs in the Kallasa and Qasila neighbourhood of the city in June 2015.[201]
  • CNN-IBN wrote about the government of dropping barrel bombs in July in the neighbourhood of al-Bab causing the death of 35 and injuring 50 others.[202]
  • The BBC alleged the government of dropping the same in May, leading to the death of 72 civilians.[203]
  • The Anadolu Agency of Turkey wrote that the bombs launched by the government forces in July killed 15 people.[204]

However, the government has denied using barrel bombs.[205] In an interview to BBC, President Bashar al-Assad denied using "indiscriminate weapons" like barrel bombs in the rebel held territories.[206] Assad said

I know about the army. They use bullets, missiles and bombs. I haven't heard of the army using barrels, or maybe cooking pots.[207]

Destruction of heritage[edit]

The Time magazine wrote,

..the ongoing devastation inflicted on the country's stunning archaeological sites—bullet holes lodged in walls of its ancient Roman cities, the debris of Byzantine churches, early mosques and crusader fortresses—rob Syria of its best chance for a post-conflict economic boom based on tourism, which, until the conflict started 18 months ago, contributed 12% to the national income.[208]

The Al-Madina Souq was affected by a fire in September 2012. Irish Times reported that around 700 to 1000 shops were destroyed by the fire caused by firing and shelling.[209] The following month, there were reports of the Great Mosque of Aleppo getting damaged by rocket-propelled grenades.[210] Fighting with mortars and machine guns, damage was also inflicted on the main gate and the prayer hall.[211] The attack continued in the mosque till it was repelled by the army.[210] The Citadel of Aleppo was also damaged due to due to shelling by the Syrian army.[212]

On 2 October, Irena Bokova the Director-General of UNESCO, expressed her "grave concern about possible damage to precious sites" and requested the combatants to "ensure the protection of the outstanding cultural legacy that Syria hosts on its soil".[213] She also cited the Hague Convention for protecting the heritage sites.[214]


Domestic reaction[edit]

  •  Syria – President Bashar al-Assad said on the occasion of the 67th Anniversary of the Syrian Arab Army in August 2012, "the army is engaged in a crucial and heroic battle ... on which the destiny of the nation and its people rests ..."[215]

Foreign reactions[edit]

  •  Armenia – Armenia began sending humanitarian aid to Aleppo in mid-October 2012.[216] The aid was distributed by Red Crescent, the Armenian National Prelacy in Aleppo, Aleppo Emergency unit and the Embassy of the Republic of Armenia to Syria. Governor of the Aleppo Governorate, Hilal Hial, said, "the Syrian people highly appreciate this humanitarian gesture of the Armenian people, underling the strong Syrian-Armenian cooperation".[217]
  •  France – The French Foreign Ministry said, "With the build-up of heavy weapons around Aleppo, Assad is preparing to carry out a fresh slaughter of his own people". Italy and the UN peacekeeping chief also accused the government of preparing to massacre civilians.[218]
  •  Iran – As the battle of Aleppo started, Saeed Jalili, the head of Iran's Supreme National Security Council, met with Assad in Damascus. Jalili said Iran would help Assad to confront "attempts at blatant foreign interference" in Syria's internal affairs, saying, "Iran will not allow the axis of resistance, of which it considers Syria to be an essential part, to be broken in any way".[219]
  •  Russia – The Russian Foreign Ministry issued an official statement condemning the bombing that occurred on 9 September 2012, in which more than 30 people were killed. The ministry stated, "We firmly condemn the terrorist acts which claim the lives of innocent people", on 11 September. The Foreign Ministry also called on foreign powers to pressure the armed opposition to stop launching "terrorist attacks".[220] The Russian Consulate General in Aleppo suspended operations on 16 January 2013.[221]
  •  Turkey – Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan urged international action, saying it was not possible "to remain a spectator" to the government offensive on Aleppo.[222] Reuters reported that Turkey had set up a base with allies Saudi Arabia and Qatar to direct military and communications aid to the Free Syrian Army from the city of Adana. Reuters also quoted a Doha-based source, which stated that Turkey, Qatar and Saudi Arabia were providing rebel fighters with weapons and training.[223]
  •  United Kingdom – William Hague, the British Foreign Minister, said, "the world must speak out to avert a massacre in Aleppo".[224]
  •  United States – The United States stated it feared a new massacre in Aleppo by the Syrian government; "This is the concern: that we will see a massacre in Aleppo and that's what the regime appears to be lining up for".[225] The United States condemned "in the strongest possible terms" the government SCUD missile strikes on Aleppo in late February 2013, saying they were "the latest of the Syrian regime's ruthlessness and its lack of compassion for the Syrian people it claims to represent".[226]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "Infographic: "Fatah Halab" Military Operations Room – Coalition of 31 Rebel factions". Archicivilians. 18 June 2015. Retrieved 2 July 2015. 
