Battle of Baitag Bogd
|Battle of Baitag Bogd|
|Part of the Ili Rebellion and Chinese Civil War|
Communist Party of China
|Commanders and leaders|
Mongolian People's Army|
Soviet Air Forces
People's Liberation Army
The Battle of Baitag Bogd Mountain (Mongolian: Байтаг богдын тулгарал) or Beitashan Incident (Chinese: 北塔山事件; pinyin: Běitǎshān shìjiàn; Wade–Giles: Pei-ta-shan shih-chien; alternatively Baitak Bogdo incident) was a border conflict between China, Mongolia, and the Soviet Union. The Mongolian People's Republic became involved in a border dispute with the Republic of China, as a Chinese Muslim Hui cavalry regiment was sent by the Chinese government to attack Mongol and Soviet positions.
As Commander of the First Cavalry Division, Salar Muslim Maj. Gen. Han Youwen was sent to Baitag Bogd by the Kuomintang military command to reinforce Hui Muslim Gen. Ma Xizhen with a company of troops, approximately three months before the fighting broke out. At Baitag Bogd, Han Youwen was in command of all Muslim cavalry defending against Soviet and Mongol forces. Han said "that he believed the border should be about 40 miles to the north of the mountains" to A. Doak Barnett, an American reporter.
Chinese Muslim and Turkic Kazakh forces working for the Chinese Kuomintang battled Soviet and Mongol troops. In June 1947 the Mongols and the Soviets launched an attack against the Kazakhs, driving them back to the Chinese side. However, fighting continued for another year, 13 clashes taking place between 5 June 1947 and July 1948.
Mongolia invaded Xinjiang with the intention of assisting Li Rihan, the pro-Soviet Special Commissioner, in gaining control of Xinjiang, over Special Commissioner Us Man (Osman) who was pro-ROC. The Chinese defence ministry spokesman announced that Outer Mongolian soldiers have captured Pei-ta-shan, and stated that troops[clarification needed] were resisting near Pei-ta-shan.
In early June 1947 Pei-ta-shan was re-taken by Chinese troops, who continued to fight against Soviet and Mongolian bomber planes; China's Legislative Yuan demanded stronger policies against the Soviet Union in response to the Mongol invasion. The bombs started dropping from Mongol and Soviet planes on 5 June.
Republic of China forces took eight Outer Mongolian troops prisoner while 30 horses and two Republic of China soldiers died in a bombing. The Republic of China issued a protest against the border attack by the Mongols and Soviets. The Republic of China accused Soviet planes of being involved in the attack. The American Ambassador to China branded the Outer Mongolian state as a tool and arm of the Soviet Union. The Soviets were aiming their intervention against the Kazakhs. Chinese Gen. Sung displayed captured Soviet-style Mongolian military headgear and a Soviet map to the American ambassador. The Soviet Tass news agency claimed that Mongolian officers were gruesomely murdered and mutilated. Douglas Mackiernan was sent to Baitag Bogd on June 19, 1947. The Mongolians possessed Soviet weapons which were seized from Soviet troops in battle. The Kazakhs were suffering from a dearth of edible supplies. The entire Baitag Bogd was threatened by Outer Mongol occupation according to Kazakh leader Osman.
Chinese Gen. Ma Xizhen and Kazakh Osman Batur fought against the Mongol troops and airplanes throughout June as fierce fighting erupted. The MPR used a battalion-size force and had Soviet air support in June 1947. The Mongolians repeatedly probed the Chinese lines.
The border constantly shifted around the area. In January 1948 seven hundred Chinese cavalry crossed the border into Khobdo and battled Mongolian border posts. Osman continued to fight against the Uyghur forces of the Yili regime in north Ashan after being defeated by the Soviet forces.
- Forbes (1986), p. 215
- Howard L. Boorman; Richard C. Howard; Joseph K. H. Cheng (1967). Biographical Dictionary of Republican China. Columbia University Press. pp. 47–. ISBN 978-0-231-08957-9.
- Chang (1954)
- Wu (1967), p. 233
- Perkins (1947), p. 563
- Wang (1999a), p. 274
- Morrison (1949)
- "Political Implications in Mongolian Invasion of N. China Province". The Canberra Times. 13 June 1947.
- Forbes (1986), p. 214
- Dickens, Mark. "The Soviets in Xinjiang 1911-1949". Oxus Communications. Archived from the original on 23 October 2008. Retrieved 18 November 2008.
- "Chinese troops recapture Pei-ta-shan". The Canberra Times. 13 June 1947.
- Lin (2010), p. 107
- Perkins (1947), p. 557
- Perkins (1947), p. 558
- Perkins (1947), p. 559
- Perkins (1947), pp. 560, 564
- Perkins (1947), pp. 557, 561
- Perkins (1947), p. 562
- Perkins (1947), p. 566
- Perkins (1947), pp. 566–567
- Perkins (1947), p. 567
- Perkins (1947), p. 568
- Perkins (1947), p. 569
- Wang (1999b), p. 87
- Liu (2006), p. 380
- "CHINA: Encirclement". TIME magazine. 6 October 1947.
- "A Letter From The Publisher, Oct. 20, 1947". TIME magazine. 20 October 1947.
- Lin (2010), p. 108
- Wang (1999a), pp. 275, 301, 302
- Chang, Li (1954). "The Soviet grip on Sinkiang". Foreign Affairs. 32 (3): 491–503. JSTOR 20031047.
- Forbes, Andrew D. W. (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: A political history of Republican Sinkiang 1911-1949. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-25514-7.
- Lin, Hsiao-ting (2010). Modern China's Ethnic Frontiers: A Journey to the West. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-415-58264-4.
- Liu, Xiaoyuan (2006). Reins of Liberation: An Entangled History of Mongolian Independence, Chinese Territoriality, and Great Power Hegemony, 1911–1950. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-5426-8.
- Morrison, Ian (1949). "Some notes on the Kazaks of Sinkiang". Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society. 36 (1): 67–71. doi:10.1080/03068374908731315.
- Perkins, E. Ralph, ed. (1947). "Unsuccessful attempts to resolve political problems in Sinkiang; extent of Soviet aid and encouragement to rebel groups in Sinkiang; border incident at Baitag Bogd". The Far East: China (PDF). Foreign Relations of the United States, 1947. VII. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office. pp. 546–587. Documents 450–495.
- Wang, David D. (1999a). Under the Soviet Shadow – The Yining Incident: Ethnic Conflicts and International Rivalry in Xinjiang, 1944–1949. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press. ISBN 962-201-831-9.
- Wang, David D. (1999b). Clouds over Tianshan: Essays on Social Disturbance in Xinjiang in the 1940s. NIAS Press. ISBN 87-87062-62-3.
- Wu, Ai-ch'ên (1967). China and the Soviet Union: a Study of Sino-Soviet Relations. Kennikat Press. ISBN 9780804605151.