Battle of Medina Ridge

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Battle of Medina Ridge
Part of the Persian Gulf War
Abrams in formation.jpg
M1 Abrams tanks moving in formation during the Persian Gulf War
Date February 27, 1991
Location Southwest of Basra, Iraq
30°10′27″N 46°56′6″E / 30.17417°N 46.93500°E / 30.17417; 46.93500Coordinates: 30°10′27″N 46°56′6″E / 30.17417°N 46.93500°E / 30.17417; 46.93500
Result American victory
Belligerents
 United States Iraq
Commanders and leaders
United StatesGen.Norman Schwarzkopf, Jr.
Gen.Frederick M. Franks, Jr.
United States Ron Griffith
United States Montgomery Meigs
United States Edward Dyer
United StatesColonel Hatch
United StatesColonel James Riley
United States Lt. Col. John Ward
General Ayad Futayih al-Rawi[1]
Units involved
1st Armored Division[2]
3rd Brigade, 3rd Infantry Division[3]
75th Field Artillery Brigade[4]
Battery B, 25th Field Artillery[5]
3rd Battalion, 1st Aviation[6]
2nd Battalion, 1st Aviation[7]
2nd Brigade of Medina Luminous Division[8]
Adnan Motorized Division[9]
Tawakalna Republican Guard Division[10]
52nd Armored Division
17th Infantry Division[10]
Casualties and losses
Light casualties
2 killed
33 wounded
4 tanks destroyed/damaged
2 Bradley IFVs
1 ambulance
1 HEMTT fueler
2 Apache helicopters shot down
4 Humvees destroyed[11]
1 A-10 aircraft shot down[12][10]
Heavy casualties
839 soldiers captured
186 tanks destroyed
127 IFVs destroyed
72 artillery pieces destroyed[13]
118 trucks destroyed
5 air defense systems destroyed[14]

The Battle of Medina Ridge was a tank battle fought on February 27, 1991, during the Gulf War, between the U.S. 1st Armored Division and the 2nd Brigade of the Iraqi Republican Guard Medina Luminous Division outside Basra, Iraq.[15] The U.S. 3rd Brigade, 3rd Infantry Division was also a major contributor.[16] Iraq's Adnan Motorized Division was also a participant.[17] Iraq's Medina Ridge is the name American troops gave to a low rise, approximately seven miles (11 km) long.

The battle, which was waged over approximately two hours, was the largest tank battle of the war and the largest tank battle in American history. It took place west of Phase Line Kiwi, east of Phase Line Smash, and north of Phase Line Grape. Phase lines are map references occurring every few kilometers used to measure progress of an offensive operation.

History[edit]

The 1st Armored Division, commanded by Major General Ron Griffith, consisted of some 3,000 vehicles including 348 M1A1 Abrams tanks. The 1st Armored Division's Cavalry Squadron—1-1 Cavalry—made contact with the Medina Division and informed the Division Commander of the location of the enemy forces. 1st Armored Division's 2nd Brigade (Comprising three battalions TF 4-70th Armor, TF 2-70th Armor and TF 1-35th Armor) saw major action in this battle and was commanded by Colonel Montgomery Meigs (a descendant of General Montgomery C. Meigs of Civil War fame) 3rd Brigade, 3rd Infantry Division, commanded by Colonel James Riley replaced 1st Armored Division's 1st Brigade for the duration of the war and was also heavily involved in the battle.[18]

Medina Ridge was one of the few battles during Desert Storm in which American forces encountered significant Iraqi resistance and found it extremely difficult to advance. The Iraqi forces were well-deployed such that they could not be seen by American forces advancing until after they had cleared the top of the ridgeline. This defilade (aka reverse slope) position was intended to give the Iraqis protection from the powerful long-range direct fire of the M1 Abrams tanks and the M2 Bradley infantry fighting vehicles.