  2. ^ "The Levant Front: Can Aleppo's Rebels Unite?". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. 26 December 2014. Retrieved 29 December 2014. 
  3. ^ a b "Rebel and Islamist groups form (another) op room "Ansar Al-Shariah" to take Aleppo city and its countryside". Reddit. 2 July 2015. Retrieved 2 July 2015. 
  4. ^ a b Alessandria Masi (9 March 2015). "Aleppo Battle: Al Qaeda's Jabhat Al-Nusra Is Friend To Syrian Rebel Groups". International Business Times. 
  5. ^ a b c Joscelyn, Thomas (3 July 2015). "Al Nusrah Front, allies form new coalition for battle in Aleppo". The Long War Journal. Retrieved 4 July 2015. 
  6. ^ "Katibat al Tawhid wal Jihad". The Line of Steel. Retrieved 19 September 2015. 
  7. ^ "Sendvid - Instant video upload". Sendvid. Retrieved 19 September 2015. 
  8. ^ "Kurdish militia decides to align with Syria rebels". AFP-Jiji. 23 April 2013. Retrieved 5 July 2013. 
  9. ^ a b "Aleppo: New Group of YPG/YPJ Fighters Graduated from Training Course". YPG Rojava. 23 April 2015. Retrieved 2 May 2015. 
  10. ^ a b "Militias form as Aleppo clashes stalemate". UPI. 6 September 2012. Retrieved 9 September 2012. 
  11. ^ a b "Inside Syria: Aleppo's Christians arm against Islamists". GlobalPost. 31 July 2012. Retrieved 9 September 2012. 
  12. ^ a b Sherlock, Ruth; Malouf, Carol (13 September 2012). "Christians take up arms in Aleppo". Daily News and Analysis. Retrieved 13 September 2012. 
  13. ^ Edward Dark Columnist . "Syrian Baath militia commander goes rags-to-riches – Al-Monitor: the Pulse of the Middle East". Al-Monitor. Retrieved 8 February 2014. 
  14. ^ "Pro-regime Sunni fighters in Aleppo defy sectarian narrative". Al-Monitor. Retrieved 24 October 2014. 
  15. ^ "لواء القدس .. القوة الأكبر للنظام في معارك حلب". Retrieved 24 October 2014. 
  16. ^ Kat Iskander (1 August 2012). "Syria rebels to target intel, as Assad hails army". The Daily Star. Retrieved 1 August 2012. 
  17. ^ a b Anita McNaught (1 August 2012). "Syrian MP killed publicly by FSA firing squad". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 2 August 2012. 
  18. ^ Kozak, Christopher (26 May 2015). "The Regime's Military Capabilities: Part 2". ISW. Retrieved 31 May 2015. IRGC 'Basij' commander General Jabbar Drisawi was killed on the Handarat front north of Aleppo city five months later on October 16, 2014. 
  19. ^ Loveday Morris (3 June 2013). "In Syria, Hezbollah forces mass around Aleppo to aid Assad". The Washington Post. Retrieved 6 July 2013. 
  20. ^ a b Philip Smyth (February 2015). The Shiite Jihad in Syria and Its Regional Effects (PDF) (Report). The Washington Institute for Near East Studies. p. 45. Retrieved 13 March 2015. 
  21. ^ a b Omar al-Jaffal. "Iraqi Shiites Join Syria War". Al-Monitor. Retrieved 4 November 2013. 
  22. ^ Fadel, Leith (9 October 2015). "Russian Air Force Propels the Syrian Army in East Aleppo: Jabboul City Captured from ISIS". Al-Masdar Al-'Arabi. Retrieved 11 October 2015. 
  23. ^ "Battle rages in Aleppo as Russia urges Syria unity". Daily Star. Retrieved 2 November 2012. 
  24. ^ "Clashes, shelling in Aleppo and Damascus: activists". Daily Star. Retrieved 2 November 2012. 
  25. ^ "Shells rock rebel bastions in Damascus". Herald Sun. Retrieved 2 November 2012. 
  26. ^ Peel, Michael (30 September 2012). "Historic souk burns in battle for Aleppo". Retrieved 2 November 2012. 
  27. ^ "Syrian rebels claim control of strategic town". Al Jazeera. 4 October 2012. Retrieved 13 October 2012. 
  28. ^ "Competing Groups Vie for Control of Syria". Stratfor. December 24, 2014. Retrieved December 31, 2014. 
  29. ^ "Syria Blog". AJE Live Events. Retrieved 16 February 2015. 
  30. ^ "Syrian Army Ends Opposition Siege on Aleppo". Al Akhbar English. Retrieved 20 May 2015. 
