Battle of Resaca

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Battle of Resaca
Part of the American Civil War
A photograph of Union cavalry moving through a gap to attack Confederate infantry, with Union foot soldiers and cannons firing at the Confedereates on either side of the ridge
Battle of Resaca, by Kurz and Allison, 1889.
DateMay 13–15, 1864
Location34°34′53″N 84°56′19″W / 34.5815°N 84.9385°W / 34.5815; -84.9385Coordinates: 34°34′53″N 84°56′19″W / 34.5815°N 84.9385°W / 34.5815; -84.9385
Result Inconclusive
Belligerents
United States United States (Union) Confederate States of America CSA (Confederacy)
Commanders and leaders
William T. Sherman Joseph E. Johnston
Units involved
Military Division of the Mississippi Army of Tennessee
Strength
98,787–110,000 60,000–70,000
Casualties and losses
4,000[1] 3,000[1]

The Battle of Resaca (May 13–15, 1864) saw the Union Army led by William Tecumseh Sherman attack the Confederate States Army commanded by Joseph E. Johnston in the Atlanta Campaign during the American Civil War. The battle was waged in both Gordon and Whitfield Counties, Georgia. On May 14, Sherman's troops attacked the Confederate defenses northwest and north of Resaca and were repulsed. Later in the day, Johnston's assault on the Union left flank was also repelled. Meanwhile, Sherman's forces gained a foothold west of Resaca. On May 15, Sherman's attack north of Resaca was stopped, and again, a Confederate counterattack was also blocked. Meanwhile, other Union forces seized a bridgehead on the south bank of the Oostanaula River, menacing the Confederate line of retreat. That night. Johnston abandoned Resaca and withdrew his army to the south.

The campaign began with Johnston holding good defensive terrain at Buzzard's Roost Gap and Rocky Face Ridge. Johnston was compelled to abandon Dalton when James B. McPherson's Union Army of the Tennessee marched through unguarded Snake Creek Gap and threatened to capture Resaca from the west. The Confederates retreated to Resaca and joined some reinforcements that were gathering there. Most of Sherman's forces marched to Resaca by following McPherson through Snake Creek Gap but some marched south down the Western and Atlantic Railroad. After evacuating Resaca, Johnston retreated to Adairsville where there was a skirmish on May 17.

Background[edit]

Armies[edit]

On April 30, Sherman commanded the Military Division of the Mississippi and gathered a field army numbering 110,000 soldiers of which 99,000 were available for "offensive purposes".[2] All of the Union army's 254 guns consisted of 12-pounder Napoleons, 10-pounder Parrott rifles, 20-pounder Parrott rifles, and 3-inch Ordnance rifles.[3] The 25,000 non-combatants accompanying the army included railroad employees and repair crews, teamsters, medical staff, and Black camp servants. Sherman directed elements of three armies.[2] According to Jacob Dolson Cox, the Army of the Cumberland led by George H. Thomas mustered 60,000 troops and 130 guns, the Army of the Tennessee under James B. McPherson counted 25,000 soldiers and 96 guns, and the Army of the Ohio commanded by John Schofield numbered 14,000 men and 28 guns.[4] Mark M. Boatner III credited Thomas' army with 63,000, McPherson's army with 24,000, and Schofield's army with 13,500.[5] On May 1, Sherman had 88,188 infantry, 4,460 artillery, and 6,149 cavalry, or an effective strength of 98,797 men.[6] According to Kevin W. Young, Sherman had 110,000 troops.[7]

Black and white photo shows a frowning, bearded man with his arms crossed. He wears a dark military uniform.
William T. Sherman

Thomas' army was made up of the IV Corps under Oliver Otis Howard, the XIV Corps under John M. Palmer, the XX Corps under Joseph Hooker, and three cavalry divisions led by Edward M. McCook, Kenner Garrard, and Hugh Judson Kilpatrick. McPherson's army consisted of the XV Corps under John A. Logan and the Left Wing of the XVI Corps under Grenville M. Dodge. The XVII Corps under Francis Preston Blair Jr. would not join until June 8. Schofield's army was made up of the XXIII Corps under Schofield and a cavalry division led by George Stoneman.[8] The IV and XX Corps each numbered 20,000 soldiers, the XIV Corps totaled 22,000, the XV Corps had 11,500, while the XVI and XVII Corps each counted about 10,000 men.[9]

