Battle of Caporetto order of battle

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Italian troops in Caporetto, 24 October 1917

The Battle of Caporetto (also known as the Twelfth Battle of the Isonzo or the Battle of Karfreit as it was known by the Central Powers; Slovene: Čudež pri Kobaridu), took place from 24 October to 19 November 1917, near the town of Kobarid (now in Slovenia), on the Austro-Italian front of World War I. The battle was named after the Italian name of the town of Kobarid (known as Karfreit in German).

Italian Army[edit]

Outline order of battle[edit]

Organization of the Italian 2nd Army on 24 October 1917
Corps Division
In 1st Line IV Corps 50th Infantry Division
43rd Infantry Division
46th Infantry Division
34th Infantry Division (Corps Reserve)
XXVII Corps 19th Infantry Division
65th Infantry Division
22nd Infantry Division
64th Infantry Division
Corps Reserve
XXIV Corps 49th Infantry Division
68th Infantry Division
10th Infantry Division
II Corps 67th Infantry Division
44th Infantry Division
8th Infantry Division
Corps Reserve
VI Corps 66th Infantry Division
24th Infantry Division
VIII Corps 48th Infantry Division
59th Infantry Division
7th Infantry Division
In 2nd Line VII Corps 3rd Infantry Division
62nd Infantry Division
Corps Reserve
XIV Corps (Army Reserve) 20th Infantry Division
30th Infantry Division
XXVIII Corps (Army Reserve) 23rd Infantry Division
47th Infantry Division
Reserve of the Supreme Command 60th Infantry Division (attached to VIII Corps)
53rd Infantry Division (attached to XIV Corps)
13th Infantry Division (attached to XXVIII Corps)

Detailed order of battle[edit]

Italian 2nd Army (Lieutenant General Luigi Capello)

In 1st line:

  • IV Corps (Lieutenant General Alberto Cavaciocchi)
    • 50th Infantry Division (Major General Giovanni Arrighi)
      • "Friuli" Brigade – 87th and 88th Infantry Regiments
      • Part of "Foggia" Brigade – 280th Infantry Regiment
      • Alpini[1] battalions "Borgo San Dalmazzo", "Dronero" and "Saluzzo"
      • 2nd Alpini Group ("Ceva", "Mondovì" and "Monviso" battalions)
    • 43rd Infantry Division (Lieutenant General Angelo Farisoglio)
      • "Genova" Brigade – 97th and 98th Infantry Regiments
      • Part of "Etna" Brigade – 223rd Infantry Regiment
      • 5th Alpini Group ("Monte Albergian", "Val Chisone" and "Belluno" battalions)
      • 9th Bersaglieri Regiment[2]
    • 46th Infantry Division (Lieutenant General Giulio Amadei)
      • "Caltanissetta" Brigade – 147th and 148th Infantry Regiments
      • "Alessandria" Brigade – 155th and 156th Infantry Regiments
      • Part of "Etna" Brigade – 224th Infantry Regiment
      • 2nd Bersaglieri Regiment
    • 34th Infantry Division, Corps reserve
      • Part of "Foggia" Brigade – 281st and 282nd Infantry Regiments
      • "Monte Argentera" Alpini battalion
  • XXVII Corps (Lieutenant General Pietro Badoglio)
    • 19th Infantry Division (Major General Giovanni Villani)
      • "Napoli" Brigade – 75th and 76th Infantry Regiments[3]
      • "Spezia" Brigade – 125th and 126th Infantry Regiments
      • "Taro" Brigade – 207th and 208th Infantry Regiments (less 1 bn.)
    • 65th Infantry Division
      • Part of "Belluno" Brigade – 274th Infantry Regiment, I and II/275th Infantry Regiment
    • 22nd Infantry Division
      • "Pescara" Brigade – 211th and 212th Infantry Regiments
    • 64th Infantry Division
      • Part of "Belluno" Brigade – 276th Infantry Regimentt, III/275th Infantry Regiment
      • Part of "Taro" Brigade – II/208th Infantry Regiment
    • Corps reserve:
      • 10th Alpini Group ("Vicenza", "Monte Berico", "Morbegno" and "Val d'Adige" battalions)
      • "Puglie" Brigade – 71st and 72nd Infantry Regiments (already in line)
      • "Roma" Brigade – 79th and 80th Infantry Regiments (already in line)[4]
  • XXIV Corps (Lieutenant General Enrico Caviglia)
    • 49th Infantry Division
      • "Ravenna" Brigade – 37th and 38th Infantry Regiments
      • "Lambro" Brigade – 205th and 206th Infantry Regiments (on the morning of 24 October, transferred to XIV Corps, replaced by "Palermo" Brigade)
      • "Sele" Brigade – 219th and 220th Infantry Regiments
    • 68th Infantry Division
      • "Grosseto" Brigade – 237th and 238th Infantry Regiments
    • 10th Infantry Division
      • "Verona" Brigade – 83rd and 84th Infantry Regiments
      • "Campobasso" Brigade – 229th and 230th Infantry Regiments[5]
  • II Corps (Major General Alberico Albricci)
    • 67th Infantry Division
      • "Cremona" Brigade – 21st and 22nd Infantry Regiments
      • "Tortona" Brigade – 257th and 258th Infantry Regiments
    • 44th Infantry Division
      • "Re" Brigade – 1st and 2nd Infantry Regiments
      • "Brescia" Brigade – 19th and 20th Infantry Regiments
    • 8th Infantry Division
      • "Udine" Brigade – 95th and 96th Infantry Regiments
      • "Forlì" Brigade – 43rd and 44th Infantry Regiments
    • Corps reserve:
      • "Aquila" Brigade – 269th and 270th Infantry Regiments
  • VI Corps (Lieutenant General Giacomo Lombardi)
    • 66th Infantry Division
      • "Cuneo" Brigade – 7th and 8th Infantry Regiments
      • "Abruzzi" Brigade – 57th and 58th Infantry Regiments
      • "Milano" Brigade – 159th and 160th Infantry Regiments (tactically available to the army and detached to XXVIII Corps)
    • 24th Infantry Division
      • "Emilia" Brigade – 119th and 120th Infantry Regiments
      • "Gaeta" Brigade – 263rd and 264th Infantry Regiments
  • VIII Corps (Major General Francesco Grazioli)
    • 48th Infantry Division
      • "Piemonte" Brigade – 3rd and 4th Infantry Regiments
      • "Porto Maurizio" Brigade – 253rd and 254th Infantry Regiments
    • 59th Infantry Division
      • "Modena" Brigade – 41st and 42nd Infantry Regiments
      • "Pesaro" Brigade – 239th and 240th Infantry Regiments
    • 7th Infantry Division
      • "Bergamo" Brigade – 25th and 26th Infantry Regiments
      • "Lucca" Brigade – 163rd and 164th Infantry Regiments
    • "Sesia" Brigade – 201st and 202nd Infantry Regiments (fortified town of Gorizia, tactically available to the army)