  31. ^ Syrian army retakes northern military base in third day of clashes Reuters, 10 November 2013
  32. ^ "Syrian army to impose blockade in Aleppo". Al-Monitor. Retrieved 16 March 2014. 
  33. ^ "Aleppo in second week of blackout aimed at limiting barrel bombs". The Daily Star Newspaper - Lebanon. Retrieved 24 October 2014. 
  34. ^ "Aleppo prison siege 'broken by Syrian troops'". BBC. Retrieved 27 September 2015. 
  35. ^ "Government Troops Advance in Syria's Largest City". abcnews. Retrieved Jul 7, 2014. 
  36. ^ "Syrian army clashes with rebels in Aleppo, regains full control of Handarat". Al Akhbar English. Retrieved 25 October 2014. 
  37. ^ "Syrian army makes rapid advance north of Aleppo - monitor". Reuters UK. Retrieved 27 September 2015. 
  38. ^ sohranas. "The government troops still advance in the countryside of Aleppo". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. Retrieved 27 September 2015. 
  39. ^ White, Jeffrey (28 May 2015). "The Crisis of the Assad Regime". The Washington Institute for Near East Policy. Retrieved 29 May 2015. 
  40. ^ Chulov, Martin; Shaheen, Kareem (27 April 2015). "Syrian rebels hail fall of Jisr al-Shughour as sign of growing strength". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 April 2015. 
  41. ^ "Syrian army takes control of strategic village north of Aleppo". Retrieved 20 March 2015. 
  42. ^ a b c "Syrian rebels set eyes on divided Aleppo". Reuters. 19 June 2015. Retrieved 19 June 2015. 
  43. ^ a b "Syrian rebels advance in government-held Aleppo". The Guardian. 4 July 2015. Retrieved 5 July 2015. 
  44. ^ Syrian top rebel commander announces resignation Daily Star, 3 November 2013
  45. ^ "Top Syrian rebel commander dies from wounds". Reuters. Retrieved 24 October 2014. 
  46. ^ Solomon, Erica; Karouny, Mariam; Heavens, Andrew (28 September 2012). "Syria rebels struggle to advance in Aleppo offensive". Reuters. Retrieved 29 September 2012. 
  47. ^ AFP (15 December 2012). "Key rebel commander killed in Syria's Aleppo". Syria (NOW). Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  48. ^ Syria air strike hits Islamist brigade leadership Al Ahram (AFP), 15 November 2013
  49. ^ "FSA mourns senior commander killed in Aleppo". Zamanwasl. Retrieved 26 September 2015. 
  50. ^ a b "Syrian Turkmen fighting for better future". TimeTurk. 24 August 2012. Retrieved 10 September 2012. 
  51. ^ a b Bedard, Marie-Eve (7 December 2012). "Free Syrian Army an uneasy mix of religious extremes". CBC News. Retrieved 7 December 2012. 
  52. ^ "Syria: Army of the Mujahideen Challenges ISIS Gains". Al Akhbar. 6 January 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2014. 
  53. ^ Kim Sengupta (31 July 2012). "The people who live on Aleppo's fiercest frontline have fled. Only the fighters remain". London: Independent. Retrieved 2 November 2012. 
  54. ^ "Top al-Qaida operative killed in Syria suicide blast". 24News. 23 February 2014. 
  55. ^ Spencer, Richard (16 August 2012). "British convert to Islam vows to fight to the death on Syrian rebel front line". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 22 September 2012. 
  56. ^ Syria's Kurds: Civil Wars Within a Civil War Time, 5 November 2012
  57. ^ "Fresh clashes rock Damascus". Nine O clock. Retrieved 30 September 2015. 
  58. ^ "Barrel bombings cause mass evacuation in east Aleppo". Al-Monitor. Retrieved 24 October 2014. 
  59. ^ "Syrian strikes on Aleppo 'kill dozens'". Retrieved 29 August 2013. 
  60. ^ "Third day of fighting at Syria-Turkey border crossing". The Daily Star Newspaper - Lebanon. Retrieved 24 October 2014. 
  61. ^ "Progress of the Brigades and the Islamic victory in Aleppo and killed the commander of the Republican Guard". Retrieved 24 October 2014. 
  62. ^ "Faouzi Ayoub, Lebanese-Canadian terror suspect, reportedly killed in Syria". CBC News. 27 May 2014. Retrieved 27 May 2014. 
  63. ^ "Emboldened Syrian rebels push into Aleppo". USA Today. 22 July 2012. 
  64. ^ a b c "INSIGHT-Syria rebels see future fight with foreign radicals". Reuters. 8 August 2012. Retrieved 9 September 2012. 
  65. ^ a b "With sudden advances in Aleppo, Islamic State provokes counteroffensive". Long War Journal. Retrieved 27 September 2015. 