During the battle the American forces destroyed 186 Iraqi tanks (mostly export model T-72Ms, Asad Babils and obsolete Type 69s) and 127 armored vehicles.[19] Only four Abrams tanks were hit by direct fire. Evidence suggests that some of them were hit by Iraqi T-72 fire.[20] Ballistics reports have further confirmed this as well as physical evidence such as obvious sabot holes.[20] All four were lost.[21] Thirty-eight of the Iraqi tanks were destroyed by U.S. Army AH-64 Apaches and U.S. Air Force A-10 Thunderbolt IIs. The 75th Field Artillery Brigade and Battery B, 25th Field Artillery, the division's target acquisition battery, conducted counterartillery fire missions and destroyed two Medina Field Artillery battalions in the process.[22] The 2nd Battalion, 1st Field Artillery Regiment also eventually participated in these counterbattery missions.[23]

On 25 February, the 3rd Brigade, 3rd Infantry Division conducted a 113km movement to contact to destroy elements of the 26th Infantry Division resulting in the capture of 299 Prisoners of War. On February 26, the 3rd Brigade was ordered to attack east to gain contact with and destroy the Iraqi Republican Guard Forces Command in zone. The 3d Brigade began an aggressive and continuous movement to contact which covered 74km in 12 hours, while fighting multiple engagements throughout the day and night with elements of the 52nd Armored Division, 17th, Adnan, and Tawakalna Divisions. During one engagement with the Tawakalna Division the Brigade destroyed 27 Soviet T-72 tanks which had established a hasty defense to cover the Iraqi forces withdrawing from the Kuwaiti Theater of Operation.[10]

As the heaviest Armor Brigade, consisting of the 6th Battalion, 6th Infantry; the 1st Battalion, 35th Armor; the 2d Battalion, 70th Armor; the 4th Battalion, 70th Armor; the 2d Battalion, 1st Field Artillery and the 47th Support Battalion (Forward), the 2d Brigade, 1st Armored Division acted as the lead brigade during combat operations.[10] On 27 February, the 2nd Brigade was fully engaged with the Medina's 2nd Brigade and, in the largest single engagement of the war, destroyed 61 Iraqi T-72/T-55 tanks, 34 APCs and five SA13 air defense systems in less than one hour.[24]

On 27 February, the 3d Brigade, 3rd Infantry Division was ordered to transition to pursuit operations to establish contact with and destroy the RGFC forces in zone. As the Brigade attacked and fought through the Adnan Division, securing a RGFC major logistics base, it captured 465 POWs and made contact with the Medina Armored Division, which was augmented by elements of four other Iraqi divisions. A fierce battle ensued culminating in the destruction of 82 tanks, 31 Armored Personnel Carriers, 11 artillery pieces, 48 trucks, 3 AAA guns and captured 72 POWs with the loss of only 2 Bradley Cavalry vehicles, 30 soldiers WIA and 1 soldier KIA.[10]

While conducting offensive operations against the Iraqi Republican Guard Forces Command. The 3rd Brigade, 1st Armored Division fought on the Division's right flank as it led the VII Corps main attack against the RGFC. Completing the destruction of the RGFC Brigade, the 3rd Brigade rejoined the Division transitioned to pursuit operations and continued its attack eastward. Executing an aggressive and continuous movement, the 3rd Brigade fought numerous engagements. The Brigade made contact with a tank battalion defending the western flank of a RGFC's major logistics base. The 3rd Brigade, 1st Armored Division raced eastward at a rate of 15 kilometers per hour. In 24 hours of nearly continuous combat, the 3rd Brigade destroyed or captured 547 vehicles, including 102 tanks, 81 armored personnel carriers, 34 artillery pieces, 15 AAA guns and captured hundreds of tons of supplies and 528 POWs. The 3rd Brigade completed this exemplary action without the loss of a single soldier or vehicle and only three soldiers WIA.[10]

1st Armored Division's aviation assets conducted thirty-nine straight hours of continuous combat operations, rotating companies into and out of the battle prior to and after the actions at Medina Ridge. Attack helicopters maintained a steady destructive presence in front of the Division, engaging targets of opportunity and rapidly shifting their focus and combat power as the scenario required. The Brigade's final battle commenced when the Division raced to clear its zone of advance to the Kuwaiti border prior to the impending cease-fire.[10]

Although the Iraqis used a correct defensive tactic by deploying their armor behind the ridge, this was not properly repeated through the rest of the war. In one incident, an Iraqi commander attempted to repeat what had been done at Medina but mistakenly deployed his armor too far from the ridgeline.[25] This gave the American units the upper hand, as the Abrams tanks specialize in long-distance kills; their Chobham armor is extremely resistant to long-range fire. The American height advantage also reduced the effective range of the Iraqi tanks and presented the Iraqi gunners with a targeting situation for which they were under-trained.[26]

Nevertheless, the Iraqis had fought hard, shooting down an A-10 Thunderbolt II,[27]and two AH-64 Apache helicopters and causing much confusion among the attackers that forced the US commander to order all his armored battalions to withdraw to a safe distance towards the end of the fighting.

