Battle of Lodi

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Battle of Lodi
Part of the Italian campaigns in the War of the First Coalition

General Bonaparte gives his orders, in The Battle of Lodi, by Louis-François, Baron Lejeune
Date10 May 1796
Lodi, present-day Italy
45°19′00″N 9°30′00″E / 45.3167°N 9.5000°E / 45.3167; 9.5000
Result French victory
French First Republic French Republic Habsburg monarchy Habsburg monarchy
Commanders and leaders
  • 15,500 infantry
  • 2,000 cavalry
  • 30 guns
  • 9,500
  • 14 guns[1]
Casualties and losses
  • 335 killed or wounded
  • 1,700 captured
  • 16 guns[3]
Battle of Lodi is located in Northern Italy
Battle of Lodi
Location within Northern Italy
Battle of Lodi is located in Europe
Battle of Lodi
Battle of Lodi (Europe)
About OpenStreetMaps
Maps: terms of use
Battle of Tarvis (1797) from 21 to 23 March 1797
Battle of Valvasone (1797) on 16 March 1797
Siege of Mantua (1796–1797) from 27 August 1796 to 2 February 1797
Battle of Rivoli from 14 to 15 January 1797
Battle of Arcole from 15 to 17 November 1796
Battle of Caldiero (1796) on 12 November 1796
Battle of Bassano on 8 September 1796 Second Battle of Bassano on 6 November 1796
Battle of Rovereto on 4 September 1796
Battle of Castiglione on 5 August 1796
Battle of Lonato from 3 to 4 August 1796
Battle of Borghetto on 30 May 1796
Battle of Fombio from 7 to 9 May 1796
Montenotte campaign from 10 to 28 April 1796
Second Battle of Saorgio (1794) from 24 to 28 April 1794
  current battle
  Napoleon as subordinate
  Napoleon in command

The Battle of Lodi was fought on 10 May 1796 between French forces under Napoleon Bonaparte and an Austrian rear guard led by Karl Philipp Sebottendorf at Lodi, Lombardy. The rear guard was defeated, but the main body of Johann Peter Beaulieu's Austrian Army had time to retreat.

Order of battle[edit]

French Army[edit]

French Army: General Napoleon Bonaparte (15,500 infantry, 2,000 cavalry)[4]

Austrian Army[edit]

Austrian-Neapolitan Army: Beaulieu (not present)

  • Division: Feldmarschall-Leutnant Karl Philipp Sebottendorf (6,577 not including Nicoletti and Naples detachments)[6]
    • Rear Guard: General-Major Josef Philipp Vukassovich
    • Lodi Covering Force: General-Major Gerhard Rosselmini
      • 1 battalion Nádasdy Infantry Regiment # 39 (623)
      • 2 squadrons Mészáros Uhlan Regiment # 1 (286)
    • First Line:
      • 2 battalions Carlstädter Grenz IR (from rear guard)
      • 1 battalion Warasdiner Grenz IR (1,262)
      • 1 battalion Nádasdy Infantry Regiment # 39 (from covering force)
      • 14 cannon
    • Second Line:
      • 3 battalions Terzi Infantry Regiment # 16 (1,212)
      • 1 battalion Belgiojoso Infantry Regiment # 44 (311)
      • 1 battalion Thurn Infantry Regiment # 43 (622)
      • 4 squadrons Archduke Joseph Hussars # 2
      • 2 squadrons Mészáros Uhlan Regiment # 1 (from covering force)
    • Detached to Corte Palasio: GM Franz Nicoletti (1,958)
      • 2 battalions Strassoldo Infantry Regiment # 27
      • 1 battalion Tuscany IR # 23
      • 2 squadrons Erdödy Hussars # 9
    • Detached to Fontana: (1,092)


Map of the Battle
The French passing the bridge, (Musée de la Révolution française).
After seizing the bridge over the Adda, the French defeated the Austrians and proceeded to occupy Milan

The French advance guard caught up with Josef Vukassovich's Austrian rear-guard at about 9 am on 10 May and after a clash followed them towards Lodi. Vukassovich was soon relieved by Gerhard Rosselmini's covering force near the town. The town's defences were not strong, the defenders were few, and the French were able to get inside and make their way towards the bridge. The span was defended from the far bank by nine battalions of infantry arrayed in two lines and fourteen guns. The Austrian general in command at Lodi, Sebottendorf, also had four squadrons of Neapolitan cavalry at his disposal, giving him a total of 6,577 men, who were mostly completely exhausted after a hasty forced march. Sebottendorf decided that it was inadvisable to retire in daylight, and opted to defend the crossing until nightfall.[7]

According to French grenadier François Vigo-Roussillon, the Austrians had men attempting to destroy the bridge but the French stopped their efforts by bringing up guns to fire along its length.[8] It should have been fairly easy to prevent a French crossing because the bridge was wooden and could have been burnt.[9] The bridge was about 200 yards long and was simply constructed with wooden piles driven into the river bed every few yards with beams laid to form a roadway.[10]