  66. ^ Clarissa Ward (26 July 2012). "Syria rebel leader says his men are ready to take on Assad's forces in fight for Aleppo". CBS News. Retrieved 29 July 2012. 
  67. ^ a b c "Al Nusrah Front, allies form new coalition for battle in Aleppo". Long War Journal. Retrieved 27 September 2015. 
  68. ^ "The Battle for Aleppo: rebels, regime, refugees inside Syria". Alaska Dispatch. 28 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012. 
  69. ^ "Battered Syrian Rebels Cede Aleppo's Salaheddin District to Assad Military". 10 August 2012. Retrieved 2 November 2012. 
  70. ^ a b c d "Rebels fighting against al-Assad rule fragmented, disorganized in Syria" (PDF). Hürriyet Daily News. 2 September 2012. Retrieved 10 September 2012. 
  71. ^ "Syria rebels withdraw totally from Aleppo district". Arab News. 9 August 2012. Retrieved 7 March 2013. 
  72. ^ "Syria crisis: Rebels lose key district of Aleppo". BBC. 9 August 2012. Retrieved 7 March 2013. 
  73. ^ "Syrian rebels lose key Aleppo district". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 2 November 2012. 
  74. ^ Holmes, Oliver (10 September 2012). "Video shows 20 Syrian soldiers believed executed". Reuters. Retrieved 2 November 2012. 
  75. ^ "Outsiders Bogged Down in Protracted Battle for Aleppo". 2 November 2012. Retrieved 29 August 2013. 
  76. ^ "Insight - Aleppo misery eats at Syrian rebel support". Reuters. Retrieved 27 September 2015. 
  77. ^ "Syria Pulse". Al Monitor. Retrieved 27 September 2015. 
  78. ^ "Free Syrian Army rebels attack ISIS near Aleppo". Aawsat. Retrieved 27 September 2015. 
  79. ^ "Abu Amara battalions at work in Salahuddin, Aleppo". Live Leak. Retrieved 27 September 2015. 
  80. ^ "Syria: Coming together to fight Assad in Aleppo". Al Araby. Retrieved 27 September 2015. 
  81. ^ "Guide to the Syrian rebels". BBC. Retrieved 27 September 2015. 
  82. ^ "Aleppo Rebels form joint command room". Zamanalwsl. Retrieved 27 September 2015. 
  83. ^ "Daily Military and Field Report: 04 August 2015". RFS Media Office. Retrieved 27 September 2015. 
  84. ^ "Rebels Worth Supporting: Syria's Harakat Hazm". Washington Institute for Near East Policy. 28 April 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014. 
  85. ^ "The Moderate Rebels: A Complete and Growing List of Vetted Groups". Democratic Revolution, Syrian Style. 21 October 2014. Retrieved 2 December 2014. 
  86. ^ "The Syrian Islamic Front: A New Extremist Force". Washington Institute for Near East Policy. 4 February 2013. Retrieved 29 April 2014. 
  87. ^ "Chechen commander leads Muhajireen Brigade in Syria". Long War Journal. 20 February 2013. 
  88. ^ Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi (11 May 2014). "Key Updates on Iraq's Sunni Insurgent Groups". Brown Moses Blog. Retrieved 29 May 2014. 
  89. ^ "Abu Ahmad al-Maghrebi (Ibrahim Bencheqroun), un vétéran du Jihad mort en Syrie" [Jihad veteran killed in Syria]. 3 April 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014. 
  90. ^ Holmes, Oliver (2 October 2012). "Syria's Assad tours Aleppo, orders more troops into battle,". Retrieved 29 August 2013. 
  91. ^ Martin Chulov (5 August 2012). "Aleppo rebels wait anxiously for Bashar al-Assad's elite to attack". London: Guardian. Retrieved 2 November 2012. 
  92. ^ Syria Report (7 July 2013). "Report: Maher al-Assad Commanding Homs Assault". Retrieved 8 February 2014. 
  93. ^ "Rebels hit army HQ in Aleppo". Reuters. 8 September 2012. Retrieved 2 November 2012. 
  94. ^ "Syrian Airline Cancels Flight to Aleppo". Retrieved 29 August 2013. 
  95. ^ Ignatius, David (30 November 2012). "Al-Qaeda affiliate playing larger role in Syria rebellion". Washington Post. Retrieved 1 December 2012. 
  96. ^ Spencer, Richard (16 August 2012). "British convert to Islam vows to fight to the death on Syrian rebel front line". London: The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 8 December 2012. 
  97. ^ "Clinton visits Turkey for Syria talks as army pounds rebels in Aleppo". Al Arabiya. 5 August 2012. Retrieved 2 November 2012. 
  98. ^ "Syrian army starts "purging" Aleppo from "Jihadists", minister pledges to eradicate terrorism". Asian News International. 29 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012. 