Most of the units belonging to the 1st Armored Division and the 3rd Brigade, 3rd Infantry Division were awarded Valorous Unit Award Citations.[10]

In early April 1991, Colonel Montgomery Meigs, the commander of the 2nd Brigade of the 1st Armored Division, paid his respects to his former enemy's Medina Division reporting that, "These guys stayed and fought."[28] The same newspaper articles notes that, "The Americans had more than 100 battle tanks on hand, about the same as the total number of tanks in the Iraqi force. But the Americans had some noteworthy advantages over the Iraqis like attack helicopters and A-10 anti-tanks planes. The Iraqis had no support aircraft."[29]

Task Force 1-37[edit]

In a short six-month period during 1990 and 1991, the 1st Battalion, 37th Armor, was alerted for deployment to Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm, deployed all of its personnel and equipment over 3,000 miles (4,800 km) from an already forward deployed location, fought a major battle against a well equipped enemy over terrain they had never trained on and then redeployed the unit to its home station.

The 1st Battalion 37th Armor (1st Armored Division) from Rose Barracks, Vilseck, Germany, commanded by LTC Edward L. Dyer, was alerted for deployment to the Persian Gulf on 8 November 1990. 1–37 Armor was the first brigade unit from Vilseck to deploy. 1–37 Armor was attached to the 3rd "Bulldog" Brigade from Warner Barracks in Bamberg, Germany, under their former commander, Colonel Daniel Zannini. A small advance party deployed on 14 December and the main body began departing on 26 December. By 30 December, the battalion had arrived in Saudi Arabia. Vehicles and equipment which had been shipped from ports in Europe began to arrive on 4 January and by 12 January all the equipment had arrived. When hostilities commenced on 15 January 1991, the battalion was in the process of closing the last elements into TAA Thompson. The next month was spent task organizing, training, rehearsing, and preparing for the ground war.

On 24 February, Task Force 1–37 crossed the line of departure as part of VII Corps' attack against Iraqi forces. On 25 February, the battalion attacked and seized the division headquarters of the Iraqi 26th Infantry Division destroying four armored vehicles, eight air defense weapons and captured over forty Enemy Prisoners of War (EPW). After attacking all day on 26 February, TF 1–37, part of 3rd Brigade, 1st Armored Division, made contact with a brigade of the Tawakalna Armored Division of the Republican Guard Forces Command (RGFC) which had established a defensive position to protect the flank of the RGFC and facilitate their escape from Kuwait. After a thirty-minute fire fight, TF 1–37 was ordered to assault the enemy position. The assault, conducted at night, in driving rain, resulted in the destruction of twenty-six T-72 tanks, 47 armored personnel carriers (mostly BMP's) and a handful of other vehicles, as well as the capture of over one hundred EPWs. TF 1–37 suffered the loss of four M1A1 tanks destroyed and six personnel wounded in action. After consolidation and reorganization, the task force continued the attack throughout the night of 26–27 February, reestablishing contact with the RGFC at approximately 0530, 27 February. The task force continued to attack, fighting numerous engagements with elements of multiple Iraqi divisions throughout the 27th and into the morning of the 28 February. At 0800 local time, 28 February, the task force established a hasty defensive position astride the Iraq-Kuwait border. During the last 28 hours of the attack, TF 1–37 destroyed an additional thirty-one tanks, thirty-one BMPs, numerous other APCs, air defense weapons and trucks, and captured over 200 EPWs.

Four days after the cease fire, TF 1–37 moved nine miles (14 km) further into Kuwait. Two missions were conducted to destroy additional enemy weapons, ammunition and equipment, bury enemy remains, and to recover the four M1A1's which had been destroyed on 26 February.

On 24 March, TF 1–37 moved back into Iraq and established a defensive position in the vicinity of the Rumayilah oil fields. For the next three weeks, task force missions centered on refugee assistance and security operations. On 10 April, TF 1–37 began movement to the Rear Assembly Area (RAA) in the vicinity of King Khalid Military City (KKMC), Saudi Arabia. By 13 April, the task force had closed into the RAA and preparations began for the redeployment of the unit to Germany.

On 16 August 1991 the 1st Brigade, 1st Armored Division was redesignated as the 3d Brigade, 3d Infantry Division.