In 2nd line:

  • VII Corps (Major General Luigi Bongiovanni)
    • 3rd Infantry Division
      • "Arno" Brigade – 213th and 214th Infantry Regiments
      • "Elba" Brigade – 261st and 262nd Infantry Regiments
    • 62nd Infantry Division
      • "Salerno" Brigade – 89th and 90th Infantry Regiments
      • IV Bersaglieri Brigade – 14th and 20th Bersaglieri Regiments
    • Corps reserve:
      • "Firenze" Brigade – 127th and 128th Infantry Regiments
  • XIV Corps (Lieutenant General Sagramoso) – Army Reserve Command
    • 20th Infantry Division
      • "Livorno" Brigade – 33rd and 34th Infantry Regiments
      • "Palermo" Brigade – 67th and 68th Infantry Regiments
    • 30th Infantry Division
      • "Treviso" Brigade – 115th and 116th Infantry Regiments
      • "Girgenti" Brigade – 247th and 248th Infantry Regiments
  • XXVIII Corps (Major General Saporiti) – Army Reserve Command
    • 23rd Infantry Division
      • "Venezia" Brigade – 83rd and 84th Infantry Regiments
      • "Messina" Brigade – 93rd and 94th Infantry Regiments
      • "Sassari" Brigade – 151st and 152nd Infantry Regiments
      • "Avellino" Brigade – 231st and 232nd Infantry Regiments
    • 47th Infantry Division
      • I Bersaglieri Brigade – 6th and 12th Bersaglieri Regiments
      • V Bersaglieri Brigade – 4th and 21st Bersaglieri Regiments
    • "Milano" Brigade – 159th and 160th Infantry Regiments (detached from the 66th Infantry Division, VI Corps)
  • Reserves of the Supreme Command
    • 60th Infantry Division (attached to VIII Corps)
      • "Ferrara" Brigade – 47th and 48th Infantry Regiments
      • "Taranto" Brigade – 143rd and 144th Infantry Regiments
    • 53rd Infantry Division (attached to XIV Corps)
      • "Vicenza" Brigade – 227th, 228th and 229th Infantry Regiments[6]
      • "Potenza" Brigade – 271st, 272nd and 273rd Infantry Regiments
    • 13th Infantry Division (attached to XXVIII Corps)
      • "Jonio" Brigade – 221st and 222nd Infantry Regiments
      • "Massa Carrara" Brigade – 251st and 252nd Infantry Regiments
    • "Teramo" Brigade – 241st and 242nd Infantry Regiments (attached to XXVIII Corps)