The French advance guard was not strong enough to try to cross the bridge so several hours passed as additional French forces arrived. That afternoon, French artillery arrived and the heavy guns were positioned to fire across the river. With the heavy guns in place, a violent cannonade began to pound the Austrian positions across the river. It has been suggested that Bonaparte was personally involved in directing some of the guns and that his troops began to refer to him as le petit caporal (the little corporal) because of this. However, there is no contemporary evidence to back this up.[11]

After bombarding the Austrian positions for several hours, at about 6 pm the French prepared to attack. Marc Antoine de Beaumont's cavalry was sent to ford the river upstream while the 2nd battalion of carabiniers (elite light infantry) was readied inside the walls of the town for an assault onto the bridge itself. The carabiniers stormed out of the gates and onto the bridge. Vigo-Roussillon tells us that the enemy artillery fired one salvo when the troops were part-way across, causing numerous casualties, at which point the column wavered and stopped. It was then that a number of senior French officers, including André Masséna, Louis Berthier, Jean Lannes, Jean-Baptiste Cervoni, and Claude Dallemagne, rushed to the head of the column and led it forward again.[12] [13] (Some authorities suggest that the French retreated and attacked again, but an important Austrian source supports the thesis of a single attack.)[citation needed]

As the French column pushed forward over the bridge, some French carabiniers climbed down the bridge pilings and waded through the river firing as they went. The Austrian troops, already exhausted from hours of marching and fighting without food and presumably demoralised by the French cannonade, were likely concerned that the French cavalry was in position to cut them off from the main Austrian army. The Austrian morale collapsed as the carabiniers rushed towards them and a hasty retreat ensued. The remaining Austrian soldiers made the most of the gathering darkness to make their escape towards Crema though some units maintained a dogged rearguard action thus discouraging the French from pursuing too closely. Oberst Count Attems of Terzi Infantry Regiment # 16 was killed covering the successful, though costly withdrawal.[14]

Austrian losses were 21 officers, 5,200 men, and 235 horses killed, wounded, or captured. In addition, 12 cannons, 2 howitzers and 30 ammunition wagons were lost. The French suffered approximately 1,000 casualties.


The Battle of Lodi was not a decisive engagement since the bulk of the Austrian army managed to escape. Nevertheless, the engagement became a central element in the Napoleonic legend convincing even Napoleon himself that he was superior to other generals and that he was destined to achieve great things.[15]


  1. ^ Smith, p. 113. Smith lists strengths of both armies.
  2. ^ Chandler, p. 84
  3. ^ Chandler, p. 84
  4. ^ Smith, p. 113. Smith's order of battle incorrectly lists Serurier's division.
  5. ^ Chandler, pp. 252–253
  6. ^ Boycott-Brown, p. 310. This author gives the Austrian OOB in detail.
  7. ^ Boycott-Brown, pp. 310–311
  8. ^ Vigo-Roussillon, François (1981). Journal de campagne, 1793–1837 (in French). France-Empire.
  9. ^ "PBS – Napoleon: Napoleon at War". Retrieved 17 November 2021.
  10. ^ Jones, Stephanie; Gosling, Jonathan (2015). Napoleonic Leadership: A Study in Power. Sage. p. 41. ISBN 978-1-4739-2739-1.
  11. ^ Dwyer, Philip G. (1 December 2004). "Napoleon Bonaparte as Hero and Saviour: Image, Rhetoric and Behaviour in the Construction of a Legend". French History. 18 (4): 379–403. doi:10.1093/fh/18.4.379. ISSN 0269-1191.
  12. ^ Vigo-Roussillon, François (1981). Journal de campagne, 1793–1837 (in French). France-Empire.
  13. ^ Boycott-Brown, p. 314
  14. ^ Boycott-Brown, pp. 314–315
  15. ^ Philip G. Dwyer, "Napoleon Bonaparte as Hero and Saviour: Image, Rhetoric and Behaviour in the Construction of a Legend", French History, 28 (2004), 379–403 [382]


  • Agnelli, G. "La battaglia al ponte di Lodi e l’inizio della settimana napoleonica lodigiana". Archivio storico lombardo, no. 60 (1933): 1–73.
  • Boycott-Brown, M. The Road to Rivoli: Napoleon's First Campaign. London: Cassell, 2001.
  • Chandler, David. Dictionary of the Napoleonic Wars. New York: Macmillan, 1979. ISBN 0-02-523670-9.
  • Chandler, David. The Campaigns of Napoleon. Scribner, 2009. ISBN 9781439131039.
  • Schels, J. B. "Die Kriegsereignisse in Italien vom 15 April bis 16 Mai 1796, mit dem Gefechte bei Lodi". Oesterreichische Militärische Zeitschrift Bd. 2; Bd. 4 (1825): 57–97, 195–231, 267–268.
  • Smith, Digby. The Napoleonic Wars Data Book. London: Greenhill, 1998. ISBN 1-85367-276-9.
  • Vigo-Roussillon, F. Journal de campagne (1793–1837). Paris, 1981.

External links[edit]