Battle of Raichur

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Battle of Raichur
Date May 1520[1]
Location Raichur, Karnataka, India
Result Decisive Vijayanagar victory
Belligerents
Vijayanagara flag.png Vijayanagara Empire Sultanate of Bijapur
Commanders and leaders
Vijayanagara flag.png Krishnadevaraya[2]
Vijayanagara flag.png Pemmasani Ramalinga Nayaka
Ismail Adil Shah[3]
Strength
736,000 (composing 32,600 war horses and 550 war elephants)[4] 140,000 (composing infantry and cavalry)[5]
Casualties and losses
Unknown Unknown

The Battle of Raichur was a battle fought between the Vijayanagar Empire and the Sultanate of Bijapur in 1520 CE in the town of Raichur, India. It resulted in a decisive victory for Vijayanagar forces and the Bijapur ruler was defeated and pushed across the river Krishna. [6] This battle had far-reaching effects; it weakened the power and prestige of the Adil Shah. [7]

Background[edit]

The fort of Raichur was built by Kakatiya king Rudra in 1284 CE which passed on to the Vijayanagar kingdom after the decline of Kakatiyas. Ever since, the fort has been under dispute for nearly two centuries. The fort was captured by Bahmanis in 1323 CE. Saluva Narasimha Raya expressed a wish in his testament that the city of Raichur be recaptured. This has been in the mind of Krishnadevaraya since his coronation in 1509. In the year 1520 Krishnadevaraya sent Seyed Maraikar, a Muslim in his service to Goa with a large sum of money to buy horses. Maraikar instead went to Adil Khan with the money and offered his services. Krishnadevaraya made a demand that Maraikar be returned along with the money which was duly refused. During the period of peace Krishnadevaraya made extensive preparations for a grand attack on Raichur doab. After the court decided that Raichur should be attacked the king invited all commanders (Nayakas) in his service to take part in the battle.

Battle[edit]

The Vijayanagar army consisted of some 700,000 fighting men, over 30,000 horses, and 550 elephants. The king Krishnadevaraya performed prayers in the city of Vijayanagar and left for Raichur. The Vijayanagar army was well-armed – the archers and musketeers with their quilted tunics, shieldmen with their swords and poignards in their girdles. The horses were in full clothing and elephants had large howdahs from which four men could fight on each side of them. The army upon nearing the fort of Raichur pitched the camp on the eastern side of the citadel and began the siege. After an interval, Krishnadevaraya received intelligence of arrival of Ismail Adil Shah on the north side of Krishna River with an army of 140,000 cavalry and infantry. On the morning of May 19, 1520, the forces of Vijayanagar and Bijapur clashed and engaged. The Vijayanagar army made tremendous noise heralding the engagement. [8] Though Bijapur had superior firepower, Vijayanagar emerged victorious. [9] Ismail Adil Shah was defeated and his forces were routed. [10]

Outcome[edit]

In this battle, Krishnadevaraya was supported by some Portuguese soldiers with Cristovao de Figueiredo at their head. The Portuguese commander was specially honored by the Vijayanagar king. The Portuguese on the coast gained by the result of this battle, since Goa rose and fell simultaneously with the rise and fall of Vijayanagar, considering that the entire trade of Portuguese depended on the support of Vijayanagar. [11] The Vijayanagar armies later destroyed Gulbarga before a truce was made and liberated the sons of Mahmud Bahamani. This battle had far-reaching effects; it weakened the power and prestige of the Adil Shah and he turned his attention to make alliances with other Muslim neighbors. The victory also caused other Sultans in the Deccan to come together and consider a combination by aid of which Vijayanagar was eventually defeated.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Vikas Khatri (2012). World Famous Wars and Battles. Pustak Mahal. 
  2. ^ Ivana Elbl (2009). Portuguese Studies Review. The Portuguese Studies Review at Trent University. 
  3. ^ Ivana Elbl (2009). Portuguese Studies Review. The Portuguese Studies Review at Trent University. 
  4. ^ Vikas Khatri (2012). World Famous Wars and Battles. Pustak Mahal. 
  5. ^ Vikas Khatri (2012). World Famous Wars and Battles. Pustak Mahal. 
  6. ^ Krishna Reddy (2008). Indian History. Tata McGraw-Hill. 
  7. ^ Vikas Khatri (2012). World Famous Wars and Battles. Pustak Mahal. 
  8. ^ Vikas Khatri (2012). World Famous Wars and Battles. Pustak Mahal. 
  9. ^ Kaushik Roy (2014). Military Transition in Early Modern Asia, 1400-1750. Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. 
  10. ^ Ivana Elbl (2009). Portuguese Studies Review. The Portuguese Studies Review at Trent University. 
  11. ^ Ivana Elbl (2009). Portuguese Studies Review. The Portuguese Studies Review at Trent University. 
  • Robert Sewell-A Forgotten Empire (Vijayanagar): A Contribution to the History of India, 1901. (http://historion.net/r.sewell-vijayanagar-history-india/)
  • Rayavachakam - Viswanatharaya Sthanapati (in Telugu).
  • Tidings of the king: a translation and ethnohistorical analysis of the Rayavachakamu by Phillip B. Wagoner. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu. 1993.

(ISBN 0-8248-1495-9). (http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=62773998)

  • Krishnaraja Vijayam - Kumara Dhurjati (in Telugu).
  • Sougandhika Prasavapaharanamu - Ratnakaram Gopala Kavi (in Telugu).
  • K. Iswara Dutt, Journal of Andhra Historical Research Society. Vol. 10, pp. 222–224.
  • K. A. Nilakanta Sastry, Further Sources of Vijayanagar History - 1946(https://archive.org/details/FurtherSourcesOfVijayanagaraHistory)