German and Austro-Hungarian Armies[edit]

Outline order of battle[edit]

Organization of the German and Austro-Hungarian Armies on 24 October 1917
Army Corps Division
German 14th Army Group Krauss
Austro-Hungarian I Corps
Austro-Hungarian 3rd "Edelweiss" Infantry Division
Austro-Hungarian 22nd Schützen[7] Division
Austro-Hungarian 55th Infantry Division
German Jäger Division[8]
Group Stein
German III Bavarian Corps
Austro-Hungarian 50th Infantry Division
German 12th Infantry Division
German 117th Infantry Division
German Alpenkorps[9]
Group Berrer
German 51st Corps
German 26th (1st Württemberg) Infantry Division
German 200th Infantry Division
Group Scotti
Austro-Hungarian XV Corps
Austro-Hungarian 1st Infantry Division
German 5th Infantry Division
Army Reserve Austro-Hungarian 4th Infantry Division
Austro-Hungarian 13th Schützen Division
Austro-Hungarian 33rd Infantry Division
Later reinforcements Austro-Hungarian 35th Infantry Division
(from 2nd Isonzo Army)
Austro-Hungarian 94th Infantry Division
Austro-Hungarian 2nd Isonzo Army (part)[10] Group Kosak Austro-Hungarian 60th Infantry Division
Austro-Hungarian 35th Infantry Division
(later to 14th Army)
Austro-Hungarian 57th Infantry Division

Detailed order of battle[edit]

German assault troops at Caporetto

German 14th Army (General der Infanterie[11] Otto von Below)[12]