  99. ^ Richard Galpin (5 August 2012). "Syria conflict: Troops 'mass for Aleppo assault'". BBC. Retrieved 2 November 2012. 
  100. ^ Siddique, Haroon (29 July 2012). "Syria: Battle for Aleppo – live updates". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 29 July 2012. 
  101. ^ Morris, Loveday (2 June 2013). "In Syria, Hezbollah forces appear ready to attack rebels in city of Aleppo". Washington Post. Retrieved 6 July 2013. 
    Matthew Weaver (3 June 2013). "Syrian rebels fight Hezbollah in Lebanon". London: Guardian. Retrieved 6 July 2013. 
    "4,000 Hezbollah fighters reach rebel-held Aleppo: FSA". The Daily Star. Retrieved 6 July 2013. 
  102. ^ "The extent of the suffering". Pomegranate (Economist). 2 April 2013. Retrieved 8 April 2013. 
  103. ^ "Violations Documenting Center". Violations Documenting Center. 15 March 2015. Retrieved 15 March 2015. 
  104. ^ Luke Harding and Martin Chulov (22 July 2012). "Syrian rebels fight Assad troops in Aleppo". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 29 July 2012. 
  105. ^ McElroy, Damien (28 July 2012). "Badly armed rebels face tanks as Syria's mother of battles begins". The Telegraph (London). 
    Hermant, Norman (28 July 2012). "Fears about the 'mother of all battles' for Aleppo". ABC. 
  106. ^ Hauslohner, Abigail; Ramadan, Ahmed (24 December 2013). "Middle East". The Washington Post. 
  107. ^ "Syrian regime kills 78, activists say Anadolu Agency". Retrieved 2014-08-17. 
  108. ^ BBC News, 28 April 2014 BBC witnesses devastation of Syrian air bombardment on Aleppo
  109. ^ "Khaled Hyani shells killed and wounded no less than 900 civilians in 162 days". Syria Human Rights. 12 December 2014. Retrieved 25 September 2015. 
  110. ^ "Syrian war takes heavy toll at a crossroad of cultures". New York Times. 2014-04-16. Retrieved 2014-05-12. 
  111. ^ "Brief History of Aleppo: A Great World City Now in the Grip of War". Time. Retrieved 24 September 2015. 
  112. ^ NYT (17 May 2012) Students Are Assalied at a Protest in Syria
  113. ^ "Syria: What motivates an Assad supporter?". Global Post. 24 June 2011. Retrieved 22 February 2012. 
  114. ^ "Syrian rebels fight Assad troops in Aleppo". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 September 2015. 
  115. ^ Martin Chulov (4 August 2012). "War for Aleppo: battle rages in city that will determine fate of Syria". London: Guardian. Retrieved 2 November 2012. 
  116. ^ Matthew Weaver and Brian Whitaker (8 August 2012). "Syria crisis: Assad's new offensive in Aleppo – live updates". London: Guardian. Retrieved 2 November 2012. 
  117. ^ Ivan Watson (26 July 2012). "Battles for key cities of Aleppo, Damascus heat up in Syrian civil war". CNN. Retrieved 2 November 2012. 
  118. ^ Chulov, Martin (21 August 2012). "Syrian rebels fight on for Aleppo despite local wariness". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 9 September 2012. 
  119. ^ "Aleppo residents caught in crossfire losing faith in rebels". Daily Star. 27 September 2012. Retrieved 2 November 2012. 
  120. ^ Kennedy, Elizabeth (19 November 2012). "Syrian Islamists Reject Western-Backed Opposition". ABC News. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  121. ^ Atassi, Basma (20 November 2012). "Aleppo rebels retract rejection of coalition". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  122. ^ "Syrian rebels sidetracked by scramble for spoils of war". The Guardian. Retrieved 27 September 2015. 
  123. ^ "Jihadists join Aleppo fight, eye Islamic state, surgeon says". Reuters. 8 September 2012. Retrieved 9 September 2012. 
  124. ^ "Bashar al-Assad Lost The Support of Aleppo's Wealthy When the Shelling Started". The Daily Beast. 1 September 2012. Retrieved 8 October 2012. 
  125. ^ "Assad's Aleppo backers abandon him, some shift support, cash to rebels in risky gamble". CBS News. 23 August 2012. Retrieved 8 October 2012. 
  126. ^ "Assad's man directs battle for Aleppo". The Australian. 7 September 2012. Retrieved 10 September 2012. 
  127. ^ Kat, Iskander (1 August 2012). "Syria rebels to target intel, as Assad hails army". Retrieved 9 September 2012. 
  128. ^ Van Wilgenburg, Wladimir (8 August 2012). "Cold PKK-FSA Truce in Syria". Rudaw. Retrieved 9 September 2012. [dead link]
  129. ^ "Turkey Pulse". Al Monitor. Retrieved 27 September 2015. 