Johnston's Army of Tennessee included two infantry corps led by William J. Hardee and John Bell Hood, and a cavalry corps under Joseph Wheeler. The army was soon joined by the corps of Leonidas Polk and the cavalry division of William H. Jackson, which was sometimes called the Army of Mississippi. Hardee's corps included the divisions of Benjamin F. Cheatham, Patrick Cleburne, William H. T. Walker, and William B. Bate. Hood's corps comprised the divisions of Thomas C. Hindman, Carter L. Stevenson, and Alexander P. Stewart. Polk's corps consisted of the divisions of William Wing Loring, Samuel Gibbs French, and James Cantey.[10] On April 30, Johnston's Army of Tennessee reported 41,279 infantry, 8,436 cavalry, and 3,227 artillerymen serving 144 guns. Battles and Leaders calculated Johnston's reinforcements as follows: Hugh W. Mercer's brigade (2,800) from the Atlantic coast on May 2, Cantey's division (5,300) from Mobile, Alabama on May 7, Loring's division (5,145) from Mississippi on May 10–12, French's detachment (550) on May 12, Jackson's cavalry (4,477) on May 17, and French's division (4,174) on May 19. Other units arrived at a later date.[11] There were about 8,000 non-combatants supporting the army, many of whom were men unfit for combat.[12] According to Young, Johnston had "almost 70,000" troops after Polk's corps joined.[7] The American Battlefield Trust credited Johnston with 60,000 men at Resaca.[13]

Strategy[edit]

Black and white photo of a bearded man sitting and leaning backward. He wears a dark military uniform with two rows of buttons and the two stars of a major general on the shoulder tabs.
James B. McPherson

Ulysses S. Grant, the General-in-chief of the Union Army ordered Sherman, "to move against Johnston's army, to break it up, and to get into the interior of the enemy's country as far as you can, inflicting all the damage you can against their war resources".[14] Rather than "break up" the Confederate army, Sherman planned to drive it back to Atlanta.[15] Since Atlanta was a critical Confederate railroad, supply, and manufacturing center, Sherman chose it as his objective.[14] Sherman assumed that Grant's operations against Robert E. Lee in the Eastern Theater would be the primary campaign and that his operations in the Western Theater would be secondary. One thing both Grant and Sherman agreed on was that Johnston must not be allowed to reinforce Lee in the east.[15]

Sherman's first task was to gather enough supplies at his Chattanooga forward base to supply 100,000 soldiers and 35,000 horses for 70 days. That way, if the Confederates blocked the railroad between Nashville and Chattanooga, his Union troops would still be able to campaign.[15] Sherman solved this problem by confiscating rolling stock from the Louisville and Nashville Railroad and two smaller railroads. By also prioritizing military use of the railroads, Sherman accumulated ample supplies by the end of April 1864.[16]

Originally, Sherman planned to have McPherson's army thrust across the northeast corner of Alabama in the direction of Rome, Georgia. However, he found that the XVII Corps was still at Cairo, Illinois and Andrew Jackson Smith's two divisions also could not be used. Therefore, Sherman planned to use McPherson's 23,000 men to execute a plan proposed by Thomas, namely to march through Snake Creek Gap and wreck the Western and Atlantic Railroad at Resaca. Then Sherman wanted McPherson to withdraw to the gap. Meanwhile, Sherman wanted the armies of Thomas and Schofield to push the Confederate army frontally. With the railroad cut, Sherman expected Johnston to retreat, whereupon McPherson would emerge from the gap again to strike Johnston from the west while Thomas and Schofield attacked from the north.[17]

In early April, the Confederate government in Richmond, Virginia wanted Johnston to take the offensive against the Union troops opposed to him. Johnston asked for reinforcements, but Confederate President Jefferson Davis declined. Davis expected the main Union offensive to be in the east and believed that the Union army did not have the strength to mount major offensives in both east and west. When Wheeler reported with near-accuracy that Sherman had 103,000 soldiers, Davis and his military adviser Braxton Bragg refused to believe it. Bragg asserted that Sherman had no more than 70,000, including a field force of 60,000. Davis did not trust Johnston, but felt that he could not replace him on the eve of the campaign.[18]

Operations[edit]

Atlanta campaign map from Chattanooga to Etowah River.
Movement of Sherman's forces to Resaca (center).

