Battle of Plum Creek
|Battle of Plum Creek|
|Part of the Indian Wars|
|Texas Rangers Militia||Comanche all bands|
|Commanders and leaders|
|Buffalo Hump but effective control of the war party had broken down|
|Approximately 200||Unknown, but the best guesses are 1000 in the war party, including women and children|
|Casualties and losses|
|At least 30 killed at Victoria and Linnville, and 11 at Plum Creek||Unknown; 12 bodies recovered, Texans claimed 87 killed at Plum Creek|
The Battle of Plum Creek was a clash between allied Tonkawa, militia, and Rangers of the Republic of Texas and a huge Comanche war party under Chief Buffalo Hump, which took place near Lockhart, Texas, on August 12, 1840, following the Great Raid of 1840 as the Comanche war party returned to west Texas.
Following the Council House Fight of 1840 a group of Comanches led by the Penateka Comanche War Chief Buffalo Hump, warriors from his own band plus allies from various other Comanche bands, raided from West Texas all the way to the coast and the sea. These Comanches were angered by the events of the Council House, in which Texans had killed the Comanche Chiefs when the Texans had raised a white flag of truce.
The Council House Fight
- Main article Council House Fight.
The Texan officials began the treaty talks with demands that the Comanche considered impossible, such as the Comanche return of all white captives, including the famous captive Cynthia Parker. Other white captives were with bands of the Comanche not represented at the talks. As a show of "good faith" the Comanche chiefs brought in one captive, a severely mutilated adolescent girl named Matilda Lockhart (this fact is conspicuously missing in primary sources). The Comanches had burned off her nose with hot coals. The Texans thought they were going against their word, because the Comanche chiefs did not return all of the white captives and figured they held back some of their white captives to guarantee their own safety. The Texas militiamen told the chiefs it was they that would indeed be held hostage to guarantee the release of their other white captives. The chiefs quickly realized their gross miscalculation. Everyone panicked and drew their weapons. The militia began firing and the Comanches were killed.
The Great Raid of 1840
- Main article Great Raid of 1840.
But Buffalo Hump was determined to do more than merely complain about what the Comanches viewed as a bitter betrayal. Spreading word to the other bands of Comanches that he was raiding the white settlements in revenge, Buffalo Hump led the Great Raid of 1840. On this raid the Comanches went all the way from beyond the Edwards Plateau in West Texas to the cities of Victoria and Linnville on the Texas coast. In what may have been the largest organized raid by the Comanches to that point on Texas settlements, or an attack by Indians on any white city in the continental United States, they raided and burned these towns, plundering at will. Linnville was the second largest port in Texas at that time. On the way back from the sea the Comanches were confronted by Texas rangers and militia in a fight called the Battle of Plum Creek (near the modern town of Lockhart).
The Battle of Plum Creek
The "battle" was really more of a running gun fight, as the Comanche War Party was trying to get back to the Llano Estacado with a huge herd of horses and mules they had stolen, a large number of firearms, and other plunder such as mirrors, liquor, and cloth. Volunteers from Gonzales under Mathew Caldwell and from Bastrop under Ed Burleson gathered to intercept the Comanches. Joined by Ranger companies and armed settlers hastily assembled as militia from central and east Texas, they confronted the Indians at Good's Crossing on Plum Creek, near the modern town of Lockhart (about 27 miles south of Austin). Texas history says the Texans won this battle, although the Indians got away with most of their plunder and a great many of the stolen horses and mules. "Several hundred head of horses and mules were recaptured, as were also immense quantities of dry goods." The Texans reported killing 80 Comanches (unusually heavy casualties for the Indians) in the fight, yet recovered only 12 Indian bodies. This was primarily due to the Comanche's tradition of gathering warrior corpses and burning them for burial. 
Apparently greed largely determined the battle's outcome. The Comanches would have never been caught had they not been herding such an enormous number of captured and heavily laden mules and horses. Thomas J. Pilgrim took part in the Battle of Plum Creek.
Buffalo Hump continued to raid white settlements until 1856, when he led his band into the Brazos River Reservation. The town of Linnville never recovered from the Great Raid, most of its residents moving to Port Lavaca, the new settlement established on the bay three and one half miles southwest by displaced Linnville residents.
- The Comanche Barrier to South Plains Settlement: A Century and a Half of Savage Resistance to the Advancing White Frontier. Arthur H. Clarke Co. 1933.
- The Comanches: Lords of the Southern Plains. Oklahoma Press. 1952.
- The Comanches: Lords of the Southern Plains. University of Oklahoma Press. 1952.
- Thomas Jefferson Pilgrim - Sons of Dewitt Colony Texas
- Battle of Plum Creek - TSHA Online
- Buffalo Hump, Texas Indians.com
- Battle of Plum Creek, Lone Star Junction
- Plum Creek battlefield received a historic marker in 1978. Battle of Plum Creek: near intersection of US 183 and SH 142 in Lions Park: Texas marker #9783
- Bial, Raymond. Lifeways: The Comanche. New York: Benchmark Books, 2000.
- Brice, Donaly E. The Great Comanche Raid: Boldest Indian Attack on the Texas Republic McGowan Book Co. 1987
- "Comanche" Skyhawks Native American Dedication (August 15, 2005)
- "Comanche" on the History Channel (August 26, 2005)
- Lodge, Sally. Native American People: The Comanche. Vero Beach, Florida 32964: Rourke Publications, Inc., 1992.
- Lund, Bill. Native Peoples: The Comanche Indians. Mankato, Minnesota: Bridgestone Books, 1997.
- Mooney, Martin. The Junior Library of American Indians: The Comanche Indians. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1993.
- Native Americans: Comanche (August 13, 2005).
- Richardson, Rupert N. The Comanche Barrier to South Plains Settlement: A Century and a Half of Savage Resistance to the Advancing White Frontier. Glendale, CA: Arthur H. Clark Company, 1933.
- Rollings, Willard. Indians of North America: The Comanche. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1989.
- Secoy, Frank. Changing Miliitary Patterns on the Great Plains. Monograph of the American Ethnological Society, No. 21. Locust Valley, NY: J. J. Augustin, 1953.
- Streissguth, Thomas. Indigenous Peoples of North America: The Comanche. San Diego: Lucent Books Incorporation, 2000.
- "The Texas Comanches" on Texas Indians (August 14, 2005).
- Wallace, Ernest, and E. Adamson Hoebel. The Comanches: Lords of the Southern Plains. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1952.