Battle of Langfang
The Battle of Langfang was a battle in the Seymour Expedition during the Boxer Rebellion, in June 1900, involving Chinese imperial troops, the Chinese Muslim Kansu Braves and Boxers ambushing and defeating the Eight-Nation Alliance expeditionary army on its way to Beijing, pushing the Alliance forces to retreat back to Tientsin (Tianjin). The Alliance force at Langfang consisted of Germans.
The Chinese Imperial Tenacious Army under General Nie Shicheng was waging a brutal campaign to suppress the Boxers under orders from Commander in Chief Ronglu. At the same time General Nie was fighting the Boxers (Militia United in Righteousness, Yihetuan), the foreign Eight-Nation Alliance launched an invasion of China to reach the Legations at Beijing. The Imperial Court then decided to change its tack and halt the suppression campaign against the Boxers and fight the foreigners instead. There was too much bad blood between General Nie and the Boxers for them to cooperate with each other against the foreigners, so in response, the Imperial Court sent another Chinese Army, the Muslim Kansu Braves under the anti-foreign General Dong Fuxiang fight alongside the Boxers against the foreign Eight-Nation Alliance forces.
At Langfang the Alliance forces arrived on June 11.
On June 11 and June 14, Boxers armed only with bladed melee weapons directly charged the Alliance troops at Langfang armed with rifles and machine guns in human wave attacks and the Boxers also blocked the retreat of the expedition via train by destroying the Tianjin-Langfang railway.
During clashes at Langfang, Boxers armed with swords and spears charged the British and Americans, who were armed with guns. At point-blank range one British soldier had to fire four bullets into a Boxer before he stopped, and American Capt. Bowman McCalla reported that single rifle shots were not enough: multiple rifle shots were needed to halt a Boxer. Only machine guns were effective in immediately stopping the Boxers.
It was announced that foreign troops attempting to enter Beijing would be resisted by General Dong Fuxiang's forces.
Gen. Dong Fuxiang, along with his Chinese Muslim Braves, prepared to ambush the invading western army. The Muslim Gen. Ma Fuxiang and his brother Gen. Ma Fulu personally planned and led the attack, with a pincer movement around the Eight Nation Alliance force. On June 18, 1900, Dong Fuxiang's troops, stationed at Hunting Park in southern Beijing, attacked at multiple points including LangFang. The forces included 5,000 cavalrymen, armed with modern rifles. They led a force of Hui Muslims, Dongxiang Muslims, and Baoan Muslims in the ambush at Langfang with Ma Fulu personally leading a cavalry charge, cutting down enemy troops with his sword. The Boxers and Dong Fuxiang's army worked together in the joint ambush with the Boxers relentlessly assaulting the Allies head on with human wave attacks displaying "no fear of death" and engaging the Allies in melee combat and putting the Allied troops under severe mental stress by mimicking vigorous gunfire with firecrackers. The Allies however suffered most of their losses at the hands of General Dong's troops, who used their expertise and persistence to engage in "bold and persistent" assaults on the Alliance forces, as remembered by the German Captain Usedom and the right wing of the Germans was almost at the point of collapse under the attack until they were rescued from Langfang by French and British troops, and the Allies then retreated from Langfang in trains full of bullet holes. The foreign troops, especially the Germans, fought off the attack, killing 400 at a loss of seven dead and 57 wounded. The Kansu Braves lost 200 and the Boxers another 200. The Boxers directly and relentlessly charged the allies during the attack, which unnerved them. The need to care for the wounded, a lack of supplies and the likelihood of additional Chinese attacks resulted in Seymour and his officers deciding to retreat to Tientsin. The unexpected attack on Seymour by the Chinese army was prompted by an allied European and Japanese attack on the Dagu Forts two days previously. As a result of the attack in Dagu, the Chinese government had decided to resist Seymour's army and kill or expel all foreigners in northern China. The employment of firecrackers was part of ruses de guerre.