  130. ^ "Fierce fighting in Syria's Aleppo:activists". The Daily Star. 20 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012. 
  131. ^ "Syria crisis: US fears Aleppo 'massacre' - Friday 27 July 2012". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 July 2015. 
  132. ^ Solomon, Erika (31 July 2012). "Syrian army pounds Aleppo, rebels claim successes". Reuters. Retrieved 2 November 2012. 
  133. ^ "Syrian rebels seize strategic checkpoint between Aleppo and Turkey, according to rebel officer". Al Jazeera. 30 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012. 
  134. ^ "Rebels claim victory in Syria's al-Bab town". Al Jazeera. 31 July 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2012. 
  135. ^ "Rebels use tanks to attack air base". The News. Retrieved 2 November 2012. 
  136. ^ a b Kim Sengupta (31 July 2012). "Ambushes and air strikes as Syrian regime fight rebels street-by-street to gain possession of Aleppo". The Independent (London). Retrieved 31 July 2012. 
  137. ^ "Syrian forces blast rebel-held districts of Aleppo, according to activists". Al Jazeera. 30 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012. 
  138. ^ "Syria 'secures chemical weapons stockpile',". Retrieved 29 August 2013. 
  139. ^ "Syria: Fighting In Aleppo Continues Between Assad Forces And Rebels Near Supply Road, Historic Mosque". Huffington Post. Retrieved 25 July 2015. 
  140. ^ "Umayyad Mosque In Aleppo Seized By Syria Rebels (VIDEO)". Huffington Post. Retrieved 25 July 2015. 
  141. ^ "Syria: Assad forces massing for major assault on Aleppo". Telegraph. Retrieved 25 July 2015. 
  142. ^ "Rebel brigades check loyalist advances in Aleppo: opposition". Reuters. Retrieved 25 July 2015. 
  143. ^ "Syria troops launch major offensive in Aleppo". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 23 September 2015. 
  144. ^ "Backed by tanks and artillery". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 26 July 2015. 
  145. ^ "Syrian army closes in on Aleppo after dawn attack". Reuters. Retrieved 26 July 2015. 
  146. ^ "Syria army retakes parts of base by Aleppo airport: NGO". Business Standard. Retrieved 26 July 2015. 
  147. ^ "Syrian army to impose blockade in Aleppo". Al Monitor. Retrieved 26 July 2015. 
  148. ^ "Syria: Intense Aleppo offensive prompts mass exodus". Aawsat. Retrieved 26 July 2015. 
  149. ^ "Syria army breaks rebel siege of Aleppo central prison: NGO". Retrieved 23 September 2015. 
  150. ^ "Aleppo Ceasefire Proposal Details Revealed". Al Masdar. Retrieved 30 July 2015. 
  151. ^ "Syrian rebels reject UN's Aleppo truce plan". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 30 July 2015. 
  152. ^ Master. "20 soldiers in regime forces killed during clashes in al-Brej area". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. Retrieved 16 February 2015. 
  153. ^ Leith Fadel. "Aleppo: The Battle for Al-Bureijj Intensifies". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 16 February 2015. 
  154. ^ sohranas. "Al- Jabha al- Islameyyi and Jaysho al- Muhajereen wal al- Anasar seize Manasher al- Brej area". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. Retrieved 16 February 2015. 
  155. ^ sohranas. "6 citizens killed in al- Bab, and members on both the Islamic battalions and regime forces die in Aleppo clashes". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. Retrieved 16 February 2015. 
  156. ^ Master. "Violent clashes around Aleppo and its countryside". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. Retrieved 16 February 2015. 
  157. ^ "Syria regime forces launch new Aleppo offensive". Mail Online. Retrieved 18 March 2015. 
  158. ^ "Fierce Fighting Near Aleppo as UN Envoy Pushes Truce in City". Associated Press. Retrieved 18 February 2015. 
  159. ^ "Rebel counter-attack, storms halt Aleppo offensive". The Daily Star. AFP. February 19, 2015. Retrieved February 19, 2015. 
  160. ^ "Syrian Rebels Regain Territory Near Aleppo". The New York Times. February 19, 2015. Retrieved February 19, 2015. 
  161. ^ a b al-Khatieb, Mohammed (13 March 2015). "Rebels advance in Aleppo". Al Monitor. Retrieved 14 March 2015. 
  162. ^ "Syria Direct: News Update 3-9-15". Retrieved 18 March 2015. 
  163. ^ "Al-Masdar". Aleppo: Jabhat Al-Nusra Forestalled at southern Handarat. Retrieved 11 March 2015. 
  164. ^ Master. "Regime forces take control on Hendarat village". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. Retrieved 18 March 2015. 