When Jefferson Davis awoke to the danger Sherman posed to Georgia, he authorized Polk to send Loring's division from Mississippi and an infantry brigade from Mobile. Polk exceeded his orders by ordering French's division and Jackson's cavalry to move from Mississippi to Georgia and by going there himself.[19] By May 3, Sherman's forces were in motion.[20] On May 7, Palmer's XIV Corps marched southeast from Ringgold to Tunnel Hill, Howard's IV Corps marched from Catoosa Springs to support the XIV Corps, and Hooker's XX Corps marched southeast from Lee and Gordon Mill toward Mill Creek Gap in Rocky Face Ridge. Schofield's XXIII Corps marched southwest from Red Clay to connect with the IV Corps near Catoosa Springs. McCook's cavalry was at Varnell's Station on Sherman's left flank. McPherson's army marched south-southeast from Lee and Gordon Mill to Ship's Gap and then east to Villanow.[21] Garrard's cavalry division was supposed to lead McPherson's columns but it was delayed; Sherman ordered the offensive to begin without it.[22]

Black and white photo shows a bearded man in a broad-brimmed hat standing full-length. He wears a dark military uniform with two rows of buttons. The coat reaches down to the knees.
Grenville Dodge

On May 8, in the Battle of Rocky Face Ridge, the IV Corps brigade of Charles Garrison Harker seized the northern tip of the ridge and other units moved up to Buzzard Roost Pass. At Dug Gap 6 mi (9.7 km) south, John W. Geary's XX Corps division tried to force its way through the ridge but failed. However, these actions were designed to divert Johnston's attention from McPherson's force. In fact, Wheeler's cavalry detected McPherson's column, but Johnston was convinced that it was headed for Rome. Johnston ordered that Loring's division march to Rome from Alabama and that William T. Martin's cavalry division should also go there. Meanwhile, James Cantey's brigade arrived at Resaca. At first, Johnston ordered it to march to Dalton, but reconsidered and instructed it to stay at Resaca.[23]

After a 20 mi (32.2 km) march on May 9, the XVI Corps division of Thomas W. Sweeny passed through the 4 mi (6.4 km) long gorge of Snake Creek Gap and reached its southern exit. The other XVI Corps division of James C. Veatch and two XV Corps divisions marched as far as the northern end of the gap that evening. The third XV Corps division was guarding the wagon train and Garrard's cavalry was still distant. Sherman directed Kilpatrick to assist McPherson by sending a cavalry brigade. McPherson let Sherman know he was in Snake Creek Gap and issued orders to advance to Resaca the next morning.[24] Cleburne later wrote that Johnston's chief of staff William W. Mackall told him that the gap was undefended because of "a flagrant disobedience to orders", but did not name the guilty party.[25]

On the night of May 9, Cantey reported to Johnston that cavalry sighted Union troops near Villanow. Therefore, Johnston ordered J. Warren Grigsby's cavalry brigade to occupy Snake Greek Gap. As Grigsby's troopers approached the gap at mid-morning of May 10, they encountered McPherson's advance elements, the 9th Illinois Mounted Infantry and the 66th Illinois Infantry Regiments. Grigsby immediately ordered his cavalrymen to delay the Union advance toward Resaca. By 2 pm, Dodge's two XVI Corps divisions reached a crossroads about 2 mi (3.2 km) west of Resaca. Leaving Veatch's division to watch the road from the north, Dodge pressed on with Sweeny's division and routed a 1,400-man Confederate force defending Bald Hill. Cantey had only 4,000 men to defend Resaca, including Grigsby's cavalry.[26] According to William R. Scaife, the Confederate force also included a brigade under Daniel H. Reynolds and two 4-gun batteries armed with 12-pounder Napoleons.[27] However, Cox stated that Reynolds' brigade was at Dug Gap.[28] At 4 pm, Logan's two divisions reached the crossroads, releasing Veatch's division. Veatch's men crossed Camp Creek on Sweeny's left and approached the railroad. Meanwhile, Sweeny's division pressed forward and got within 200 yd (183 m) of the railroad. McPherson, worried that he was walking into a trap, recalled both of Dodge's divisions and marched his command back to the gap after losing 6 killed, 30 wounded, and 16 captured. His orders were to break the railroad, but all his troops accomplished was to cut down some telegraph wire.[29]

Battle[edit]

Preliminaries[edit]

Black and white photograph shows a balding man with a salt-and-pepper moustache and beard. He wears a double-breasted gray military uniform with three stars on the collar.
Joseph E. Johnston

