Battle of Saragarhi

Coordinates: 33°33′15″N 70°53′15″E / 33.55417°N 70.88750°E / 33.55417; 70.88750
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Battle of Saragarhi
Part of the Tirah Campaign

Depiction of the Battle of Saragarhi of the Tirah Campaign
Date12 September 1897
Location33°33′15″N 70°53′15″E / 33.55417°N 70.88750°E / 33.55417; 70.88750
Result Afghan victory[1][2]
Belligerents

British Empire British Empire

British Raj India
Afridis
Orakzai
Commanders and leaders
Ishar Singh  Gul Badshah
Strength
21[3] 10,000 to 12,000[4][5]
Casualties and losses
21 dead[3] 450 (estimate)
dead and wounded[6][7]
See Aftermath section

The Battle of Saragarhi was a last-stand battle fought before the Tirah Campaign between the British Raj and Afghan tribesmen.[8] On 12 September 1897, an estimated 12,000 – 24,000 Orakzai and Afridi tribesmen were seen near Gogra, at Samana Suk, and around Saragarhi, cutting off Fort Gulistan from Fort Lockhart. The Afghans attacked the outpost of Saragarhi where thousands of them swarmed and surrounded the fort, preparing to assault it.[9] Led by Havildar Ishar Singh, the 21 soldiers in the fort—all of whom were Sikhs—refused to surrender and were wiped out in a last stand. The post was recaptured two days later by another British Indian contingent. They all were Mazhabi Sikhs and belongs to Rangreta community in Sikhism.[10][11][12][13][14][15][16]

All of the 21 soldiers involved in the battle were posthumously awarded the Indian Order of Merit, which was the highest gallantry award that an Indian soldier could receive at the time. The Indian Army's 4th battalion of the Sikh Regiment commemorates the battle every year on 12 September, as Saragarhi Day.[17] The 36th (Sikh) Regiment of Bengal Infantry[16] was formed in 1887 from the 36th Regiment of Bengal Native Infantry. In 1897 the unit served on North West Frontier, and formed part of the Tirah Expeditionary Force. In its most famous action, 21 Sikh soldiers fought and died in a last ditch stand against an overwhelming Afghan force at the fortified post of Saragarhi (now in Pakistan) on 12 September 1897. The 36th Sikh regiment of Bengal infantry[14] contains Mazhabi sikhs and Rangreta sikhs[15] at that time,[15][10][11][18][13] and all the community of Sikhs were recruited in the army. At that time their was no specific army of specific community. The British sought their help to control the rebellious sepoys in Bengal during the 1857 revolt. This is when their first regiment was formed in India. In 1898, there were 2,452 Mazhabis in the British army.[19] Their units served in Egypt, Palestine and Mesopotamia during World War 1. They were called the Sikh Pioneer regiments. In 1941, the Sikh Light Infantry was created with Mazhabis and Ramdasia. This infantry played a major role in major wars of India, especially in 1947, 1965 and 1971. They were also deployed in 1962 Chinese aggression. And they were placed at the most dangerous situations and fronts.

Background

Photograph with the caption 'Native Sikhs of the 36th Sikhs. Tirah, 1897'

Saragarhi was a small village in the border district of Kohat, situated on the Samana Range, in present-day Pakistan. On 20 April 1894, the 36th Sikhs of the British Indian Army was created under the command of Colonel J. Cook,[20] entirely composed of Sikhs mainly Rangreta Sikhs or Mazhabi sikhs.[21] In August 1897, five companies of the 36th Sikhs under Lieutenant Colonel John Haughton were sent to the northwest frontier of British India (modern-day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) and were stationed at Samana Hills, Kurag, Sangar, Sahtop Dhar, and Saragarhi. Britishers were aware of Rangreta Sikh community of Punjab as they hear about the Hari SIngh Nalwa and its community Rangreta and mazhabi sikhs.[12][11][18][10][15][13] They know that the misl of Rangreta and mazhabi sikhs have fought and won many battles against Afghani Pashtuns, and they fear from the name of Rangreta Sikhs and Mazhabi Sikh community of sikhs. That's why they appointed Rangreta sikhs and Mazhabi sikhs at the North West Frontier as same as Bhangi Misl and Rangreta Misl of Baba Beer Singh handles the afghans invaders. And nowadays also the sikh light infantry is positioned at the most disturbed area's and critical war areas situations.[10][12][19][18][11][14][15] Rangreta sikhs and Mazhabi sikhs have same gotras of jatts, rajputs and even brahmins.[15][13]That's why the Britishers and many historians were confused, and mention them as only jatts Sikh[18][11][13][15]

