Battle of Zornoza
|Battle of Zornoza|
|Part of the Peninsular War|
Campaña militar de las tropas napoleónicas en España durante la primera etapa de la Guerra de la Independencia
|Commanders and leaders|
|François Joseph Lefebvre||Joaquín Blake|
|Casualties and losses|
The Battle of Zornoza fought on 31 October 1808, was one of the opening engagements in Napoleon's invasion of Spain. The battle was intended to encircle and crush the left wing of the Spanish front. The Spanish infantry was swiftly thrown back but escaped in good order.
The Dos de Mayo Uprising had put Iberia in revolt against French rule. The Spanish conventional warfare had started at El Bruch. The British intervention had started Roliça. Napoleon's invasion of Spain started with the engagement of Joaquín Blake's forces at Zornoza.
Under his guidance, the French had made meticulous preparations to annihilate Blake's position and thereby crush the left wing of the Spanish front that stretched from Cantabria to the Mediterranean Sea. Owing to friction with the Spanish authorities and a lack of coordination by the Central Junta, Blake, for his part, had no confidence in the Spanish deployment and could do little but conduct a cautious advance in the direction of Bilbao.
Lefebvre's IV Corps included three infantry divisions and 36 cannon. Major-General Horace Sébastiani's 1st Division contained the 28th Light and 75th Line (3 battalions) and the 32nd and 58th Line (2 bns.). Maj-Gen Leval's 2nd Division was made up of the Dutch brigade and 2 bns. each of the 2nd Nassau, 4th Baden and Hesse-Darmstadt Gross-und-Erbprinz Regiments, and the Paris National Guard and Frankfurt battalions. Maj-Gen Eugene-Casimir Villatte's 3rd Division included 3 bns. each of the 27th Light, 63rd, 94th and 95th Line.
Blake's Army of Galicia contained three infantry divisions, a vanguard and a reserve. General Figueroa commanded the 1st Division (4,000), Gen Riquelme the 3rd Division (4,800), Gen Carbajal the 4th Division (3,500), Gen Mendizabal (2,900) the Vanguard and Gen Mahy the Reserve (3,000). Only six of Blake's guns came into action.
On October 31, 1808, Marshal François Lefebvre bloodied the Army of Galicia under Lieutenant General Joaquín Blake but failed to encircle or destroy it, upsetting both the Emperor and the French strategic situation. Lefebvre had disobeyed Napoleon's orders and launched his IV Corps into a premature attack against Blake. Blake was deeply disturbed by the appearance of French forces and took immediate measures to withdraw his troops and guns. The Spanish infantry, fighting without artillery support, was swiftly thrown back but escaped in good order.
Lefebvre lost 200 casualties and Blake 600. Although the French had managed something of a tactical victory, the battle was a definite strategic blunder: Blake escaped the French trap and conducted a crafty withdrawal, checked his pursuers at Valmaseda, and was not caught until November 10. Ultimately, however, the overwhelming strength of Napoleon's Grande Armée allowed the French to sweep past the tottering Spanish defences and capture Madrid by year's end.
- Bodart, Gaston (1908). Militär-historisches Kriegs-Lexikon (1618-1905) [Military-Historical War Lexicon (1618-1905)] (in German). Vienna: C. W. Stern. Retrieved 16 May 2021.
- Chandler, David (1966). The Campaigns of Napoleon. Retrieved 16 May 2021.
- Lipscombe, Colonel Nick (2014). The Peninsular War Atlas. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978 1 4728 0773 1.
- Rickard, J. "Battle of Zornoza, 31 October 1808". Military History Encyclopedia on the Web. Retrieved 1 August 2021.
- Smith, Digby (1998). The Napoleonic Wars Data Book. London: Greenhill. ISBN 1-85367-276-9.
- Media related to Battle of Zornoza at Wikimedia Commons
Battle of Vimeiro
Battle of Zornoza
Battle of Valmaseda