Battle of Monte Grappa
|Battle of Monte Grappa (1917–1918)|
|Part of the Italian Front of the First World War|
German Empire(1917 only)
|Kingdom of Italy|
|Commanders and leaders|
|Archduke Eugen of Austria (1st)
Arz von Straußenburg (2nd and 3rd)
|120,000 in the first battle and 43,000 in the third battle||51,000 in the first battle and 134,000 in the third battle|
|Casualties and losses|
|21,000 during the first battle, 34,000 during the third battle||12,000 during the first battle, 17,000 during the third battle|
The Battle of Monte Grappa was a series of 3 battles which were fought during World War I between the armies of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Kingdom of Italy for control of the Monte Grappa massif, as it covered the left flank of the Italian Piave front.
The first of these battles became the most famous as it brought the Austrian summer offensive of 1917 to a halt. The Italian Chief of the general staff general Luigi Cadorna had ordered to construct fortified defenses on the Monte Grappa summit to make the mountain an impregnable fortress. When the Austrian summer offensive of 1917 routed the Italians, Cadorna's foresight saved Italy from total defeat, as the Austrians, with help from the German Army's Alpenkorps failed to take the mountains summit during the first battle of Monte Grappa from November 11, 1917 to December 23, 1917. Thus, the Italian front along the Piave river was stabilized and, although the Austrians could see Venice from their positions, they would never reach it.
The third battle of Monte Grappa started on October 24, 1918, as part of the final Italian offensive of the war, when 9 Italian divisions attacked the Austrian positions on Monte Grappa. The Austrians answered by increasing their forces on the mountain from 9 to 15 divisions and thus committing all remaining reserves. But the worn down Austrian Army began a general retreat on October 28, when Czechoslovakia declared independence from Austria-Hungary.
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