The British had partially succeeded in getting control of this volatile area, but tribal Pashtuns continued to attack British personnel from time to time. Thus, a series of forts, originally built by Ranjit Singh, the ruler of the Sikh Empire, were consolidated. Two of the forts were Fort Lockhart (on the Samana Range of the Hindu Kush mountains), and Fort Gulistan (Sulaiman Range), situated a few miles apart. Fort Lockhart is located at 33°33′22″N 70°55′08″E / 33.5562°N 70.9188°E / 33.5562; 70.9188.[22] Due to the forts not being visible to each other, Saragarhi was created midway, as a heliographic communication post. The Saragarhi post, situated on a rocky ridge, consisted of a small block house with loop-holed ramparts and a signalling tower.

A general uprising by the Afghans began there in 1897 and, between 27 August and 11 September, many vigorous efforts by Pashtuns to capture the forts were thwarted by the 36th Sikhs. In 1897, insurgent and inimical activities had increased, and on 3 and 9 September Afridi tribesmen, allied with the Afghans, attacked Fort Gulistan. Both the attacks were repulsed, and a relief column from Fort Lockhart, on its return trip, reinforced the signaling detachment positioned at Saragarhi, increasing its strength to three non-commissioned officers (NCOs) and eighteen other ranks (ORs).

36th Sikh Bengal Infantry

The 36th Sikh Bengal infantry only contains the Sikhs soldiers and no other soldier from other region and even religion was in the pioneer battalion at the time of Battle of Saragarhi. The 36th (Sikh) Regiment of Bengal Infantry was formed in 1887 from the 36th Regiment of Bengal Native Infantry.[23][24] In 1897 the unit served on North West Frontier, and formed part of the Tirah Expeditionary Force. In its most famous action, 21 Sikh soldiers fought and died in a last ditch stand against an overwhelming Afghan force at the fortified post of Saragarhi (now in Pakistan) on 12 September 1897.

With the reform of the Indian Army the regiment became the 36th Sikh Infantry in 1901 and the 36th Sikhs in 1903. Following World War One (1914-1918) the regiment was amalgamated with other Sikh regiments to form the 11th Sikh Regiment in 1922, with the 36th becoming its 4th Battalion.

From the Field Marshal Sir John Chapple Indian Army Collection.

Disbandment of 36th Sikh Bengal Infantry and forming Sikh Light Infantry And Sikh Regiments 1901-1903

The number 36 was vacant for a few years when the Bareilly Levy was disbanded in 1882. The 36th Sikhs were raised in 1887 at a time when Russian expansion was feared and the North-West Frontier needed strong fortification. Their brief history is notable for one action that occurred in 1897 when the regiment defended the Samana Ridge against a huge army of Pathans. Many acts of great bravery were performed by soldiers of the 36th during a few days in September of that year, most notably at Saragarhi.

People get confused about the regiment and give credit to 36th Sikh regiment[16] but they do not know that the 36th Sikh regiment was formed in 1901 separate for Jatt Sikhs, as after this Battle the mazhabi sikhs/ rangreta sikhs and Ramdasia sikhs were honored to form their own regiment, which nowadays we know from the name of Sikh light infantry. At that time they were categorized as a pioneer block. They were given inferior tools, equipment, uniform, and even inferior weapons. [19][13][18][11][10][15][14][16]

Background of 36th Sikh Bengal Infantry 21 soldiers

Mazhabis are best known for their history of bravery, strength and self sacrifice in the Sikh, Khalsa, British Indian army and Indian army. The Mazhabis were designated as a martial race by British officials. "Martial Race" was a designation created by officials of British India to describe "races" (peoples) that were thought to be naturally warlike and aggressive in battle, and to possess qualities of courage, loyalty, self sufficiency, physical strength, resilience, orderliness, the ability to work hard for long periods of time, fighting tenacity and military strategy.[13][15]