2nd Brigade, 1st Armored Division Valorous Unit Award Citation[edit]

Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 2d Brigade, 1st Armored Division distinguished itself by gallantry in action from 26 to 28 February 1991, while conducting offensive operations against the Iraqi Republican Guard Forces Command during operation DESERT STORM. As the heaviest Armor Brigade, consisting of the 6th Battalion, 6th Infantry; the 1st Battalion, 35th Armor; the 2d Battalion, 70th Armor; the 4th Battalion, 70th Armor; the 2d Battalion, 1st Field Artillery and the 47th Support Battalion (Forward), the 2d Brigade led the first Division in the largest tank battle against the Republican Guard Forces Command. Throughout the entire operation, the 2d Brigade, 1st Armored Division, demonstrated tenacity, esprit de corps, and courageous professionalism. The actions of the 2d Brigade, 1st Armored Division were in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon themselves and the United States Army.[30]

2nd Brigade, 1st Armored Division Units Cited[edit]

  • HHC, 2nd Brigade, 1st Armored Division
  • 6th Battalion, 6th Infantry
  • 1st Battalion, 35th Armor
  • 2nd Battalion, 70th Armor
  • 2nd Battalion, 1st Field Artillery
  • 47th Support Battalion
  • 4th Battalion, 70th Armor[31]

3rd Brigade, 1st Armored Division Valorous Unit Award Citation[edit]

Headquarters and Headquarters 3d Brigade, 1st Armored division distinguished itself by gallantry in action from 24 to 28 February 1991, while conducting offensive operations against the Iraqi republican Guard Forces Command (RGFC) during Operation DESERT STORM. The Brigade fought on the Division's right flank as it led the VII Corps main attack against the RGFC. Completing the destruction of the RGFC Brigade, the 3d Brigade rejoined the Division transitioned to pursuit operations and continued its attack eastward. Executing an aggressive and continuous movement, the 3d Brigade fought numerous engagements. The Brigade made contact with a tank battalion defending the western flank of a RGFC's major logistics base. Attacking with all three Battalions on line, the enemy vaporized in front of the Brigade, ten armored vehicles destroyed in the first minute of the battle. The Brigade's relentless attack continued throughout the day and into the night as it raced eastward at a rate of 15 kilometers per hour. In 24 hours of nearly continuous combat, the Brigade destroyed or captured 547 vehicles, including 102 tanks, 81 armored personnel carriers, 34 artillery pieces, 15 AAA guns and captured hundreds of tons of supplies and 528 EPWs. The Brigade completed this exemplary action without the loss of a single soldier or vehicle and only three WIAs. Through their demonstrated courage, tenacity, esprit de corps and professionalism, Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 3d Brigade, 1st Armored Division actions reflect great credit upon themselves and the United States Army.[32]

3rd Brigade, 1st Armored Division Units Cited[edit]

  • HHC, 3d Brigade, 1st Armored Division
  • 1st Battalion, 37th Armor
  • 3d Battalion, 35th Armor
  • 7th Battalion, 6th Infantry
  • 3d Battalion, 1st Field Artillery
  • 125th Support Battalion[33]

3rd Brigade, 3rd Infantry Division Valorous Unit Award Citation[edit]

For exceptionally meritorious service as the Advanced Guard Brigade of the 1st Armored Division during offensive operations against the Iraqi Republican Guard Forces Command (RGFC) during Operation Desert Storm from 24 to 28 February 1991. As an attached Brigade consisting of 1/7th Infantry, 4/7th Infantry, 4/66th Armor, 1/1st Cavalry, 2/41st Field Artillery, 16th Engineer Battalion, and 26th Forward Support Battalion, the 3d Brigade led the 1st Armored Division and VII Corps main attack against the RGFC. On 25 February, the Brigade conducted a 113km movement to contact to destroy elements of the 26th Infantry Division resulting in the capture of 299 Enemy Prisoners of War (EPWs). On February 26, the Brigade was ordered to attack east to gain contact with and destroy the RGFC in zone. The 3d Brigade began an aggressive and continuous movement to contact which covered 74km in 12 hours, while fighting multiple engagements throughout the day and night with elements of the 52d, 17th, Adnan, and Tawakalna Divisions. During one engagement with the Tawakalna Division the Brigade destroyed 27 Soviet T-72s which had established a hasty defense to cover the Iraqi forces withdrawing from the Kuwaiti Theater of Operation. On 27 February, the 3d Brigade was ordered to transition to pursuit operations to establish contact with and destroy the RGFC forces in zone. As the Brigade attacked and fought through the Adnan Division, securing a RGFC major logistics base, it captured 465 EPWs and made contact with the Medina Armored Division, which was augmented by elements of four other Iraqi divisions. A fierce battle ensued culminating in the destruction of 82 tanks, 31 Armored Personnel Carriers, 11 artillery pieces, 48 trucks, 3 AAA guns and captured 72 EPWs with the loss of only 2 Bradley Cavalry vehicles, 30 WIAs and 1 KIA. Through their demonstrated tenacity, Esprit de Corps, and courageous professionalism, the units of the 3d Phantom Brigade have brought great credit upon themselves, the 3d Infantry Division and the United States Army.[34]