On May 9, Thomas and Schofield sent skirmish lines to probe the Confederate defenses on Rocky Face Ridge. Johnston deployed Hardee's corps on the left and Hood's corps on the right. Only Harker's brigade pressed its attack, but it was repulsed. When reports of Union forces at Snake Creek Gap reached Johnston, the Confederate commander sent the divisions of Cleburne and Walker to Tilton, north of Resaca. On May 10, Sherman learned that McPherson failed to cut the railroad. He immediately sent Hooker's XX Corps to join McPherson at Snake Creek Gap. Sherman decided to leave Howard's IV Corps in front of Rocky Face Ridge and march the rest of the army west and south to join McPherson at Snake Creek Gap. On May 11, Polk with Loring's division reached Resaca. On May 12, Palmer's and Schofield's corps began marching south. That night, Johnston evacuated Dalton and marched his army south to Resaca.[30]

On the afternoon of May 12, Sherman arrived at McPherson's headquarters. The first words he said to his subordinate were, "Well, Mac, you have missed the opportunity of a lifetime". Later that day, Thomas also arrived and informed Sherman that Johnston's wagon train was sighted moving south toward Resaca, indicating that the Confederates were probably retreating. Sherman ordered the XIV Corps to hurry up and that formation hiked through Snake Creek Gap that night.[31] Howard's IV Corps and Stoneman's cavalry division, which had finally arrived at the front, occupied Dalton on the morning of May 13.[32] Howard notified Sherman at 9 am that Dalton was evacuated via a temporary telegraph line strung between his headquarters and McPherson's. In the morning, Sherman's forces advanced toward Resaca, getting within 2 mi (3.2 km) by 10 am. Kilpatrick led his cavalry on a reconnaissance and was wounded soon afterward.[33]

Logan's XV Corps deployed with Veatch's XVI Corps division on its right and elements of the XX Corps on it left and at 1 pm began pressing back Confederate skirmishers. By 4:30 pm, Logan's troops drove the Confederate from Bald Hill and confronted a heavily defended line of entrenchments outside Resaca. By the evening of May 13, Sherman's forces were aligned, from right to left, as follows: Veatch's division, Logan's corps, Daniel Butterfield's XX Corps division with the other two XX Corps divisions in reserve, and Palmer's XIV Corps. Two of Schofield's XXIII Corps divisions were behind XIV Corps while the third division, Alvin Peterson Hovey's, guarded Snake Creek Gap. Sweeny's XVI Corps division was west of Resaca. Garrard's cavalry division was near Villanow and Kilpatrick's cavalry, temporarily led by Eli Long, watched the north bank of the Oostanaula River.[34]

The Union forces were confronted by the bulk of Johnston's army. Only the divisions of Bate, Hindman, and Stewart were still marching from Dalton and reached Resaca that evening. Stoneman's and McCook's cavalry and Howard's IV Corps pushed south from Dalton, slowed by Wheeler's effective delaying tactics. Johnston deployed Polk's corps on the Confederate left flank, facing west with its left resting on the Oostanaula. Hardee's corps held the center also facing west. Hood's corps defended the right flank, facing to the north with its right touching the Conasauga River. Part of Walker's division was in reserve while the other part was at Calhoun, farther south.[35]

May 14[edit]

Map of the Battle of Resaca is from Jacob D. Cox's Atlanta (1882).
Map of Resaca is from Jacob D. Cox's Atlanta.

Sherman thought that Johnston intended to retreat from Resaca, a belief strengthened by seeing the Confederate wagon train crossing to the south bank of the Oostanaula. In fact, Johnston hoped Sherman would attack him and offer the chance to deal the Union army a counterblow. Sherman ordered up his Cumberland Pontoons so that Kilpatrick's cavalry could cross the Oostanaula and damage the railroad. He also wanted Garrard's cavalry to cross and move toward Rome. Meanwhile, Sherman wanted the Union infantry to attack so that Johnston would be unable to stop Kilpatrick and Garrard. Thomas suggested sending McPherson's army and Hooker's corps across the Oostanaula to be in a position to interfere with a possible Confederate retreat. Sherman rejected that idea. The pontoons arrived on the morning of May 14 and they were at Lay's Ferry on the Oostanaula a few hours later.[36] During the morning, at Sherman's behest, McPherson ordered Sweeny's division to cross the Oostanaula and for Garrard to march to Rome.[37]

Confederate defenses at Resaca.
Confederate earthworks overlooking the battlefield at Resaca, 1864.