The British recruited heavily from these Martial Races for service in the British Indian Army. The British recruited heavily from the Mazhabi sikhs. On the out break of the Indian mutiny in 1857, the British immediately recruited 12,000 Mazhabis to crush the mutiny. After the mutiny, it was only the Mazhabi Sikhs who got recognition as a martial race after they took part in Younghusband’s mission to Lhasa in 1903. The gotras of the 21 Sikhs were not mentioned because they do not want to promote the Mazhabi sikh and Rangreta community, as they were conspire them as low in the society and they do not want to promote their contribution. And even their contribution were represented as their own bravery and heroic tasks. Due to this the 36th Sikh Bengal infantry[24][16] was represented as 36th Sikh regiment of only of jatt Sikhs, but they were Rangreta Sikhs and belongs to Mazhabi Sikh community of Sikhism.[13][15]

The battle

Sikh soldiers, c. 1890
Map of the battle site

Details of the Battle of Saragarhi are considered fairly accurate because Sepoy Gurmukh Singh signalled events to Fort Lockhart by heliograph[25] as they occurred.[20]

  • Around 09:00, approximately 6,000–10,000 Afghans reach the signalling post at Saragarhi.
  • Sepoy Gurmukh Singh signals to Colonel Haughton, situated in Fort Lockhart, that they are under attack.
  • Haughton states he cannot send immediate help to Saragarhi.
  • The soldiers in Saragarhi decide to fight to the last to prevent the enemy from reaching the forts.
  • Sepoy Bhagwan Singh is the first soldier to be killed and Naik Lal Singh is seriously wounded.
  • Naik Lal Singh and Sepoy Jiwa Singh reportedly carry the body of Bhagwan Singh back to the inner layer of the post.
  • The Afghans break a portion of the wall of the picket.
  • Haughton signals that he has estimated that there are between 10,000 and 14,000 Pashtuns attacking Saragarhi.
  • The leaders of the Pashtun forces reportedly make promises to the soldiers to entice them to surrender.
  • Reportedly two determined attempts are made to rush open the gate, but are unsuccessful.
  • Later, the wall is breached.
  • Thereafter, some of the fiercest hand-to-hand fighting occurred.
  • Havildar Ishar Singh orders his men to fall back into the inner layer, whilst he remained to cover their retreat. After the inner layer was breached all but one of the defending soldiers were killed, along with many of the Pashtuns.
  • Sepoy Gurmukh Singh, who communicated the battle to Haughton as a signalman, was the last surviving defender. His last message was to ask for permission to pick up his rifle. Upon receiving permission he packed up the heliograph and held the door of his signalling shed. He is stated to have killed 40 Afghans and the Pashtuns were forced to set fire to the post to kill him. As he was dying, Singh is said to have yelled repeatedly the Sikh battle cry "Bole So Nihal, Sat Sri Akal!" ("One will be blessed eternally, who says that God is the ultimate truth!").

Weapons

The weapons given and used by the Indian troops were of an older generation compared to the small arms issued to British troops. As that time the Mazhabi Sikhs and Rangreta Sikhs were given inferior weapons and the jatt Sikhs were given proper guns and other armory. This was intentionally done after the Indian Mutiny of 1857 to prevent any further mutinies and uprisings from getting out of hand[11][13][15].[26] The Afghans used the original and copy of Martini-Henry rifles. The Martini–Henry was copied on a large scale by North-West Frontier Province gunsmiths. The chief manufacturers were the Adam Khel Afridi, who lived around the Khyber Pass. The Khyber Pass gunsmiths first acquired examples of the various British service arms during nineteenth-century British military expeditions in the North-West Frontier, which they used to make copies.[27]

Soldiers

The names of the 21 Sikh soldiers which belongs to Rangreta mazhabi sikh commuity[11][10][13][15][3][28]

  1. Havildar Ishar Singh (regimental number 165)
  2. Naik Lal Singh (332)
  3. Lance Naik Chanda Singh (546)
  4. Sepoy Sundar Singh (1321)
  5. Sepoy Ramm Singh (287)
  6. Sepoy Uttar Singh (492)
  7. Sepoy Sahib Singh (182)
  8. Sepoy Hira Singh (359)
  9. Sepoy Daya Singh (687)
  10. Sepoy Jivan Singh (760)
  11. Sepoy Bhola Singh (791)
  12. Sepoy Narayan Singh (834)
  13. Sepoy Gurmukh Singh (814)
  14. Sepoy Jivan Singh (871)
  15. Sepoy Gurmukh Singh (1733)
  16. Sepoy Ram Singh (163)
  17. Sepoy Bhagwan Singh (1257)
  18. Sepoy Bhagwan Singh (1265)
  19. Sepoy Buta Singh (1556)
  20. Sepoy Jivan Singh (1651)
  21. Sepoy Nand Singh (1221)