  • Austro-Hungarian I Corps (Group Krauss – General der Infanterie Alfred Krauß)[13]
    • Austro-Hungarian 3rd Infantry Division "Edelweiss" (Generalmajor Heinrich Wieden Edler von Alpenbach)[14]
      • 216th Infantry Brigade
        • 59th Infantry Regiment "Erzherzog Rainer"
        • 4th Kaiserjäger[15] Regiment (1 bn. only)
      • 217th Infantry Brigade
        • 14th Infantry Regiment "Ernst Ludwig Großherzog von Hessen und bei Rhein"
        • 3rd Kaiserjäger Regiment
    • Austro-Hungarian 22nd Schützen Division (Generalmajor Rudolf Müller)[14]
    • Austro-Hungarian 55th Infantry Division (Generalmajor Felix Prinz zu Schwarzenberg)[14]
      • 55th Sturmbataillon
      • 26th Mountain Infantry Brigade
        • 4th Bosnia/Herzegovina Infantry Regiment
        • 7th Infantry Regiment "Graf von Khevenhüller"
      • 38th Infantry Brigade
        • 2nd Bosnia/Herzegovina Infantry Regiment
        • 4th Bosnia/Herzegovina Infantry Regiment (1 bn. only)
        • 7th Infantry Regiment "Graf von Khevenhüller" (1 bn. only)
    • German Jäger Division[17] (Colonel von Wodkte)
      • 5th Ersatz Infantry Brigade
        • 11th Jäger Regiment[18]
        • 12th Jäger Regiment[18]
          • Staff of 2nd Uhlans Regiment
          • 2nd Jäger Battalion
          • 7th Jäger Battalion
          • 1st Reserve Jäger Battalion
        • 13th Jäger Regiment[18]
          • Staff of 8th Bavarian Chevaulégers Regiment
          • 8th Reserve Jäger Battalion
          • 20th Reserve Jäger Battalion
          • 21st Reserve Jäger Battalion
        • Sturmbataillon "Kronprinz Rupprecht" (Bavaria)
        • Sturmbataillon "Deutscher Kronprinz" (Bavaria)
        • Sturmbataillon "Herzog Albrecht" (Bavaria)
        • Württemberg Mountain Battalion, (later detached to the Alpenkorps)
  • III Bavarian Corps (Group Stein – Generalleutnant Hermann Freiherr von Stein)[20]
    • Austro-Hungarian 50th Infantry Division (Generalmajor Karl Geřabek)[14]
      • 3rd Mountain Infantry Brigade
        • 30th Infantry Regiment "Schoedler" (1 bn. only)
        • 33rd Infantry Regiment "Kaiser Leopold II" (1 bn. only)
        • 46th Infantry Regiment (1 bn. only)
        • 80th Infantry Regiment "Wilhelm Ernst Großherzog von Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach, Herzog zu Sachsen" (1 bn. only)
        • 25th Feldjäger Battalion[21]
        • 155th Landsturm[22] Regiment
      • 15th Mountain Infantry Brigade
        • 1st Bosnia/Herzegovina Infantry Regiment (less 1 bn.)
        • 18th Infantry Regiment "Erzherzog Leopold Salvator" (1 bn. only)
        • 37th Infantry Regiment "Erzherzog Joseph" (1 bn. only)
        • 61st Infantry Regiment "Ritter von Frank" (1 bn. only)
    • German 12th Infantry Division[23] (Generalmajor Arnold Lequis)
      • 24th Infantry Brigade
        • 23rd (2nd Upper Silesian) Infantry Regiment "von Winterfeldt"
        • 62nd (3rd Upper Silesian) Infantry Regiment
        • 63rd (4th Upper Silesian) Infantry Regiment
    • German 117th Infantry Division[24] (Generalmajor Paul Seydel)
      • 233rd Infantry Brigade
        • 157th (4th Silesian) Infantry Regiment
        • 11th Reserve Infantry Regiment
        • 22nd Reserve Infantry Regiment
    • German Alpenkorps[25] (Generalmajor Ludwig von Tutschek)
      • 1st Bavarian Jäger Brigade
        • Royal Bavarian Infantry Lifeguards Regiment
        • 1st Bavarian Jäger Regiment[26]
          • 1st Bavarian Jäger Battailon "King"
          • 2nd Bavarian Jäger Battailon
          • 2nd Bavarian Reserve Jäger Battailon
        • 2nd Jäger Regiment[26]
          • 10th Jäger Battailon
          • 10th Reserve Jäger Battailon
          • 14th Reserve Jäger Battailon
  • Austro-Hungarian XV Corps (Group Scotti – Feldmarschalleutnant Karl Scotti)[13]
    • Austro-Hungarian 1st Infantry Division (Feldmarschalleutnant Joseph Metzger)[14]
      • 7th Mountain Infantry Brigade
        • 5th Infantry Regiment "Freiherr von Klobucar" (1 bn. only)
        • 25th Infantry Regiment "Edler von Pokorny" (1 bn. only)
        • 53rd Infantry Regiment "Dankl" (1 bn. only)
        • 66th Infantry Regiment "Erzherzog Peter Ferdinand" (1 bn. only)
        • 86th Infantry Regiment "Freiherr von Steininger" (1 bn. only)
        • 3rd Bosnia/Herzegovina Feldjäger Battalion
      • 22nd Mountain Infantry Brigade
        • 4th Bosnia/Herzegovina Infantry Regiment (1 bn. only)
        • 17th Feldjäger Battalion
        • 31st Feldjäger Battalion
        • 37th Schützen Regiment "Gravosa" (2 bns.)
        • 92nd Infantry Regiment "Edler von Hortstein"
    • German 5th Infantry Division[32] (Generalmajor Hasso Georg von Wedel)
      • 10th Infantry Brigade
        • 8th (1st Brandenburg) Life Grenadier Regiment "King Frederick William III"
        • 12th (2nd Brandenburg) Grenadier Regiment "Prince Charles of Prussia"
        • 52nd (6th Brandenburg) Infantry Regiment "von Alvensleben"
  • Army Reserve
    • Austro-Hungarian 4th Infantry Division (Generalmajor Rudolf Pfeffer)[14]
      • 7th Infantry Brigade
        • 88th Infantry Regiment
        • 99th Infantry Regiment
      • 8th Infantry Brigade
        • 8th Infantry Regiment "Erzherzog Karl Stephan"
        • 49th Infantry Regiment "Freiherr von Hess"
    • Austro-Hungarian 13th Schützen Division (Feldmarschalleutnant Franz Kalser Edler von Maasfeld)[14]
      • 25th Schützen Brigade
        • 1st Schützen Regiment "Wien"
        • 24th Schützen Regiment "Wien"
      • 26th Schützen Brigade
        • 14th Schützen Regiment "Brünn"
        • 25th Schützen Regiment "Kremsier"
    • Austro-Hungarian 33rd Infantry Division (Generalmajor Artur Iwański)[14]
      • 65th Infantry Brigade
        • 19th Infantry Regiment "Erzherzog Franz Ferdinand"
        • 36th Infantry Regiment "Reichsgraf Browne"
      • 66th Infantry Brigade
        • 12th Infantry Regiment "Parmann"
        • 83rd Infantry Regiment "Freiherr von Schikovsky"
  • Later reinforcements to the 14th Army
    • Austro-Hungarian 35th Infantry Division (Feldmarschalleutnant Eugen von Podhoránszky)[14] (from 2nd Isonzo Army)
      • 69th Infantry Brigade
        • 51st Infantry Regiment "von Boroeviċ"
        • 63rd Infantry Regiment "Freiherr von Pitreich"
      • 70th Infantry Brigade
        • 62nd Infantry Regiment "Ludwig III, König von Bayern"
        • 64th Infantry Regiment "Ritter von Auffenberg"
    • Austro-Hungarian 94th Infantry Division (Generalmajor Marcel Ławrowski Edler von Plöcken)[14]
      • Group Lesachtal
        • 148th Landsturm Battalion
        • Salzsburg Volunteer Schützen Battalion
        • Styria Volunteer Schützen Battalion
      • 25th Mountain Infantry Brigade
        • 18th Schützen Regiment "Przemyšl" (1 bn. only)
        • 8th Feldjäger Battalion
        • ??? Ersatz Feldjäger Battalion
        • 26th Landsturm Regiment (1 bn. only)
        • 30th Landsturm Battalion
      • 57th Mountain Infantry Brigade
        • 26th Landsturm Regiment (2 bns.)
        • 151st Landsturm Battalion
        • 157th Landsturm Battalion
        • ???th Sturmbataillon