When Howard's IV Corps arrived from the north at 11 am, Sherman ordered Palmer's XIV Corps and Schofield's XXIII Corps (on Palmer's left) to advance. Sherman believed they were striking the Confederate right flank.[37] In fact, the Union troops were unwittingly attacking the Confederate right-center. The Union soldiers blundered through heavy underbrush and suddenly confronted Confederate entrenchments on the east side of Camp Creek. Henry M. Judah's XXIII Corps division recklessly charged, ran into intense rifle and cannon fire, and was bloodily repulsed. On Judah's left, Cox's XXIII Corps division encountered an advanced line of rifle pits and seized them after a bitter struggle. On Judah's right, Absalom Baird's XIV Corps division was quickly turned back by heavy fire after suffering 135 casualties. By 3 pm, Judah's division lost 700 killed or wounded while Cox's troops sustained losses of 66 killed and 486 wounded. Subsequently, Union artillery unlimbered and took the Confederate lines under a withering bombardment.[38]

At 4 pm, Johnston noticed that David S. Stanley's division of Howard's corps had its left flank exposed and ordered Hood to attack it. At 5 pm, the divisions of Stewart and Stevenson advanced, supported by three brigades from Walker's division and one brigade from Loring's division. Stanley called for help, formed his division into a long thin line, and posted Peter Simonson's 5th Indiana Battery on the extreme left flank. Howard asked for reinforcements and the division of Alpheus S. Williams from Hooker's corps was sent. Stevenson's soldiers overwhelmed Stanley's two left brigades but when they tried to overrun the 5th Indiana Battery, they were driven back by deadly fire from its six M1857 12-pounder Napoleons and 3-inch Ordnance rifles. Stevenson's division tried a second attack and was repulsed by some of Stanley's rallied Union infantry and close-range blasts of double canister shot from the cannons. By the time the Confederates attempted a third attack, Williams' division arrived and repelled it with heavy losses. On Stevenson's right, Stewart's division moved too far to the right and never made contact with the Union flank.[39]

At 5 pm, McPherson became aware that the Confederates opposing him were sending troops to the north. Determined to stop the transfer of more troops, he ordered two XV Corps brigades to seize a hill on the other side of Camp Creek. Charles R. Woods brigade from Peter Joseph Osterhaus's division and Giles Alexander Smith's brigade from Morgan Lewis Smith's division waded the creek and captured the hill. At 7:30 pm, Cantey's division and Alfred Jefferson Vaughan Jr.'s brigade tried three times to retake the hill, but failed in the face of cannon projectiles from Louis Voelker's Battery F, 2nd Missouri and rifle fire.[40] At Lay's Ferry, Sweeny's division managed a successful assault crossing of the Oostanaula, However, after receiving a report that Confederates were building a bridge upstream, Sweeny withdrew from his bridgehead.[41]

May 15[edit]

General Benjamin Harrison on a white charger urges his troops onwards.
"Come on boys!" Benjamin Harrison during the Battle of Resaca.

On May 13, the Union troops tested the Confederate lines to pinpoint their whereabouts. The next day full-scale fighting occurred, and the Union troops were generally repulsed except on the Confederate right flank where Sherman did not fully exploit his advantage. On May 15, the battle continued with no advantage to either side until Sherman sent a force across the Oostanaula River, at Lay's Ferry, using newly delivered Cumberland pontoon bridges and advanced towards Johnston's railroad supply line.

The Battle of Resaca by James Walker.[42]

Aftermath[edit]

Unable to halt the Union turning movement caused by Sherman's crossing of the Oostanaula, Johnston was forced to retire, burning the railroad span and a nearby wagon bridge in the early morning of May 16.[43] After the Union repaired the bridges and transported more men over, they continued in the pursuit of the Confederates, leading to the Battle of Adairsville on May 17. There were 6,100 combined casualties: 3,500 for the Union and 2,600 for the Confederacy.

Resaca Battlefield State Historic Site[edit]

The battlefield is preserved as the Resaca Battlefield State Historic Site.[44] The Civil War Trust, a division of the American Battlefield Trust, and its partners have acquired and preserved 1,044 acres of the Resaca battlefield.[45]

In popular culture[edit]

Ambrose Bierce's short story Killed at Resaca focuses on a cohort of men who fight and die bravely at Resaca, and the needless bloodshed of war in general.