Aftermath

Photograph with the caption 'Fort Saragarhi (Saragarhi) in Ruins, Showing the Main Entrance and Fort Lockhart in the Distance'

Having destroyed Saragarhi, the Afghans turned their attention to Fort Gulistan, but they had been delayed too long, and reinforcements arrived there on the night of 13–14 September before the fort could be captured.[3] The Pashtuns later admitted that they had lost about 180 killed[29] and many more wounded[30] during the engagement against the 21 Sikh soldiers. Some 600 bodies[21] is said to have been seen around the ruined post when the relief party arrived (however, the fort had been retaken, on 14 September, by the use of intensive artillery fire,[31] which may have caused some casualties). After it was retaken by the British, the burnt bricks of Saragarhi were used to make an obelisk for those fighters. The British also built gurdwaras at Amritsar and Ferozepur for them.[32] The total casualties in the entire campaign, including the Battle of Saragarhi, numbered at around 4,800.

Commemoration

Commemorative tablet

The inscription of a commemorative tablet reads:[citation needed]

The Government of India have caused this tablet to be erected to the memory of the twenty-one non-commissioned officers and men of the 36 Sikh Regiment of the Bengal Infantry whose names are engraved below as a perpetual record of the heroism shown by these gallant soldiers who died at their posts in the defense of the fort of Saragarhi, on the 12 September 1897, fighting against overwhelming numbers, thus proving their loyalty and devotion to their sovereign The Queen Empress of India and gloriously maintaining the reputation of the Sikhs for unflinching courage on the field of battle.

Order of Merit

The 21 Sikh non-commissioned officers and soldiers who died in the Battle of Saragarhi were from the Majha region of Punjab and were posthumously awarded the Indian Order of Merit, at that time the highest gallantry award which an Indian soldier could receive. The corresponding gallantry award was the Victoria Cross. The award is equivalent to today's Param Vir Chakra awarded by the President of India.[citation needed]

Remembrance and legacy

Saragarhi Memorial Gurdwara, built in 1904

The battle has become iconic of Eastern military civilisation, the British Empire's military history, and Sikh history.[33] The modern Sikh Regiment of the Indian Army continues to commemorate the Battle of Saragarhi on 12 September each year as the Regimental Battle Honours Day.

To commemorate the men, the British built two Saragarhi Gurdwaras: one in Amritsar, very close to the main entrance of the Golden Temple, and another in Firozpur Cantonment, in the district that most of the men hailed from.

The epic poem "Khalsa Bahadur" is in memory of the Sikhs who died at Saragarhi.[34]

In Indian schools

The Indian Armed Forces, in particular the Indian Army, has been pushing for the battle to be taught in India's schools. They would like the heroism demonstrated by the Indian soldiers to be taught as an inspiration to children. In 1999, various articles were printed regarding the matter in Punjab's longest-established newspaper, The Tribune, such as: "the military action at Saragarhi is taught to students the world over and particularly to students in France."[35] Although there seems to be no evidence for this claim (it is not, for example, on France's national school curriculum),[36] the news was enough to provoke political debate, and the battle has been taught in schools in Punjab since 2000:

The decision to include the battle story in the school curriculum was taken last year during a public rally presided over by the Punjab Chief Minister, Mr Parkash Singh Badal. Following this, the State Government issued a notification that the battle story should be included in the school curriculum from this session. There had been a constant demand from the Sikh Regiment and various ex-servicemen's associations that the battle be included in the school curriculum. A similar request had also been put forward to Mr Badal during the battle's state-level centenary celebrations at Ferozepore in 1997. A subsequent letter sent to the Punjab Government by the Saragarhi Memorial and Ethos Promotion Forum also urged the State Government that the battle has many inspiring lessons for children. On hearing the acts of valour, the British Parliament had then risen in unison to pay homage to the fallen soldiers.[37]

