Battle of Bayou Fourche

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Battle of Bayou Fourche
Part of the American Civil War
Date September 10, 1863 (1863-09-10)
Location Near the Bayou Fourche, Arkansas
(present-day Little Rock, Arkansas)

34°43′19.1″N 92°12′05.4″W / 34.721972°N 92.201500°W / 34.721972; -92.201500
Result Decisive Union victory
Belligerents
 United States  Confederate States
Commanders and leaders
United States John W. Davidson

Confederate States of America John S. Marmaduke

Units involved
Cavalry Division, Department of the Missouri Marmaduke's and Walker's divisions
Strength
6,000 cavalry,
18 guns
2,500 cavalry
Casualties and losses
7 dead,
65 wounded or missing
Probably about the same as Union casualties
Bayou Fourche is located in Arkansas
Bayou Fourche
Bayou Fourche
Location within the state of Arkansas
Bayou Fourche is located in the US
Bayou Fourche
Bayou Fourche
Location within the state of Arkansas

The Battle of Bayou Fourche (September 10, 1863), also known as the Engagement at Bayou Fourche, was the most decisive battle of the Little Rock Campaign. The engagement was the culmination of an expedition launched by Major-General Frederick Steele on August 1, 1863, to capture Little Rock, Arkansas.[1] The campaign included engagements at West Point,[2] Harrison's Landing, Brownsville, Reed's Bridge and Ashley's Mills (or Ferry Landing).[3]

Prelude[edit]

On July 4, 1863, Vicksburg, Mississippi – the Gibraltar of the Confedracy – fell. With the Mississippi River again, in U.S. President Abraham Lincoln's words, running "unvexed to the sea," Steele, commanding the "Arkansas Expedition", preceded from Helena on August 10th to lead the invasion of 12,000 troops west into Arkansas. Awakening to the distant rumble of artillery September 10th, the citizens of Little Rock found themselves in the vortex of the conflict.[4]

Battle[edit]

Further information: Confederate order of battle

On September 10, 1863, Steele sent a cavalry division led by Brigadier-General John W. Davidson across the Arkansas River to advance on Little Rock, Arkansas while he moved against Confederates strongly entrenched on the north side of the river. In his thrust toward the state capitol, Davidson ran into Marmaduke's and Walker's divisions commanded by Brigadier-General John S. Marmaduke near the Bayou Fourche. Aided by field artillery from the north side of the river, Davidson forced Marmaduke out of his position and sent the defenders fleeing back to Little Rock, which fell to U.S. troops that evening.[5]

Aftermath[edit]

Major-General Sterling Price, commanding at Little Rock, fell back to Arkadelphia on the 14th, and eventually reestablished his command at Camp Bragg, Arkansas. Governor Harris Flanagin relocated the state capitol to Washington, Arkansas, where it remained for the rest of the war.[6] The fall of Little Rock sealed Arkansas' fate and helped to further demoralize Confederate citizens west of the Mississippi River, further isolating them from the rest of the South.[7]

Battlefield[edit]

Sketch of Engagement at Bayou Fourche, Ark.

The growth of Little Rock has obscured many of the sites associated with the battle and subsequent evacuation of the city. Today, several markers and monuments are located inside the Bayou Fourche Battlefield, but further expansion of Little Rock National Airport threatens to consume additional land.[8]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ United States. War Dept.. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union And Confederate Armies. Series 1, Volume 22, In Two Parts. Part 1, Reports., Book, 1888; digital images, (http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth154600/m1/471/?q=Etter : accessed July 26, 2013), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, http://texashistory.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department, Denton, Texas.
  2. ^ Miller,Adam, "Engagement at West Point", The Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture, accessed 2 January 2015, http://www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net/encyclopedia/entry-detail.aspx?entryID=6702
  3. ^ United States. War Dept. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union And Confederate Armies. Series 1, Volume 22, In Two Parts. Part 1, Reports., Book, 1888; digital images, (http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth154600/m1/471/?q=Clarendon : accessed July 17, 2013), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, http://texashistory.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department, Denton, Texas.
  4. ^ The Little Rock Campaign Tour: A Driving Tour of Sites Along the Route the Union Army Took to Capture the Capitol of Arkansas (PDF) (3rd ed.). Civil War Round Table of Arkansas and Central Arkansas Civil War Heritage Trail Association. September 2007. 
  5. ^ "Bayou Forche". American Battlefield Protection Program. National Park Service. n.d. Retrieved January 13, 2017. 
  6. ^ "Historic Washington State Park". Arkansas State Parks Guide, 2011. Arkansas Department of Parks and Tourism. p. 32. Retrieved March 22, 2012.
  7. ^ United States. War Dept. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union And Confederate Armies. Series 1, Volume 22, In Two Parts. Part 1, Reports., Book, 1888; digital images, (http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth154600/m1/471/?q=Clarendon : accessed July 17, 2013), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, http://texashistory.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department, Denton, Texas.
  8. ^ "Fifteen Additional At-Risk Sites: History Under Siege - 2009 Most Endangered Battlefields". Civil War Trust. Retrieved January 13, 2017. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Burford, Timothy Wayne, and Stephanie Gail McBride. The Division: Defending Little Rock, August 25–September 10, 1863. Jacksonville, AR: WireStorm Publishing, 1999.
  • Christ, Mark K. Civil War Arkansas, 1863: The Battle for a State. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2010.
  • Civil War Battlefields in the State of Arkansas - Arkansas Post to Devils Backbone
  • “Here in the Wilds of Arkansas: Interpreting the 1863 Little Rock Campaign.” MLS thesis, University of Oklahoma, 2000.
  • Huff, Leo E. “The Last Duel in Arkansas: The Marmaduke-Walker Duel.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 23 (Spring 1964): 36–49.
  • “‘The Sting of Being an Exile’: The Little Rock Campaign of 1863. Pulaski County Historical Review 61 (Spring 2013): 34–47.
  • “The Union Expedition Against Little Rock.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 22 (Fall 1963): 224–237

External links[edit]