Austro-Hungarian 2nd Isonzo Army (part) (General der Infanterie Johann Ritter von Henriquez)[33]

  • Austro-Hungarian Group Kosak (Feldmarschalleutnant Ferdinand Kosak)[13]
    • Austro-Hungarian 60th Infantry Division (Feldmarschalleutnant Ludwig Goiginger)[14]
      • 2nd Mountain Infantry Brigade
        • 8th Infantry Regiment "Erzherzog Karl Stephan" (1 bn. only)
        • 52nd Infantry Regiment "Erzherzog Friedrich" (1 bn. only)
        • 55th Infantry Regiment (1 bn. only)
        • 70th Infantry Regiment "Edler von Appel" (1 bn. only)
        • 12th Feldjäger Battalion
        • 8th Bosnia/Herzegovina Feldjäger Battalion
      • 10th Mountain Infantry Brigade
        • 20th Infantry Regiment "Heinrich Prinz von Preußen" (1 bn. only)
        • 21st Infantry Regiment "Graf von Abensperg und Traun" (1 bn. only)
        • 47th Infantry Regiment "Graf von Beck-Rzikowsky" (1 bn. only)
        • 90th Infantry Regiment "Edler von Horsetzky" (1 bn. only)
        • 1st Bosnia/Herzegovina Feldjäger Battalion
        • 4th Bosnia/Herzegovina Feldjäger Battalion
    • Austro-Hungarian 35th Infantry Division (Feldmarschalleutnant Eugen von Podhoránszky)[14] (later to 14th Army)
      • 69th Infantry Brigade
        • 51st Infantry Regiment "von Boroevic"
        • 63rd Infantry Regiment "Freiherr von Pitreich
      • 70th Infantry Brigade
        • 62nd Infantry Regiment "Ludwig III, König von Bayern"
        • 64th Infantry Regiment "Ritter von Auffenberg"
    • Austro-Hungarian 57th Infantry Division (Generalmajor Joseph Hrozný Edler von Bojemil)[14]
      • 5th Infantry Brigade
        • 22nd Infantry Regiment "Graf von Lacy" (less 1 Bn.)
        • 57th Infantry Regiment "Prinz zu Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld"
        • 2nd Landsturm Regiment (1 bn. only)
      • 18th Infantry Brigade
        • 87th Infantry Regiment "Freiherr von Succovaty"
        • 34th Infantry Regiment "Wilhelm I, Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen" (1 bn. only)
        • 69th Infantry Regiment "Freiherr von Leithner" (1 bn. only)
        • 8th Feldjäger Battalion

References[edit]