Saragarhi Day

Saragarhi Day
Official nameSaragarhi Day
Observed byIndia[38] (also observed by Sikhs worldwide)
Typenational & international
SignificanceHonors the 21 military Sikh soldiers who died at the Battle of Saragarhi
ObservancesParades, school history projects, government buildings
Date12 September (or nearest weekday)
Related toRemembrance Day

Saragarhi Day is a Sikh military commemoration day celebrated on 12 September every year to commemorate the Battle of Saragarhi.[38] Sikh military personnel and civilians commemorate the battle around the world every year on 12 September. All units of the Sikh Regiment celebrate Saragarhi Day every year as the Regimental Battle Honours Day.[39]

Saragarhi Day in the UK

The first recorded public discourse on Saragarhi was delivered by Viscount Slim in 2001 when he delivered the annual Portraits of Courage lecture at the Imperial War Museum. This was hosted by the Maharaja Duleep Singh Centenary Trust. In May 2002, Prince Charles ( the future King Charles III) inaugurated the Jawans to Generals exhibition which featured a section on Saragarhi. The exhibition successfully toured the UK and was seen by over 100,000 visitors.

Saragarhi was introduced back into the UK by writer and filmmaker Jay Singh Sohal and the British Army with the launch of the book Saragarhi: The Forgotten Battle in 2013 at Old College, Royal Military Academy Sandhurst.[40] It has since been commemorated each year on its battle honour day by the British Armed Forces. In 2014, the commemoration also took place at Sandhurst at the Indian Army Memorial Room. In 2015, it took place at the Honourable Artillery Company Museum in London,[41] where was also due to take place in 2016.

Various senior ministers and armed forces generals have paid tribute to Sikh service by mentioning the story of Saragarhi. In April 2016 the Defence Secretary Michael Fallon MP made mention as a special Vaisakhi event at the Ministry of Defence. In June 2016 the Chief of the General Staff Sir Nick Carter did the same at a special British Sikh Association dinner.

In November 2020, the Wolverhampton City Council approved plans for the erection of a 10 ft tall bronze statue commemorating the battle outside of the Guru Nanak Gurdwara in Wednesfield.[42] The statue of Havildar Ishar Singh, paid for by donations from the local Sikh community totalling £100,000,[43] was unveiled on 12 September 2021.[44]

In popular culture

In September 2017, Saragarhi: The True Story, a documentary by UK-based journalist-filmmaker Jay Singh-Sohal, was screened at the National Memorial Arboretum in Staffordshire to mark the 120th anniversary of the epic frontier battle.[45] A TV series, 21 Sarfarosh - Saragarhi 1897 aired on Discovery Jeet from 12 February 2018 to 11 May 2018, starring Mohit Raina, Mukul Dev, and Balraj Singh Khehra.[46][47][48] Kesari is a 2019 Indian Hindi-language war film based around the battle. Directed by Anurag Singh and starring Akshay Kumar,[49] it grossed over 100 crores worldwide in its opening weekend during the Holi festival.[50]

