Battle of La Mesa
|Battle of La Mesa|
|Part of the Mexican–American War|
|Commanders and leaders|
Robert F. Stockton|
Stephen Watts Kearny
|José María Flores|
|Casualties and losses|
|Official name||La Mesa Battlefield|
The Battle of La Mesa was the final battle of the California Campaign during the Mexican–American War, occurring on January 9, 1847, in present-day Vernon, California, the day after the Battle of Rio San Gabriel. The battle was a victory for the United States Army under Commodore Robert F. Stockton and General Stephen Watts Kearny.
Not finding any Californians at Governor Pío Pico's ranch, the Americans under Stockton and Kearny crossed the plain between the San Gabriel River and the Los Angeles River called La Mesa.:192 They encountered José María Flores' 300-strong force of Californio militia, including artillery,:192 near where the city of Vernon now stands, about four miles south of Los Angeles.
The Californian guns were ineffective, while the American guns responded from their square as the Americans advanced.:192 Flores extended his line and brought up two more guns.:192 Stockton halted and formed his guns into a single battery.:192 After fifteen minutes, Stockton's fire drove the Californian artillery from effective range.:192 Flores sent his lancers against the American left flank but were driven back; most of his men deserted, allowing the Americans to advance into Los Angeles.:192
The battle was the last armed resistance to the American conquest of California, and General José María Flores returned to Mexico afterward. Three days after the battle, on January 12, the last significant group of Californios surrendered to U.S. forces. The conquest and annexation of Alta California was settled with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga by U.S. Army Lieutenant-Colonel John C. Frémont and Californio General Andrés Pico on January 13, 1847.
- List of conflicts in the United States
- Battles of the Mexican–American War
- Captain John Strother Griffin (1816–1898), physician during the battle