3rd Brigade, 3rd Infantry Division Units Cited[edit]

  • Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 3d Brigade, 3d Infantry Division
  • 1st Squadron, 1st Cavalry
  • 1st Battalion, 7th Infantry
  • 2d Battalion, 41st Field Artillery
  • 2 Platoon, 218th Military Police Company
  • 2d Platoon, 501 Military Police Company
  • 3d Platoon, Battery C, 6th Battalion, 3d Air Defense Artillery
  • 4th Battalion, 7th Infantry (Minus Company D)
  • 4th Battalion, 66th Armor
  • 26th Forward Support Battalion
  • Battery A, 6th Battalion, 3d Air Defense Artillery
  • Company A, 1st Battalion, 35th Armor
  • Company B, 16th Engineer Battalion
  • Company B, 141st Signal Battalion
  • Company B, 54th Engineer Battalion
  • Company D, 16th Engineer Battalion
  • Civil Affairs Team, 401st Civil Affairs Detachment
  • Counter Intelligence, Prisoner of War Team, 501st Military Intelligence Battalion
  • Ground Surveillance Reconnaissance, 501st Military Intelligence Battalion
  • Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Decontamination Platoon, 69th Chemical Battalion
  • Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Reconnaissance Platoon, 69th Chemical Battalion
  • HHC, 16th Engineer Battalion
  • Long Range Surveillance Detachment, 501st Military Intelligence Battalion[35]

Aviation Brigade, 1st Armored Division Valorous Unit Award Citation[edit]

Headquarters and Headquarters Company, Aviation Brigade, 1st Armored Division distinguished itself by gallantry in action against an armed enemy during Operation DESERT STORM from 23 to 28 February 1991. The Brigade conducted combat operations to ascertain enemy dispositions along the Division's zone of advance. The Brigade's aircraft conducted continuous flight operations as the Division's movement to contact accelerated into Iraq. Time and again the attack helicopters were employed against Iraqi armored elements forward of the Division's ground forces. The Brigade conducted thirty-nine straight hours of continuous combat operations, rotating companies into and out of the battle. Because of their integration into the Division's close fight, the destruction of the Medina and Adnan Divisions was assured. Attack helicopters maintained a steady destructive presence in front of the Division, engaging targets of opportunity and rapidly shifting their focus and combat power as the scenario required. The Brigade's final battle commenced when the Division raced to clear its zone of advance to the Kuwaiti border prior to the impending cease-fire. The Brigade completed its combat operations without suffering the loss of any aircraft, vehicles or personnel. Through their expertise, tenacity, and courage, Headquarters and Headquarters Company, Aviation Brigade, 1st Armored Division actions reflect great credit upon themselves and the United States Army.[36]

Aviation Brigade, 1st Armored Division Units Cited[edit]