See also

References

  1. ^ Kumar, MP Anil (8 July 2018). "Rezang La stands out". Indian Defence Review. Archived from the original on 26 April 2016. Retrieved 29 July 2019.
  2. ^ Jay Singh-Sohal. "The battle of Saragarhi: when 21 Sikh soldiers stood against 10,000 men". BBC. Retrieved 25 August 2021.
  3. ^ a b c d "No. 26937". The London Gazette. 11 February 1898. p. 863.
  4. ^ Tom Lansford (2017). Afghanistan at War: From the 18th-Century Durrani Dynasty to the 21st Century. Abc-Clio. p. 408. ISBN 9781598847604. The Orakzais were joined by Afridis swelling their numbers to more than 10000. Groups of tribesmen attacked Sangar on the night of September 11. The post was on a high ridge and well fortified. Although there were only 44 Sikh troops, the garrison repulsed the attack. The following morning, the natives attacked Saragarhi. The garrison numbered 21 Sikhs, led by Havildar Ishar Singh. Instead of withdrawing to one of the other posts, the Sikhs decided to remain in an effort to maintain communication between the two forts.
  5. ^ Sharma, Gautam (1990). Valour and Sacrifice: Famous Regiments of the Indian Army. Allied Publishers. p. 185. ISBN 978-8170231400. Retrieved 22 February 2019. A mass attack came on Saragarhi on September 12 and the 21 strong detachment fought one of the most unequal engagements in the history of warfare. There were fierce onslaughts by the 10,000 Orakzai and Afridi tribesmen. The outnumbered defenders returned the fire in a most determined manner. After a series of abortive attempts, the tribesmen managed to reach the wall of the post by using an ingenious method. Effecting a breach, they were face to face with the brave Sikhs, most of whom had been wounded.
  6. ^ Col Kanwaljit Singh, Maj H S Ahluwalia (1987). "Saragarhi (1897)". Saragarhi Battalion: Ashes to Glory. Lancer International. p. 20. ISBN 9788170620228. The gallant defence of Saragarhi by Havildar Ishar Singh and twenty other ranks and a follower is estimated to have lost the enemy about four hundred and fifty killed and wounded
  7. ^ Dennis Showalter (2013). Imperial Wars 1815–1914. Amber Books Ltd. ISBN 9781782741251. The Sikhs were wiped out after inflicting 450 casualties on their attackers.
  8. ^ Stewart, Jules (15 August 2011). On Afghanistan's Plains: The Story of Britain's Afghan Wars. I.B. Tauris.
  9. ^ Yate, Major A.C. (1900). "Life of Lieu. Col. John Haughton" (PDF). p. 126. When day broke on the 12th, the Orakzai-Afridi "lashkar" was seen to be in force near Gogra on the east, at the Samana Suk on the west, and round the Saragarhi post, thus severing Gulistan from Fort Lockhart. (Their total number has been variously estimated at from twelve to twenty thousand.)It was, therefore, no longer possible for Colonel Haughton to carry aid to Saragarhi or Guhstan, as he had done twice before. The enemy turned the brunt of their attack on the little post of Saragarhi.
  10. ^ a b c d e f "..:: Panjab Digital Library ::." www.panjabdigilib.org. Retrieved 26 November 2023.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h A Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. 1997. ISBN 978-81-85297-68-2.
  12. ^ a b c "Bhangi Misl - SikhiWiki, free Sikh encyclopedia". www.sikhiwiki.org. Retrieved 26 November 2023.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Mattu, Dr.Bhupinder Singh (2023). Itihaas vich mazhabi sikha di jado jehad (in Punjabi) (1st ed.). Amritsar: Blueroseone. p. 322. ISBN 9789357413756.
  14. ^ a b c d Luscombe, Stephen. "The British Empire". www.britishempire.co.uk. Retrieved 26 November 2023.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Aarfi, Naranjan (2016). Rangretian da itihas (in Punjabi) (1st ed.). Amritsar: Literature house. p. 469. ISBN 9788185544199.
  16. ^ a b c d e "Button, 36th (Sikh) Regiment of Bengal Infantry, 1887-1901 | Online Collection | National Army Museum, London". collection.nam.ac.uk. Retrieved 26 November 2023.
  17. ^ Singh, Jaisal (13 September 2014). "The 21 Sikhs of Saragarhi". Business Standard India – via Business Standard.
  18. ^ a b c d e McLeod, W. H. (24 July 2009). The A to Z of Sikhism. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-6344-6.
  19. ^ a b c Karsten, Peter (31 October 2013). Google books. Routledge. ISBN 9781135661502. Retrieved 26 November 2023.
  20. ^ a b Pall, S. J. S. 2004. The Story of Valiant Sikhs. Amritsar: B. Chattar Singh. ISBN 978-8176016421. p. 98
