The island of Samos, under its leader, Lykourgos Logothetis, had successfully rebelled against the Ottomans in 1821, and established its own autonomous government. The island's position, however, a few miles off the Anatolian coast, made it vulnerable to a potential Ottoman attack. In the summer of 1824, following the destruction of Psara, the Ottoman fleet and troops assembled on the Anatolian coast, with the intention of capturing the island. Anxious to avoid repeating the failure to protect Psara, the Greek fleet, under admiral Georgios Sachtouris, assembled to guard the island.
After some minor engagements on the previous days, the decisive battle occurred on August 17. The Greek fireships, including one under the celebrated Constantine Kanaris, then attacked and succeeded in burning three Ottoman ships, forcing the Kapudan Pasha Mehmed Hüsrev to withdraw.
Together with the victory at the strait of Gerontas soon after, the battle of Samos ensured the safety of the island at that time. However, it was not included in independent Greece; rather, it became an autonomous principality under Ottoman suzerainty until the Balkan Wars.