  165. ^ "Syrian troops fully recapture strategic town". GlobalPost. Retrieved 18 March 2015. 
  166. ^ "Syrian army takes control of strategic village north of Aleppo". Retrieved 2 May 2015. 
  167. ^ "Rebel shelling kills dozens in Syria's Aleppo". Al Jazeera English. 
  168. ^ Master. "Rebel and Islamic battalions take control on al-Rashdin area in Aleppo". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. 
  169. ^ Sputnik (19 June 2015). "New Rebel Shelling of Syrian City Aleppo Kills 10 Civilians - Monitor". 
  170. ^ Master. "Shells kill 9 civilians in Aleppo city, clashes continue around the city". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. 
  171. ^ "Syria military resists major rebel assault in Aleppo". BBC News. 
  172. ^ "Syrian troops repel militants attack on Aleppo neighborhood - US News". US News & World Report. Retrieved 5 August 2015. 
  173. ^ Jabha Shamiya commander blames ‘complete lack of coordination’ for Aleppo losses
  174. ^ "Syria rebels win support from Britain, battle in Damascus". Reuters. Retrieved 27 September 2015. 
  175. ^ "AP Exclusive: Syrian rebels seize base, arms trove". Yahoo. Retrieved 27 September 2015. 
  176. ^ "Recent Rebel Gains in Syria". Stratfor. Retrieved 27 September 2015. 
  177. ^ "Syrian Rebels Seize Major Dam in North " VOA Breaking News". 26 November 2012. Retrieved 29 August 2013. 
  178. ^ "Aleppo like Leningrad under siege – Syrian Dep. PM". RIA. 29 January 2012. Retrieved 29 January 2012. 
  179. ^ Surk, Barbara (23 February 2013). "Battle for Syria's Aleppo airport intensifies". Washington Times. Retrieved 6 July 2013. 
    "Syria rebels seize key checkpoint near Aleppo airport: NGO". 18 February 2013. Retrieved 6 July 2013. 
    "Syrian rebels push offensive for major airport". The Daily Star. Retrieved 6 July 2013. 
  180. ^ "Syria army seizes key Aleppo airport road". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 6 July 2013. 
    Evans, Dominic (1 March 2013). "Assad forces take Aleppo village, reopening supply line". Reuters. Retrieved 6 July 2013. 
  181. ^ "Syrian army captures strategic town at approaches to Aleppo". Reuters. 1 November 2013. Retrieved 2 November 2013. 
  182. ^ "Syrian army to impose blockade in Aleppo". Al-Monitor. Retrieved 24 October 2014. 
  183. ^ "Tensions Grow Between Hezbollah and the Syrian Regime". Stratfor. 23 April 2014. Retrieved 25 April 2014. 
  184. ^ "Aleppo: Syria's Stalingrad?". The National Interest. Retrieved 10 May 2014. 
  185. ^ "West Aleppo faces unending assault". Al-Monitor. Retrieved 17 April 2014. 
  186. ^ "The Siege of Aleppo?". Institute for the Study of War. 18 March 2014. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 
  187. ^ "Aleppo Now A De Facto 'Partition City' In Syria". NPR. 28 April 2014. Retrieved 28 April 2014. 
  188. ^ Leith Fadel. "Aleppo Battle Map: SAA Prepares to Envelop the City". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 13 December 2014. 
  189. ^ Soloman, Ericka (December 16, 2014). "Assad army bases fall to al-Qaeda allies". Financial Times. Retrieved December 22, 2014. 
  190. ^ al-Haj, Mustafa (December 19, 2014). "Jabhat al-Nusra deals Syrian regime major blow in Idlib". Al-Monitor. Retrieved December 21, 2014. 
  191. ^ "UN's Aleppo ceasefire plan hangs in balance". Al Jazeera. December 20, 2014. Retrieved December 22, 2014. 
  192. ^ "Syria conflict: Rebels capture key Idlib army bases". BBC News. December 15, 2014. Retrieved December 22, 2014. 
  193. ^ Ghattas, Kim (December 9, 2014). "Syria war: Southern rebels see US as key to success". BBC News. Retrieved December 22, 2014. 
  194. ^ "IS' Hama incursion threatens Nusra's gains". Al Monitor. 2 April 2015. Retrieved 2 April 2015. 
  195. ^ "ISIS Said to Step Up Offensive in Syria". The New York Times. 2 April 2015. Retrieved 2 April 2015. 
  196. ^ Abi Ali, Firas (12 April 2015). "Jabhat al-Nusra and Islamic State's attempts at cutting Damascus-Homs highway would threaten Assad's control of Syria". IHS Jane's 360. Retrieved 15 April 2015. 
