Battle of Pine Bluff

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Battle of Pine Bluff
Action at Pine Bluff
Date October 25, 1863
Location Pine Bluff, Arkansas
34°13′46.4″N 92°00′12.4″W / 34.229556°N 92.003444°W / 34.229556; -92.003444
Result Union victory
Belligerents
 United States  Confederate States
Commanders and leaders
United States Col. Powell Clayton Confederate States of America Brig. Gen. John S. Marmaduke
Units involved
Post of Pine Bluff Marmaduke's Division
Strength
550 cavalry and militia,
300 freedmen,
9 guns
2,000 cavalry,
12 guns
Casualties and losses
16 dead and 40 wounded or missing 41 dead, wounded or missing
Pine Bluff is located in Arkansas
Pine Bluff
Pine Bluff
Location within the state of Arkansas
Pine Bluff is located in the US
Pine Bluff
Pine Bluff
Pine Bluff (the US)

The Battle of Pine Bluff (also known as the Action at Pine Bluff) was a battle of the American Civil War. The battle was fought on October 25, 1863, in Pine Bluff, Arkansas, near the county courthouse, where the U.S. garrison under the command of Colonel Powell Clayton successfully defended the town against attacks led by Confederate Brigadier-General John S. Marmaduke. The Union victory ensured the safety of the garrison until the end of the war.[1]

Background[edit]

After the capture of Little Rock, Arkansas, U.S. forces occupied several towns along the Arkansas River. Confederate Brig. Gen. Marmaduke decided to test their strength at Pine Bluff, Arkansas. On October 25, 1863, he attacked the Post of Pine Bluff, a U.S. cavalry brigade commanded by Col. Powell Clayton.[1]

Battle[edit]

Map of Pine Bluff Battlefield core and study areas by the American Battlefield Protection Program.

At 8:00 a.m., Gen. Marmaduke's 2,000 cavalry approached the town from three sides. The 550 Federal cavalrymen and Missouri militia, supported by 300 freedmen, barricaded the courthouse square with cotton-bales and positioned the cannon to command the adjacent streets. Marmaduke's Division made several attacks upon the square, then attempted to set the county courthouse on fire. They were unsuccessful and withdrew to Princeton, Arkansas.[1][2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c The Conservation Fund (1998). Kennedy, Frances H., ed. The Civil War Battlefield Guide (2nd ed.). New York: Houghton Mifflin. p. 233. ISBN 0-395-74012-6. OCLC 917572471. OL 3494237W. 
  2. ^ Banasik, Michael E., ed. (2000). "Appendix F: The Battle of Pine Bluff (October 25, 1863)". Unwritten Chapters of the Civil War West of the River. Volume II: Reluctant Cannoneer: The Diary of Robert T. McMahan of the Twenty-fifth Independent Ohio Light Artillery. Iowa City, Iowa: Camp Pope Bookshop. pp. 309–314. ISBN 1-929919-01-8. LCCN 00-105377. OCLC 45105391. OL 6798910M. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Christ, Mark K. (2010). "Chapter 7: "The Federals Fought Like Devils": The Battle of Pine Bluff". In Urwin, Gregory J. W. Civil War Arkansas, 1863: The Battle for a State. Campaigns & Commanders. 23. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 224–244. ISBN 978-0-8061-4087-2. LCCN 2009017622. OCLC 320352031. OL 23218465M. 
  • Watts, J. Carter (n.d.). Battle of Pine Bluff, October 25, 1863. Pine Bluff: Jefferson County Historical Museum. 

External links[edit]