Battle of Kars
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|Battle of Kars|
|Part of the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878)|
Capture of Kars by Nikolay Karazin, 1877
|Russian Empire||Ottoman Empire|
|Commanders and leaders|
Count Mikhail Loris-Melikov|
|Hussein Hami Pasha|
|Casualties and losses|
7,000 killed and wounded|
In June 1877, Russian forces attempted a siege of Kars but were driven off by an Ottoman army at the Battle of Kizil-Tepe. In November the Russian commander in the Caucasus, Grand Duke Michael, demanded the surrender of Kars but was refused. The Grand Duke sent a force under Mikhail Loris-Melikov and Ivan Lazarev to take the city by storm. From 9 October onwards, Lazarev led a 28,000 Russian army during the Battle of Kars. Among these 28,000 soldiers, the majority were Armenian volunteers who signed up to join the army of Lazarev. On November 17, Loris-Melikov attacked and succeeded in capturing the eastern fortifications and cutting off the garrison under Hussein Hami Pasha. Hussein Pasha attempted to cut his way out, but he and only a few others succeeded. Of the original 25,000 Turkish army, 7,000 died and 18,000 surrendered to Lazarev and were taken prisoner. The Treaty of San Stefano officially gave Kars to Russia and it remained in Russian possession until the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk after World War I.
In 1880, Russian composer Modest Mussorgsky wrote a triumphal march named "The Capture of Kars" in honor of the victory.
News of the capture of Kars by Viktor Vasnetsov, 1878
- Sandler S. Ground Warfare: An International Encyclopedia. V. 1. ABC-CLIO. 2002. P. 453
- Compton's Home Library: Battles of the World CD-ROM