  197. ^ Abi Ali, Firas (27 April 2015). "Syrian opposition success in Idlib province likely to threaten Aleppo, Latakia, and Assad's hold on power". IHS Jane's 360. Retrieved 29 April 2015. Aleppo has been reduced to symbolic importance ... The government is no longer able to reinforce its positions in Aleppo. As such, it cannot prevent its fall should the Islamist opposition or the Islamic State launch a major offensive against it ... It would also increase the incentive for Alawite fighters and officers to abandon locations such as Aleppo and southern Syria and retreat to defend their home towns. 
  198. ^ Fisk, Robert (12 June 2015). "Syrian civil war: Can Assad's regime survive the onslaught from Isis and Jabhat al-Nusra?". The Independent. Retrieved 13 June 2015. 
  199. ^ a b "'There are no barrel bombs': Assad's Syria 'facts'". Channel4. Retrieved 24 September 2015. 
  200. ^ "Syria: living under the horrors of barrel bombs in Aleppo". Channel4. Retrieved 24 September 2015. 
  201. ^ "At least 14 killed in Aleppo barrel-bomb attack". Middle East Monitor. Retrieved 24 September 2015. 
  202. ^ "Syria: Assad regime barrel bombs kill at least 35 people in Aleppo". IBN Times. Retrieved 24 September 2015. 
  203. ^ "Syria crisis: 'Barrel bomb strikes kill 72' in Aleppo province". BBC. Retrieved 24 September 2015. 
  204. ^ "Barrel-bomb attacks kill 15 in Aleppo". Anadolu Agency. Retrieved 24 September 2015. 
  205. ^ "'Barrel-bomb attack' targets mosque in Syria's Aleppo". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 24 September 2015. 
  206. ^ "Syria conflict: President Assad on weapons of war". BBC. Retrieved 24 September 2015. 
  207. ^ "If You Kill the People They'll Be Against You". New Republic. Retrieved 24 September 2015. 
  208. ^ "Syria's Looted Past: How Ancient Artifacts Are Being Traded for Guns". Time. Retrieved 24 September 2015. 
  209. ^ "Souk burns as Aleppo fight rages". Irish Times. Retrieved 24 September 2015. 
  210. ^ a b "Syria rebels battle army in landmark Aleppo mosque". Daily Star. Retrieved 24 September 2015. 
  211. ^ "Syria insurgents damage historical mosque in Aleppo". Press TV. Retrieved 24 September 2015. 
  212. ^ "Aleppo citadel hit by shelling, says opposition". Daily Star. Retrieved 24 September 2015. 
  213. ^ "Director-General of UNESCO appeals for protection of Syria's cultural heritage". UNESCO. Retrieved 24 September 2015. 
  214. ^ "المديرة العامة تعرب عن أسفها العميق لتدمير أسواق مدينة حلب القديمة المدرجة في قائمة التراث العالمي". UNESCO. Retrieved 24 September 2015. 
  215. ^ "Syria army in 'crucial and heroic battle', says Bashar al-Assad". The Daily Telegraph (London). 1 August 2012. Retrieved 23 September 2012. 
  216. ^ "Armenian Humanitarian Aircraft Lands in Aleppo". Turkish Weekly. 16 October 2012. Retrieved 13 November 2012. 
  217. ^ "The Governor of Aleppo and al-Baath Arab Socialist Party expressed their gratitude to the Armenians for the humanitarian aid". Armenpress. 13 November 2012. Retrieved 13 November 2012. 
  218. ^ "Red Cross to pull some staff out of Syria as world powers fear Aleppo 'slaughter'". Al Arabiya. 27 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012. 
  219. ^ Babak Dehghanpisheh and Liz Sly (7 August 2012). "Iran pledges support for Syria as battle rages for Aleppo". Washington Post. Retrieved 2 November 2012. 
  220. ^ "Russia Condemns Terrorist Acts in Aleppo, Calls for Immediate Halt of Violence". Syrian Arab News Agency. 11 September 2012. Retrieved 11 September 2012. 
  221. ^ "Moscow suspends consular operations in Aleppo". 16 January 2013. Retrieved 29 August 2013. 
  222. ^ "World cannot 'remain spectators' over Aleppo: Turkish PM". Al Jazeera. 28 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012. 
  223. ^ Regan Doherty and Amena Bakr (29 July 2012). "Secret Turkish nerve center leads aid to Syria rebels". Reuters. Retrieved 29 July 2012. 
  224. ^ ""World must speak out to avert a massacre in Aleppo," says UK foreign minister.". Al Jazeera. 27 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012. 
  225. ^ "US fears Syria planning massacre in Aleppo". Al Jazeera. 27 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012. 
  226. ^ "US condemns Syria slaughter". Retrieved 29 August 2013. 

Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Rashideen" defined multiple times with different content

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 36°13′N 37°10′E / 36.217°N 37.167°E / 36.217; 37.167