It was this battle which led Seymour's forces to realize that the Chinese Imperial Army had joined the fight alongside the Boxers and played a role in his decision to retreat to Tientsin (Tianjin).
- Elleman, Bruce A.; Paine, S.C.M., eds. (2007). Naval Coalition Warfare: From the Napoleonic War to Operation Iraqi Freedom. Cass Series: Naval Policy and History. Routledge. p. 91. ISBN 1135985340. Retrieved 2014-11-11.
- Paul A. Cohen (1997). History in three keys: the boxers as event, experience, and myth. Columbia University Press. p. 49 of 428. ISBN 0-231-10651-3. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- Jaques, Tony (2007). Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: F-O. Volume 2 of Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: A Guide to 8,500 Battles from Antiquity Through the Twenty-first Century. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 568. ISBN 0313335389. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- Ralph L. Powell (8 December 2015). Rise of the Chinese Militray Power. Princeton University Press. pp. 113–. ISBN 978-1-4008-7884-0.
- 民国少数民族将军(组图)2 - 360Doc个人图书馆
- Xiang, Lanxin (2014). The Origins of the Boxer War: A Multinational Study. Routledge. p. 263. Retrieved 2014-11-11.
- Leonhard, Robert R (2011). "The China Relief Expedition Joint Coalition Warfare in China Summer 1900" (PDF). The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. p. 12. Retrieved 31 October 2010.
- Cohen, Paul A. (1997). History in Three Keys: The Boxers as Event, Experience, and Myth (illustrated ed.). Columbia University Press. p. 48. ISBN 0231106505. Retrieved 2014-11-11.
- Harrington, Peter (2013). Peking 1900: The Boxer Rebellion (illustrated ed.). Osprey Publishing. p. 14. ISBN 1472803043. Retrieved 2014-11-11.
- Harrington, Peter (2013). Peking 1900: The Boxer Rebellion (illustrated ed.). Osprey Publishing. p. 16. ISBN 1472803043. Retrieved 2014-11-11.
- Boot, Max (2014). The Savage Wars Of Peace: Small Wars And The Rise Of American Power (revised ed.). Basic Books. ISBN 0465038662. Retrieved 2014-11-11.
- Robert B. Edgerton (1997). Warriors of the Rising Sun: A History of the Japanese Military. WW Norton & Co. p. 72. ISBN 0-393-04085-2. Retrieved 2010-11-28.
- 马福祥 (in Chinese), China LX Net.
- Arthur Henderson Smith (1901). China in Convulsion 2. FH Revell. p. 441. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- Сергей Леонидович Тихвинский (1983). Модерн хисторий оф Чина (in Russian). Progress Publishers. p. 397. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- 抗击八国联军的清军将领——马福禄 - 360Doc个人图书馆
- Lanxin, Xiang (2014). The Origins of the Boxer War: A Multinational Study. Routledge. p. 264. ISBN 1136865896.
- Davids, p. 107.
- Bacon, Admiral RH The Life of John Rushworth, Lord Jellicoe. London: Cassell, 1936, p. 108
- Davids, p. 83; Fleming p. 103
- Ralph L. Powell (8 December 2015). Rise of the Chinese Militray Power. Princeton University Press. pp. 117–. ISBN 978-1-4008-7884-0.
- Mersey (Viscount), Charles Clive Bigham (1901). A Year in China, 1899-1900. Macmillan and Company, limited. p. 177. Retrieved 1 April 2013.
- Publication, Issue 33. United States. Adjutant-General's Office. Military Information Division. U.S. Government Printing Office. 1901. p. 528. Retrieved 1 April 2013.
- Slocum, Stephan L'H.; Reichmann, Car; Chaffee, Adna Romanza (1901). Reports on Military Operations in South Africa and China. Volume 33 of War Department, Adjutant General's Office. Contributor United States. Adjutant-General's Office. Military Information Division. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 528. Retrieved 1 April 2013.
- The Naval Annual. J. Griffin. 1901. p. 206. Retrieved 1 April 2013.