  • HHC, Aviation Brigade, 1st Armored Division
  • 2d Battalion, 1st Aviation
  • 3d Battalion, 1st Aviation
  • Company I, 1st Aviation[37]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jayhawk! The VII Corps in the Persian Gulf War by Bourque P.351
  2. ^ Jayhawk! The VII Corps in the Persian Gulf War by Bourque, p.355
  3. ^ Jayhawk! The VII Corps in the Persian Gulf War by Bourque, p.27
  4. ^ Jayhawk! The VII Corps in the Persian Gulf War by Bourque P.351
  5. ^ Jayhawk! The VII Corps in the Persian Gulf War by Bourque P.352
  6. ^ Jayhawk! The VII Corps in the Persian Gulf War by Bourque P.352
  7. ^ Jayhawk! The VII Corps in the Persian Gulf War by Bourque P.353
  8. ^ Jayhawk! The VII Corps in the Persian Gulf War by Bourque, p.355
  9. ^ Jayhawk! The VII Corps in the Persian Gulf War by Bourque P.350
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i Desert Storm/Shield Valorous Unit Award Citations
  11. ^ Carhart, Tom (1994). Iron Soldiers: How America's 1st Armored Division Crushed Iraq's Elite Republican Guard. New York: Random House. p.323 ISBN 0671791656
  12. ^ The U.S. Army in the Gulf War, Robert H. Scales, p. 298, Potomac Books, Inc, 1998
  13. ^ Scales P.299
  14. ^ Carhart, Tom (1994). Iron Soldiers: How America's 1st Armored Division Crushed Iraq's Elite Republican Guard. New York: Random House. pp.119–204 ISBN 0671791656
  15. ^ Bourque, p.355
  16. ^ Jayhawk! The VII Corps in the Persian Gulf War by Bourque, p.27
  17. ^ Jayhawk! The VII Corps in the Persian Gulf War by Bourque P.350
  18. ^ Jayhawk! The VII Corps in the Persian Gulf War by Bourque, p.27
  19. ^ Carhart, Tom (1994). Iron Soldiers: How America's 1st Armored Division Crushed Iraq's Elite Republican Guard. New York: Random House. pp. 119–204. ISBN 0671791656
  20. ^ a b George Forty cites an M1A1 tank platoon leader from TF 1-37: "Speculation continues concerning what knocked out our four tanks. The three most probable answers are T-72 main gun, dismounted anti-tank missile, or Apache launched Hellfire missile. The fact that Apaches were operating to our rear and witnesses' reports of high round trajectory support the friendly fire theory. However, ballistics reports suggest that 125 mm HEAT rounds produced the damage on some of the tanks. Visual examination of others reveals one obvious sabot hole. Overall, the physical evidence implies that T-72 fire took out our tanks, but the friendly fire possibility cannot be excluded."
  21. ^ Carhart, Tom (1994). Iron Soldiers: How America's 1st Armored Division Crushed Iraq's Elite Republican Guard. New York: Random House. p.323 ISBN 0671791656
  22. ^ Jayhawk! The VII Corps in the Persian Gulf War by Bourque, p.352
  23. ^ Jayhawk! The VII Corps in the Persian Gulf War by Bourque, p.356
  24. ^ Carhart, Tom (1994). Iron Soldiers: How America's 1st Armored Division Crushed Iraq's Elite Republican Guard. New York: Random House.ISBN 0671791656.
  25. ^ Jayhawk! The VII Corps in the Persian Gulf War by Bourque, p.355
  26. ^ Jayhawk! The VII Corps in the Persian Gulf War by Bourque, p.355
  27. ^ "The Iraqis had skillfully dug in and camouflaged their firing line and placed a formidable protective ring of antiaircraft guns around it. One ZSU-23-4 managed to shoot down an American A-10 aircraft." Certain Victory: The U.S. Army in the Gulf War, Robert H. Scales, p. 298, Potomac Books, Inc, 1998
  28. ^ US troops remember Medina Ridge
  29. ^ US troops remember Medina Ridge
  30. ^ VUA Citation DA GO-1994-12
  31. ^ VUA Citation DA GO-1994-12
  32. ^ VUA Citation DA GO-1994-12
  33. ^ VUA Citation DA GO-1994-12
  34. ^ VUA Citation DA GO-1994-27
  35. ^ VUA Citation DA GO-1994-27
  36. ^ VUA Citation-DA GO 1994-12
  37. ^ VUA Citation-DA GO 1994-12

Further reading[edit]

  • A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East. 2. p. 2609. 
  • "Desert Storm/Shield Valorous Unit Award Citations". US Army Center of Military History. Retrieved 26 December 2014. 
  • Bourque, Stephen A. (2001). JAYHAWK!: The VII Corps in the Persian Gulf War. Center of Military History, United States Army. LCCN 2001028533. OCLC 51313637. 
  • Donnelly, Thomas (1996). Clash of chariots: the great tank battles. Berkley. ISBN 042515307X. OCLC 34515692. 
  • Carhart, Tom (1994). Iron Soldiers: How America's 1st Armored Division Crushed Iraq's Elite Republican Guard. New York: Random House.ISBN 0671791656.

External links[edit]