Battle of Changsha (1939)

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There were three more battles in Changsha during the Second Sino-Japanese War, in 1941, 1942 and 1944.
Battle of Changsha
Part of the Second Sino-Japanese war
IJA, Battle of Changsha, China, September 1939.jpg
Japanese soldiers during the battle of Changsha
Date September 17 – October 6, 1939[1]
September 14 - October 13, 1939[2]
Location Changsha and proximity
Result Chinese victory
Belligerents
 National Revolutionary Army, Military region 9  Imperial Japanese Army
Commanders and leaders
Republic of China (1912–49) Chen Cheng
Republic of China (1912–49) Xue Yue
Republic of China (1912–49) Guan Linzheng
Republic of China (1912–49) Yang Sen[3]
Empire of Japan Yasuji Okamura
Empire of Japan Masatoshi Saito
Empire of Japan Ryotaro Nakai
Empire of Japan Shinichi Fujita
Empire of Japan Shiro Inaba
Empire of Japan Shizuichi Tanaka
Empire of Japan Shigetaro Amakasu
Strength
~240,000 troops in 5 Army Groups, 1 Army, and 7 Corps divided between 30 Divisions in total. ~100,000 troops in the 11th Army split between 6 Divisions, 12 military navy vessels, over 100 aircrafts, and more than 100 motor boats.[4]
Casualties and losses
~40,000 40,000+[1]

Battle of Changsha (September 17, 1939 – October 6, 1939) was the first of four attempts by Japan to take the city of Changsha (長沙市), Hunan (湖南省), during the second Sino-Japanese War. It was the first major battle of the war to fall within the time frame of what is widely considered World War II.

Background and strategy[edit]

The war had reached a stalemate after two years of fighting. Professor Fu Sinian (傅斯年) noted in July 1939 that while the Chinese army had become stronger, the Japanese army had weakened.[5]

On August 15, the 11th Army came up with the general plans for a campaign south of the Yangtze, ranging 250 kilometers from the Xinjiang River to the Gan River (贛江). In early September, Japanese General Toshizō Nishio of the "Japanese Expeditionary Forces to China" and Lieutenant-General Seishirō Itagaki set out to capture Changsha, the provincial capital of Hunan. The Japanese 101st and 106th Divisions were deployed on the western bank of the Gan River in northern Jiangxi (江西), and the 6th, 3rd, 13th, and 33rd Divisions marched southward from southern Hubei (湖北省) to northern Hunan.

Two of the primary motivating factors for the Japanese in launching the attack were the signing of a non-aggression pact by their German ally with their Soviet enemy, and their defeat by Soviet forces at Nomonhan. A large attack on the Chinese would therefore restore morale.[6] In addition, Germany's invasion of Poland on September 1 gave the Japanese further motivation to crush China's will to fight in order to pave the way for the establishment of Wang Jingwei's (汪精衛) puppet government in Central China (華中).[5]

Altogether, it became obvious that the 100,000 strong Japanese force was to converge on Changsha. The Chinese strategy was to counter the enemy column in northern Jiangxi and then encircle the line on the path southward.

Order of battle for Battle of Changsha (1939)[edit]

Course of battle[edit]

On the night of September 14, 1939, Lieutenant General Ryotaro Nakai's 106th Division drove westward from north of Fengxin (奉新縣), Jiangxi, against Wan Baobang's 184th Division of the Chinese 60th Corps. After fierce fighting, the defending forces abandoned Gao'an (高安).[4] The bulk of Japanese forces then moved northwest to assault Sandu (上富), Ganfang (甘坊), and Xiushui (秀水).[4] In coordination with Nakai, Lieutenant General Shigetaro Amakasu's 33rd Division assaulted the Guan Linzheng's (關麟征) 15th Army Group from the south.[7]

Having recently captured important strategic locations in Jiangxi Province, Japanese troops began their attacks on Changsha in earnest on the 17th of September. Japanese 101st Division (Lieutenant General Masatoshi Saito) and 106th Division started marching westward towards Changsha in neighboring Hunan Province. Meanwhile the 3rd Division (Lieutenant General Shinichi Fujita), 6th Division (Lieutenant General Shiro Inaba), 13th Division (General Shizuichi Tanaka), and 33rd Division invaded northern Hunan Province to put additional pressure on Changsha. However, the Japanese stretched too far out westward and were counter-attacked by Chinese forces from the south and the north, forcing them to retreat eastward.[1]

On the 19th of September, Japanese forces proceeded to attack Chinese defensive positions along the Xinqiang River (新墻河) with poison gas, even though its use was prohibited by the Geneva Protocol.

