Battle of Andalien
|Battle of Andalien|
|Part of Arauco War|
|Commanders and leaders|
|Pedro de Valdivia||Toqui Ainavillo|
|200 Spanish soldiers:
|Casualties and losses|
|1 Spaniard killed
over 100 wounded
many Yanaconas dead and wounded
60 horses wounded
The battle of Andalien, fought in early February 1550, was a night action between 20,000 Mapuche under the command of their toqui Ainavillo and Pedro de Valdivia's 200 Spaniards on horse and afoot with a large number of Yanacona including 300 Mapochoes auxiliaries under their leader Michimalonco.
After Pedro de Valdivia reached the Bio-Bio River on January 24, 1550, he began explorations in the river valleys and had clashes with increasing numbers of Mapuche warriors. After about ten days he turned toward the sea marching to a plain between the Bio-Bio and Andalién River with a lake protecting his camp on one side. Here he stayed for two days and nights. On the second night the toqui Ainavillo and 20,000 warriors in three divisions, came out of the local wooded hills and advanced on the Spanish camp believing the night would protect them from attack by the Spanish horsemen and possibly make the horses timid. They also hoped to catch the Spanish unaware. However, the Spanish were alerted; each night Valdivia had had half his soldiers standing watch at all times during the night and all asleep were ready to wake and face any sudden onslaught. The lake forced the Mapuche to approach the camp on one side so they were pressed close together by the lake and river forming a dense column.
The night attack was defeated after a desperate three hour battle. Charging with his cavalry Valdivia was not able to break into the dense Mapuche formation, and his horses were being injured. Valdivia eventually ordered his men to dismount and fight on foot with his other soldiers. The armoured Spaniards with swords and shields, their gunfire and the arrows of the Mapochoes eventually killed about three hundred Mapuche and wounded many more who were pressed forward by the ones behind so that they left piles of bodies before the Spanish line. Finally they were driven back, tired, their ranks thinned and in disorder, their archers without arrows. Seeing this the Spaniards countercharged and broke them just at dawn. Valdivia then sent Michimalonco and his 300 Mapochoes to pursue them, killing many others in this pursuit into the woodlands. Altogether 3000 Mapuche were killed in the battle and pursuit according to Lobera. The Spaniards suffered one killed by a stray arquebus shot but many had wounds as did many of their mounts. After a day treating their wounds they continued onward towards their rendezvous at Penco on the Bay of Concepción with the ships of Juan Bautista Pastene.
- Valdivia, Carta, 15 de octubre de 1550
- Lobera, Crónica del Reino de Chile, Cap. XXXI
- Marmolejo, Historia de ... Cap. X, "Yanaconas of Santiago"
- Valdivia, Carta, 15 de octubre de 1550; Lobera, Crónica del..., Cap. XXXI
- from the provinces of "Ñuble, Itata, Renoguelen, Guachimavida, Marcande, Gualqui, Penco and Talcaguano." (Lobera, Crónica..., Cap. XXXI)
- Vivar, Crónica..., Chapter XCV
- Valdivia, Carta, Al emperador Carlos V, Concepción, 15 de octubre de 1550
- Marmolejo, Historia de ..., Cap. X; Vivar, Crónica..., Cap. XCV; 300 Mapuche alone killed in the plain before the camp.
Pedro de Valdivia commanded in this campaign and battle. Jerónimo de Vivar wrote as a participant in this campaign and battle and Pedro Mariño de Lobera arrived days afterward with the ships at Penco. Alonso de Góngora Marmolejo arrived in Concepcion in 1551 and so wrote about it from other participants accounts.
- Pedro de Valdivia, Cartas de Pedro de Valdivia (Letters of Pedro Valdivia), University of Chile: Diarios, Memorias y Relatos Testimoniales: (on line in Spanish) Carta, Al emperador Carlos V, Concepción, 15 de octubre de 1550
- Jerónimo de Vivar, Crónica y relación copiosa y verdadera de los reinos de Chile (Chronicle and abundant and true relation of the kingdoms of Chile) Artehistoria – Revista digital; Crónicas de América (on line in Spanish) Capítulo XCIV and XCV
- de Góngora Marmolejo, Alonso,Historia de Todas las Cosas que han Acaecido en el Reino de Chile y de los que lo han gobernado (1536–1575) (History of All the Things that Have happened in the Kingdom of Chile and of they that have governed it (1536–1575)), University of Chile: Document Collections in complete texts: Cronicles (on line in Spanish) Capítulo X
- Mariño de Lobera, Pedro,Crónica del Reino de Chile , escrita por el capitán Pedro Mariño de Lobera....reducido a nuevo método y estilo por el Padre Bartolomé de Escobar. Edición digital a partir de Crónicas del Reino de Chile Madrid, Atlas, 1960, pp. 227–562, (Biblioteca de Autores Españoles ; 569–575). Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes (on line in Spanish) Capítulo XXXI