  1. ^ Aplini were elite mountain warfare troops
  2. ^ Bersaglieri (marksman in English) were elite light infantry.
  3. ^ Original on Italian wiki shows 75th and 78th Infantry Regiments. Corrected as per Haythornthwaite 1996, p. 254. Note "Roma" Brigade (XXVII Corps reserve) also showed a 78th Regiment.
  4. ^ Original on Italian wiki shows 78th and 80th Infantry Regiments. Corrected as per Haythornthwaite 1996, p. 254. Note "Napoli" Brigade (19th Infantry Division, XXVII Corps) also showed a 78th Regiment.
  5. ^ "Vicenza" Brigade (53rd Infantry Division, Supreme Command Reserves) is also showing a 229th Infantry Regiment. "Campobasso" is most likely correct.
  6. ^ "Campobasso" Brigade (10th Infantry Division, XXIV Corps) is also showing a 229th Infantry Regiment. "Campobasso" is most likely correct.
  7. ^ In this context, Schützen designates units drawn from the Austrian k.k. Landwehr. "Austro-Hungarian Land Forces 1848–1918". Retrieved 6 November 2012. 
  8. ^ Jäger literally means "hunter" in German, in military contexts Jäger may be regarded as meaning "rifleman".
  9. ^ Alpenkorps was a division sized unit, despite its name.
  10. ^ At this point, 2nd Isonzo Army also commanded XXIV Corps (24th and 53rd Divisions), IV Corps (43rd and 20th Divisions), and a Reserve (28th, 29th and 9th Divisions) – all Austro-Hungarian."The Leadership in Austria-Hungary during WWI". Retrieved 8 November 2012. 
  11. ^ German and Austo-Hungarian ranks deliberately given in German language for clarity. At this time, for example, a Generalmajor was not the same as a Major General in UK or US armies.
  12. ^ Cron 2002, p. 398
  13. ^ a b c "Corps Commanders and Chiefs of Staff 1883–1918". Retrieved 7 November 2012. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Divisional Commanders 1914–1918". Retrieved 7 November 2012. 
  15. ^ Kaiserjäger were specialist mountain troops of the Austro-Hungarian k. und k. Common Army. "Austro-Hungarian Land Forces 1848–1918". Retrieved 6 November 2012. 
  16. ^ Kaiserschützen were specialist mountain troops of the Austrian k.k. Landwehr. "Austro-Hungarian Land Forces 1848–1918". Retrieved 6 November 2012. 
  17. ^ AEF GHQ 1920, pp. 16–17
  18. ^ a b c Cron 2002, p. 366
  19. ^ Schützen here means "Rifles", so similar to Jäger and part of the Jäger organisation.
  20. ^ "III BAK on The Prussian Machine". Retrieved 7 November 2012. 
  21. ^ Austro-Hungarian designation for Jäger.
  22. ^ Landsturm were 2nd Line units of the Austrian k.k. Landwehr or Hungarian k.u. Landwehr (Honvéd). "The Austro-Hungarian Land Forces as at August 1914–1918". Retrieved 9 November 2012. 
  23. ^ AEF GHQ 1920, pp. 211–214
  24. ^ AEF GHQ 1920, pp. 609–611
  25. ^ AEF GHQ 1920, pp. 8–11
  26. ^ a b c d e Cron 2002, p. 365
  27. ^ Killed in action. "Berrer biography on The Prussian Machine". Retrieved 7 November 2012. 
  28. ^ "General-Kommandos on The Prussian Machine". Retrieved 7 November 2012. 
  29. ^ AEF GHQ 1920, pp. 361–364
  30. ^ "Hofacker biography on The Prussian Machine". Retrieved 7 November 2012. 
  31. ^ AEF GHQ 1920, pp. 645–647
  32. ^ AEF GHQ 1920, pp. 108–111
  33. ^ "Higher Commands and Commanders". Retrieved 7 November 2012. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Cron, Hermann (2002). Imperial German Army 1914–18: Organisation, Structure, Orders-of-Battle [first published: 1937]. Helion & Co. ISBN 1-874622-70-1. 
  • Haythornthwaite, Philip J. (1996). The World War One Source Book. Arms and Armour. ISBN 1-85409-351-7. 
  • Histories of Two Hundred and Fifty-One Divisions of the German Army which Participated in the War (1914–1918), compiled from records of Intelligence section of the General Staff, American Expeditionary Forces, at General Headquarters, Chaumont, France 1919. The London Stamp Exchange Ltd (1989). 1920. ISBN 0-948130-87-3.