  21. ^ a b Sharma, Gautam (1990). Valour and Sacrifice: Famous Regiments of the Indian Army. Allied Publishers. p. 185. ISBN 978-8170231400. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  22. ^ "Fort Lockhart Geo Location".
  23. ^ "Button, 36th (Sikh) Regiment of Bengal Infantry, 1887-1901 | Online Collection | National Army Museum, London". collection.nam.ac.uk. Retrieved 26 November 2023.
  24. ^ a b Luscombe, Stephen. "The British Empire". www.britishempire.co.uk. Retrieved 26 November 2023.
  25. ^ "Defense of Saragarhi PosT". Camperdown Chronicle (Vic. : 1877–1954). National Library of Australia. 5 December 1907. p. 6. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
  26. ^ Vohra, Pankaj (20 May 2017). "Book Review: The forgotten battle of Saragarhi brought to life by Amarinder Singh". SundayGuardianLive.
  27. ^ Ian Skennerton, The Lee-Enfield Story (1993). Arms & Militaria Press, Gold Coast QLD (Australia) ISBN 1-85367-138-X
  28. ^ Regimental numbers from photo of Saragarhi memorial plaque
  29. ^ Major General Jaswant Singh Letter to H.M. Queen Elizabeth II Archived 12 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine Institute of Sikh Studies (1999) – accessed 30 March 2008
  30. ^ Subramanian, L. M. (2006). Defending Saragarhi, 12 September 1897, Bharat Rakshak. Accessed 21 April 2016.
  31. ^ "The Frontier War," Daily News, London (16 Sep 1897)
  32. ^ "Explained: Why the Battle of Saragarhi continues to inspire India & world, 124 years on". 14 September 2021.
  33. ^ Singh, Kanwaljit & Ahluwalia, H.S. Saragarhi Battalion: Ashes to Glory, India, Lancer International (1987) ISBN 81-7062-022-8
  34. ^ Singh, Gurdev (1995). Harbans Singh (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Sikhism (2nd ed.). Patiala: Punjabi University, Patiala. Archived from the original on 3 September 2011.
  35. ^ Robin Gupta An epic performance: A slice of history Chandigarh, The Tribune (20 March 1999) – accessed 19 April 2008
  36. ^ French Education Ministry website – accessed 19 April 2008
  37. ^ Vijay Mohan (5 April 2000). "Recounting battle of Saragarhi". The Tribune. Retrieved 1 November 2007.
  38. ^ a b Tribune News Service (14 September 2005). "Battle of Saragarhi remembered". The Tribune. Retrieved 5 November 2007.
  39. ^ Shri (28 August 2019). "21 Sikhs clashed with ten thousand Pathans – Battle of saragarhi". Meramaal. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  40. ^ Singh-Sohal, Jay (15 April 2016). "The army is not to blame for a lack of diversity – communities must step up". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022.
  41. ^ "Armed Forces commemorate the Battle of Saragarhi". Archived from the original on 20 October 2022. Retrieved 9 November 2017.
  42. ^ "Memorial to Sikh soldiers to be created in Wednesfield | City of Wolverhampton Council". www.wolverhampton.gov.uk. 19 November 2020. Retrieved 13 December 2020.
  43. ^ "Bravery Memorialised". Soldier Magazine. October 2021. p. 13.
  44. ^ "Wolverhampton Memorial to Sikh soldiers is unveiled". BBC News. 12 September 2021. Retrieved 13 September 2021.
  45. ^ Service, Tribune News. "Saragarhi saga captured on film". Tribuneindia News Service.
  46. ^ Service, Tribune News. "After Roadies, city lad to appear in a TV show on Battle of Saragarhi". Tribuneindia News Service.
  47. ^ "Here're some exclusive pictures from the sets of Contiloe Pictures' 'Battle Of Saragarhi'!". 18 September 2017.
  48. ^ "Now, the Battle of Saragarhi on TV". Mumbai Mirror.
  49. ^ "Akshay Kumar, Karan Johar 'proudly present' new film Kesari, based on Battle of Saragarhi". Times Now. 11 October 2017.
  50. ^ "Kesari." Bollywood Hungama. Retrieved 17 August 2020.

Further reading

  • Sharma, Anuj Harshwardhan. 2017. Against All Odds at Saragarhi. New Delhi: Star Print-o-Bind. ASIN BO77C94TXJ.
  • Singh, Amarinder. 2017. Saragarhi and the Defence of the Samana Forts. New Delhi: Bookwise Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 978-8187330677.
  • Singh-Sohal, Jay. 2013. Saragarhi: The Forgotten Battle. Birmingham: Dot Hyphen Publishers. ISBN 978-0957054073.
  • Singh, Kanwaljit, and H.S. Ahluwalia. 1987. Saragarhi Battalion: Ashes to Glory. New Delhi: Lancer International. ISBN 81-7062-022-8.
  • Sidhu, Daljeet Singh, and Amarjit Virdi 2011. The Battle of Saragarhi: The Last Stand of the 36th Sikh Regiment. Gyan Khand Media. ISBN 9788190963749 (Kindle ed.).

External links