See also[edit]

Map of Resaca Battlefield core and study areas by the American Battlefield Protection Program.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Castel 1992, p. 188.
  2. ^ a b Castel 1992, p. 112.
  3. ^ Castel 1992, p. 115.
  4. ^ Cox 1882, p. 25.
  5. ^ Boatner 1959, p. 705.
  6. ^ Battles & Leaders 1987, p. 289.
  7. ^ a b Young 2017.
  8. ^ Battles & Leaders 1987, pp. 284–289.
  9. ^ Castel 1992, p. 113.
  10. ^ Battles & Leaders 1987, pp. 289–292.
  11. ^ Battles & Leaders 1987, p. 281.
  12. ^ Castel 1992, p. 106.
  13. ^ ABT 2021.
  14. ^ a b Boatner 1959, p. 30.
  15. ^ a b c Castel 1992, p. 91.
  16. ^ Castel 1992, pp. 92–93.
  17. ^ Castel 1992, pp. 121–123.
  18. ^ Castel 1992, pp. 101–104.
  19. ^ Castel 1992, p. 127.
  20. ^ Castel 1992, p. 124.
  21. ^ Cox 1882, p. 33.
  22. ^ Castel 1992, p. 126.
  23. ^ Castel 1992, pp. 130–134.
  24. ^ Castel 1992, p. 135.
  25. ^ Castel 1992, p. 183.
  26. ^ Castel 1992, pp. 136–137.
  27. ^ Scaife 1987.
  28. ^ Cox 1882, p. 38.
  29. ^ Castel 1992, pp. 137–139.
  30. ^ Cox 1882, pp. 37–40.
  31. ^ Castel 1992, p. 150.
  32. ^ Cox 1882, pp. 40–41.
  33. ^ Castel 1992, p. 151.
  34. ^ Castel 1992, pp. 152–153.
  35. ^ Castel 1992, p. 153.
  36. ^ Castel 1992, pp. 153–154.
  37. ^ a b Castel 1992, p. 156.
  38. ^ Castel 1992, pp. 159–161.
  39. ^ Castel 1992, pp. 163–166.
  40. ^ Castel 1992, pp. 166–167.
  41. ^ Castel 1992, pp. 162–163.
  42. ^ Eric Durr. "Lost" historic military painting is found. New York State Division of Military and Naval Affairs, February 5, 2015
  43. ^ Battle of Resaca, Ga., May 14-15, 1864. darrellryan.homestead.com
  44. ^ Friends of the Resaca Battlefield. resacabattlefield.com
  45. ^ American Battlefield Trust "Saved Land" webpage. Accessed May 21, 2018.

References[edit]

  • Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. 4. Secaucus, N.J.: Castle. 1987 [1883]. ISBN 0-89009-572-8.
  • Boatner, Mark M. III (1959). The Civil War Dictionary. New York, N.Y.: David McKay Company Inc. ISBN 0-679-50013-8.
  • Castel, Albert E. (1992). Decision in the West: The Atlanta Campaign of 1864. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 0-7006-0562-2.
  • Cox, Jacob D. (1882). "Atlanta". New York, N.Y.: Charles Scribner's Sons. Retrieved October 17, 2021.
  • Foote, Shelby (1986). The Civil War: A Narrative. 3. New York, N.Y.: Random House. ISBN 0-394-74622-8.
  • "Resaca: The Civil War Battlefield Detail". National Park Service. 2021. Retrieved November 17, 2021.
  • "Resaca". American Battlefield Trust. 2021. Retrieved November 26, 2021.
  • Scaife, William R. (1987). The Campaign For Atlanta. Kennesaw, Ga.: Kennesaw Mountain Historical Association. ISBN 9780961950804.
  • Young, Kevin W. (2017). "Battle of Resaca". New Georgia Encyclopedia. Retrieved November 26, 2021.

Further reading[edit]

  • Guernsey, Alfred H.; Alden, Henry M. (May 1866). Harper's Pictoral History of the Civil War. Fairfax Press.
  • Rickard, J. (2000). "Battle of Resaca, 13-15 May 1864". historyofwar.org. Retrieved November 22, 2021.
  • Secrist, Philip L. (1998). The Battle of Resaca: Atlanta Campaign, 1864. Macon, Ga.: Mercer University Press. ISBN 0-86554-601-0.
  • Woodworth, Steven E. (2005). Nothing but Victory: The Army of the Tennessee, 1861-1865. New York, N.Y.: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-375-41218-2.

External links[edit]