Battle of Patan

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Battle of Patan
Date20 June 1790
Location
Result Decisive Gwalior victory, Scindia's gained significant influence and prestige in the Maratha court.
Belligerents
Kingdom of Gwalior Kingdom of Jaipur
Kingdom of Jodhpur
Army of Ismail Baig
Commanders and leaders
General de Boigne
Gopal Bhau
Ismail Baig
Shovram Bhandari
Shahmal
Sukhlal Haldia
Raja Sampat Singh Tanwar

The Battle of Patan was fought on 20 June 1790 between the Kingdom of Gwalior and the alliance formed by the Kingdom of Jaipur which resulted in a decisive Gwalior victory.

Stakeholders[edit]

The forces of the alliance had 12000 Rathore cavalry, 6000 Kachwaha cavalry, 7000 Mughal Cavalry and 30000 men on foot with 129 Pieces of Artillery.[1]

Ambush by the Maratha's[edit]

At dusk, Rajputs and their Muslim allies, retired to their respective camps. The Maratha army however held its positions at the mouth of the pass. The real battle however precipitated in the evening by an unforeseen skirmish. Some Maratha Pindaris from the left wing of Maratha lines, managed to seize animals that were a part of Ismail Beg's contingent. This inevitably led to a small skirmish with Ismail Beg's men. General de Boigne then directed his guns on Ismail Beg's contingent.[2] Caught on unaware, the murderous fire of Maratha guns proved to be deadly. Gopal Bhau and de Boigne, sensing victory, went for the kill. Marathas descended upon enemy camps. Taken aback by the suddenness and the ferocity of the Maratha attack, Rajput resistance capitulated, many were slaughtered in their sleep while others were too intoxicated to fight. The Jaipur Nagas held on to their positions before finally being overwhelmed at around 9 pm in the night.

The victory at Patan destroyed the armies of the two most powerful Rajput kingdoms of India and forced them to pay heavy tributes to the Scindia's. Ismail begs army was also reduced to a few hundred men and was forced to flee. This victory also showed the whole subcontinent that Maratha power had not faded after Panipat and helped consolidate Maratha rule in northern India.

The aftermath[edit]

Pitted against European armed and French trained Marathas, Rajput states capitulated one after the other. Marathas managed to conquer Ajmer and Malwa from Rajputs. Although Jaipur and Jodhpur remained unconquered. Battle of Patan, effectively ended Rajput hopes for independence from external interference. Sir Jadunath Sarkar notes:

From the day of Patan (20th June 1790) to the 2nd of April 1818 when Jaipur entered into protective subsidiary alliance with the British government, lay the gloomiest period in the history of Jaipur kingdom.

His victory increased Scindia's influence with the Peshwas (Maratha Prime Ministers) in Pune, the seat of Maratha government and firmly established Maratha influence in Rajputana.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Herbert Compton, A particular account of the European military adventurers of Hindustan, page 54
  2. ^ Herbert Compton, A particular account of the European military adventurers of Hindustan, page 60

Sources[edit]

  • Sir Jadunath Sarkar (1994). A History of Jaipur 1503-1938. Orient Longman. ISBN 8-1250-0333-9.
  • H.G Kenne. The Fall of Mughal Empire of Hindustan. Champaign, Ill. : Project Gutenberg ; Boulder, Colo. : NetLibrary, [199-?]. ISBN 0-5850-1593-7.