After having recovered Cunqianjie on the 19th, Wang Yaowu's (王耀武) 74th Corps (51D, 57D, & 58D) and Song Ketang's 32nd Corps (139D & 141D) retook Gao'an in a counterattack on the 22nd.[8]

Donting Rivers
Battle of Changsha 二戰紀錄片

On the 23rd Japanese forces drove the Chinese out of the Xinqiang river area, and the 6th and 13th Divisions crossed the river under a cover of heavy artillery, advancing further south along the Miluo River (汨羅河). East of Changsha, naval vessels landed the Shanghai Special Naval Landing Forces and portions of the 3rd Division, surrounding Changsha on three sides.[1][7]

Heavy fighting continued afterwards and the Chinese retreated southward as distraction for the Japanese while supporting battalions arrived on the east and the west for an encirclement maneuver. By the 29th, vanguard troops of the Japanese 6th Division had reached the outskirts of Changsha. However due to the heavy casualties they had incurred, estimated at over 40,000, with a significant portion being fatalities, as well as the dangerous possibility of their overstretched supply lines being completely severed from constant harassment, Japanese forces were forced to withdraw across Laodao River.[8] Acting group army commander Guan Linzheng issued orders at once for 52nd and 73rd Corps to pursue the Japanese to Miluo River.[8] General Xue Yue (薛岳) ordered a general counterattack on October 3rd in pursuit of the Japanese who were south of Chongyang (崇陽縣) and Yueyang (岳陽市).[5]

On October 5th, Chinese troops shot down a Japanese aircraft with orders from General Yasuji Okamura to call off the Changsha offensive,[5] and the nearby Chinese 23rd Division attacked a Japanese Navy port at Yingtian (now Miluo), damaging several vessels.[1] By the 6th of October, Japanese forces at Changsha were decimated and retreating. Two days later, the remnants fled northward over the Miluo River while the Chinese 195th Division of the 52nd Corps pursued them across the Xinqiang River to recapture their former forward positions. At night, the Chinese launched raids into Xitang and Yaolin.[7]

By the 10th of October, Chinese forces had completely regained their former territories in northern Hunan Province, southern Hubei Province and northern Jiangxi Province.[7]

Conclusion[edit]

Changsha was the first major city that did not fall to the Japanese advances. The commander of the city's defense, the colorful General Xue Yue, who was a graduate of Whampoa Military Academy and loyal to Chiang Kai-shek, soon gained prestige from his victories at Changsha. Retaining the city allowed the Chinese to prevent the Japanese from consolidating their territories in the South of China.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Chen, Peter. "First Battle of Changsha". World War II Database. Retrieved 18 April 2015. 
  2. ^ "兵临城下:四次长沙会战". Huawenku. Retrieved 20 April 2015. 
  3. ^ "1939年10月7日 第一次长沙会战结束,日军被击退". NetEase. Retrieved 24 April 2015. 
  4. ^ a b c "第一次長沙會戰". 榮民文化網. Retrieved 20 April 2015. 
  5. ^ a b c d Xiang, Ah. "First Changsha Battle". Republican China. Retrieved 19 April 2015. 
  6. ^ Van De Ven, Hans J., War and Nationalism in China, 1925–1945, pg. 237.
  7. ^ a b c d Hackett, Bob; Kingsepp, Sander; Tully, Anthony. "The Great Fire and the First Battle of Changsha 1938-1939". Combined Fleet. Retrieved 19 April 2015. 
  8. ^ a b c Xiang, Ah. "First Changsha Battle" (PDF). Republican China. Retrieved 20 April 2015. 

Coordinates: 28°12′00″N 112°58′01″E / 28.2000°N 112.9670°E / 28.2000; 112.9670